PRINCIPLES OF SMILE DESIGN-DEMYSTIFIED

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by Saiesha Mistry, BDS, MSc
Illustrations by Zach Turner
Adapted from the full article, which originally appeared in AACD’s Journal of Cosmetic Dentistry, Summer 2012 issue.

For more information, visit www.AACD.com.
©2010-2014 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, All Rights Reserved

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PRINCIPLES OF SMILE DESIGN-DEMYSTIFIED

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES OF SMILE DESIGN-DEMYSTIFIED
  2. 2. PRINCIPLES OF SMILE DESIGN-DEMYSTIFIED by Saiesha Mistry, BDS, MSc Illustrations by Zach Turner Adapted from the full article, which originally appeared in AACD’s Journal of Cosmetic Dentistry, Summer 2012 issue. For more information, visit www.AACD.com. ©2012-2014 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry, All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Facial Analysis The facial analysis involves an assessment of the face as a whole. Facial analysis in the frontal plane, relating the facial midline with the midline of the central incisors.
  4. 4. Facial Analysis Facial analysis in the frontal plane, showing horizontal parameters relating the inter- pupillary line to the incisal edge position.
  5. 5. Facial Analysis A full-facial analysis using lines to assess parallelism and hence synergy in the various components of the face as related to the smile.
  6. 6. Facial Analysis Facial analysis in the sagittal plane: The Ricketts E-plane connects the tip of the nose to the chin prominence. Average distance from the upper lip is 4 mm; and from the lower lip, 2 mm. Facial analysis in the sagittal plane: The nasio-labial angle is determined by the base of the nose and the upper lip. The average angle for males is 90 to 95 degrees; for females, 100 to 105 degrees.
  7. 7. Smile and Dental Analysis The full face—the starting point of the smile design. The smile analysis comprises details of the lips and the gums as a unit. The dental analysis provides insight into characterization and individuality of the teeth.
  8. 8. Smile Design Sequence Dentofacial view. The focus is now on the smile itself.
  9. 9. Smile Design Sequence Define the lips, which form the framework of the smile to be designed. The components are filled in per the smile analysis.
  10. 10. Step 1: Establish the Incisal Edge Position Establish the Incisal edge position using the inter-pupillary line, phonetics, and the lip line as guides.
  11. 11. The use of phonetics and the “M” sound help to determine the position of the lips at rest. The amount of tooth visible in this position is important as a baseline for designing the smile. The more tooth visible, the younger the look. Step 1: Establish the Incisal Edge Position
  12. 12. Step 1: Establish the Incisal Edge Position Use of phonetics to evaluate the location of the incisal edge position. The incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth should fall on the vermilion or wet/dry border of the lower lip.
  13. 13. Step 2: Develop Midline Symmetry Develop midline symmetry and align the dental midline to that of the face. This line should be perpendicular to that of the incisal edge position.
  14. 14. Step 3: Establish the Gingival Margin Based on the space available, calculate the length of the teeth using the width:length ratio of 78%.
  15. 15. Step 3: Establish the Gingival Margin Once the gingival zenith of the central incisors has been plotted, design the gingival esthetic line based upon the esthetic parameters.
  16. 16. Step 4: Create Silhouette Form of the Central Incisors The position of the central incisors is determined using the facial midline as a guide. The size depends on the space analyses and the tooth proportions of 78%.
  17. 17. Step 4: Create Silhouette Form of the Central Incisors In order to create midline symmetry, the central incisors should be mirror images of each other.
  18. 18. Step 5: Develop Relative Proportions of Lateral Incisors and Canines The size of the lateral incisors and canines are determined so as to maintain relative proportions to each other and the centrals. We can use principles of tooth proportions, the “golden proportion,” and the various other proportion tools defined for the anterior segment. The aim is to create radiating lateral harmony.
  19. 19. Step 6: Extend the Smile Into the Corners Buccal corridor encroached upon by the teeth, leaving no contrast in color between the teeth, tissues, and space.
  20. 20. Step 6: Extend the Smile Into the Corners Prominent anterior segment with depressed posteriors gives the impression of an empty, “hollow” smile.
  21. 21. Step 6: Extend the Smile Into the Corners Axial inclinations of the teeth should be medially directed for a more esthetic and pleasing appearance.
  22. 22. Step 6: Extend the Smile Into the Corners Eliminate the dark corridors of the smile, paying attention to the vertical parallelism and medial axial inclinations.
  23. 23. Step 7: Design the Shape & Texture of Individual Teeth Characterization of the teeth is now developed. Embrasure spaces, contact points and contact areas, color, and translucency are all finalized to complete the smile.
  24. 24. Summary All the features of the smile coming together to complement the patient’s face. Using this systematic approach, designing the smile becomes predictable and easy. The details are in the collection of data, use that data exactly where it is required. This will achieve a beautiful smile.
  25. 25. To receive the quarterly, peer-reviewed Journal of Cosmetic Dentistry, become an AACD member at www.AACD.com/join

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