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MAN 20005 - Lec 2(2)

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MAN 20005 - Lec 2(2)

  1. 1. Lecture 2 MAN 20005 Theoretical Apparatus of Ethics (Part 2) Updated 3.10
  2. 2. <ul><li>• Each day, each person faces a variety of moral decisions. Some moral decisions are small (such as whether to use the last of the milk) Others are larger, such as whether to lie about an affair. Some are extremely large, such as whether one should torture prisoners for information or not. </li></ul><ul><li>• Regardless of the size of the moral decision, a person’s ability to make a moral decision in a rational manner depends on his/her ability to engage in moral reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Human behavior has consequences for the welfare of others. </li></ul>Ethical Reasoning
  3. 3. <ul><li>Different stages in decision-making in response to an ethical problem </li></ul><ul><li>Different Influences on the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linda Trevino (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jones (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunt and Vitell (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferrell, Gresham and Fraedrich (1989) </li></ul></ul>Models of Ethical Decision- Making
  4. 4. <ul><li>1) Recognizing the moral issue </li></ul><ul><li>• Moral reasoning begins with the consideration of a moral or ethical issue. </li></ul><ul><li>• An “issue” is the matter currently under dispute </li></ul><ul><li>• make an honest effort to understand the situation </li></ul><ul><li>• “ perceptual difference” may lead to various disagreement. </li></ul>Ethical Decision Making Process Example Illegal parking may be unethical to some while others may see it to be less significance.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Are there other legal parking bay near by? </li></ul><ul><li>b) Suppose there are cars in the house where you parked your car illegally, are you blocking its exit? </li></ul><ul><li>c) What does it cost to park your car at the legal parking bay? </li></ul><ul><li>Who else is going to be affected (the stakeholders)? Consider the consequences, duties, rights, principles and implication on your personal integrity. </li></ul>Then ask a series of moral questions
  6. 6. <ul><li>It is unavoidable that one sometime consider the economic factor. But just because a decision is made on economic ground does not mean that it does not involve ethical considerations. Being sensitive to ethical issues is an important characteristic that needs to be cultivated in ethically responsible people. </li></ul>2) Make a moral judgment 3) Establish moral intent 4) Pursue the moral behavior
  7. 7. <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Previous experience </li></ul><ul><li>Social connection </li></ul><ul><li>Any reward system </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of the issue concern </li></ul><ul><li>Individual locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Personal value </li></ul><ul><li>Personal integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Language used in expressing moral issue </li></ul><ul><li>Moral muteness for the sake of harmony, efficiency and to portray image of power and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization of unethical behaviour </li></ul>Factors that will influence an individual’s ethical decision making
  8. 8. <ul><li>• Moral reasoning theory by Lawrence Kohlberg </li></ul><ul><li>• CMD concerns moral reasoning that develop according to an individual age level, namely level 1, 2 and 3 </li></ul>Cognitive Moral Development (CMD) <ul><li>Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 individual is self centered </li></ul><ul><li>The decision about what is right is expressed in term of punishment or rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : at the early childhood, a child are self centered. Her is only willing to share her toy because that is what required by mum. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Level 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 individual views rules as imposed upon him  people do as they’re told </li></ul><ul><li>What is morally right is expressed in terms of living up to the roles and the expectation of others, fulfilling duties and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : as a child grow older, the child is to act in accordance to her parent’s instruction </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Level 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 individual has gone beyond other’s expectation and rules </li></ul><ul><li>He is able to make decision more autonomously and consistent with principle of justice and rightness. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people reaches level 2. Very few adult in the society is able to reach level 3. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Milgram Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>The research conducted by Stanley Milgram provide an insight into how a normal adult behave in authority situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Most adults will carry out the order of the authority figure even if those orders are contrary to their personal belief </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>• National culture can be defined as “collective mental programming” of a population. </li></ul><ul><li>• Patterns of believe differ across nations. </li></ul><ul><li>• Individual interpret the world using this pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>• An individual operating in a foreign culture does not understand the manner of which people of that nation behave, and this individual will interpret purely in terms of his own culture. </li></ul><ul><li>• The result might be misinterpretation or misunderstanding </li></ul>Individual moral reasoning may differ in different nation
  13. 13. <ul><li>• Differences occur due to : </li></ul><ul><li>a) Individualism / Collectivism social behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>People in the society think of themselves as autonomous individuals who are responsible primarily to themselves and their immediate families. </li></ul><ul><li>American are individualist – individual are assessed based on their individual educational and professional achievement </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>• Collectivism – people in the society emphasize collective purposes and group harmony </li></ul><ul><li>• Asian are collectivist – they value conformity to the group and define themselves in term of their belonging to the group. </li></ul><ul><li>• When hiring in a collectivism culture, employer concerns the ability of the individual to work with other workers </li></ul><ul><li>• In this culture, hiring of family member or friends are common, but in the perspective of the individualism society, this act may be seen as wrong, unfair or bias selection. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>b) Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>• Power distance means the extent of which people in the society accept hierarchical or unequal distribution of power in the society. </li></ul><ul><li>• High power distance reflects acceptance of inequality and respect for social status or class boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>• In this culture, employees obey their superior’s instructions merely because they are the boss. Bypassing the boss is seen as unethical and inappropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>• Low power distance denotes deemphasize of status and class status. </li></ul><ul><li>• Most western countries have low power distance. Bosses are respected for their knowledge instead of his corporate level. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>c) Preference for certainty rules </li></ul><ul><li>d) Masculinity or femininity </li></ul><ul><li>e) Education level and employment status </li></ul><ul><li>f) Cognitive moral development </li></ul>

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