MAN 20005 - Lec 6


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MAN 20005 - Lec 6

  1. 1. MAN 20005 Lecture 6 Ethics and the Environment – Sustainable Development and Science Updated 3.10
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not every man’s greed.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahatma Gandhi </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Natural Environment as a Stakeholder <ul><li>The Environment is a stakeholder without a “voice” </li></ul><ul><li>Human will only consider the natural environment when the consequences impacts on firm or the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Current world population – more than 6 billion people, living on 17% of earth surface </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth causes ever scarcity in resources </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to the need for environmental ethic – human as part of the natural community rather than managers of it. </li></ul><ul><li>The value places limits on human activities (e.g., uncontrolled resource use), that may adversely affect the natural community. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Emphasizes human domination over nature </li></ul><ul><li>views non-human environment as a bundle of natural resources to be managed and exploited for maximal human gain. </li></ul><ul><li>The ecosystems have only instrumental value, not intrinsic worth . </li></ul>Anthropocentrism value
  5. 5. <ul><li>2 main problems resulting from the anthropocentic value system </li></ul><ul><li>1) Overpopulation </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we feel we need more </li></ul><ul><li>children? </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of education </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of power for men </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of security in old age </li></ul>Problem with Anthropocentrism
  6. 6. <ul><li>Preoccupation with possession, power and ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we feel we need more material goods ? </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Missing non-material goals and spiritual values in life </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnection of humans from the natural world </li></ul><ul><li>media manipulation </li></ul>
  7. 7.   A sustainable ethic is an environmental ethic by which people treat the earth as if its resources are limited. Example If a fuel shortage occurs, how can the problem be solved in a way that is consistent with a sustainable ethic? The solutions might include finding new ways to conserve oil or developing renewable energy alternatives. A sustainable ethic attitude in such problem would be that i f drilling for oil damages the ecosystem, then that damage will affect the human population as well. Sustainable Ethics
  8. 8. Overcoming Anthropocentrism problem with Sustainable Ethic <ul><li>Individual Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Apply sustainable ethics in one’s personal, professional and civic life </li></ul><ul><li>Re-connect emotionally to the natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Live simply so others may simply live </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome opportunity to conserve the earth’s recourses </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Define an universal business ethic </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt and live by a set of principles (Code of Conduct & Ethics) </li></ul><ul><li>Make the transition from an extractive economy to an organic economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency and design for zero discharge. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Community, Nation and International </li></ul><ul><li>Change justice system to protect the natural world besides guaranteeing democracy, individual freedom and rights to property </li></ul><ul><li>Curbing population growth - Forced sterilization, birth control education </li></ul><ul><li>Economic pressure – taxation or subsidies </li></ul>
  10. 10. Technological advancement and Environment Conservation Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL): Use ¼ the electricity for same light, last 10x as long Light-Emitting Diodes (LED): 2x as efficient as CFL, last 10x as long Wind energy: cheapest energy (3.9 cents/Kwh)
  11. 11. Photovoltaics (PV) : Space consuming, price needs to drop 50-75 percent to be competitive Zero net energy building
  12. 12. Automobiles battery or fuel cell power PV Recharging Station
  13. 13. Inter-Countries Effort
  14. 14. CO2 emission Global warming Weather change and disaster
  15. 15. Kyoto Protocol <ul><li>An international agreement linked to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. </li></ul><ul><li>It sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions </li></ul><ul><li>These amount to an average of 5% against 1990 levels over the 5 year period from 2008 to 2012. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Protocol commits country to comply. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mechanism used by Kyoto <ul><li>Emissions trading </li></ul><ul><li>known as “the carbon market&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>countries have accepted targets for limiting or reducing emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>These targets are expressed as levels of allowed emissions, or “assigned amounts,” over the 2008-2012 commitment period. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries are allowed to “sell” the permitted but not “used” excess capacity to others </li></ul><ul><li>Treated carbon as a commodity </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) </li></ul><ul><li>allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment to implement emission-reduction project in developing countries eg : rural electrification project using solar panels or introducing energy-efficient boilers. </li></ul><ul><li>Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives industrialized countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission or limitation targets. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Joint implementation (JI) </li></ul><ul><li>allows a countries who meet the emission limitation to earn emission reduction units (ERUs), each equivalent to one tonne of CO2 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Environmental Auditing <ul><li>Periodic, objective and documented assessment of an organization’s operations compared to audit criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Allows management a measure of ensuring that they are in compliance with environmental regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Club </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Defense Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Friends of the Earth </li></ul>Environmental NGOs
  20. 20. How company can contribute to the Natural Environment <ul><li>By focusing on environmentally friendly strategies, firms are able to market their goods as ecofriendly which helps differentiate their products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy 1: Ecoefficency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy 2: Beyond Compliance Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy 3: Ecobranding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy 4: Environmental Cost Leadership </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Triple Bottom Line <ul><li>3BL – ‘People, Planet, Profit’ </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the financial, social, and environmental performance of the company </li></ul><ul><li>Centers on the vested interests of all stakeholders instead of focusing solely on the interest of the shareholders </li></ul>
  22. 22. Worldwide Environmental Policy <ul><li>Stated commitment to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating beyond compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining an environmental accountability structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating environmental goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striving for zero waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizing innovative technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering an environmental ethic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building relationships with appropriate stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing corporate social responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. END