The Great Mughals


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The Great Mughals

  1. 1. Babur the tiger came to power in1483 & ruled till 1530. he ruled over a very small kingdom in Turkestan. With significantly small armies he managed to conquer Afghanistan & the Delhi sultanate & all of Hindustan.
  2. 2. Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun (Persian: full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam walKhaqan al-Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi waMajazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abul Muzaffar Nasir ud-dinMuhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi, Zillullah; OS 7March 1508–OS 22 February 1556) was thesecond Mughal Emperor who ruled presentday Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts ofnorthern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdomearly, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained aneven larger one. On the eve of his death in1556, the Mughal empire spanned almost one millionsquare kilometers.He succeeded his father in India in 1530, while his half-brother Kamran Mirza, who was to become a ratherbitter rival, obtained the sovereigntyof Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of theirfathers empire. He originally ascended the throne atthe age of 22 and was somewhat inexperienced whenhe came to power.
  3. 3. Humayun inherited one of the largest empires in theworld at the time and nearly ruined it. Between 1530and 1540 he managed to lose all the land that hisfather worked so hard to get through rebellions fromAfghanistan and India. He was sent into exile inPersia and created a small army. He ended upeventually regaining all the lands back but is lookedupon as one of the worst Mughal emperors. At theend of his conquests he fell down a flight of stairsand broke his neck. He was succeeded by his sonAkbar which in Arabic means" Great One."
  4. 4. Akbar (Urdu: Hindi: Hunterian Jalāl ud-Dīn MuḥammadAkbar), also known as Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azamor Akbar the Great (14 October 1542 – 27 October1605),[2][3] was the third Mughal Emperor. He wasof Timurid descent; the son ofEmperor Humayun, and the grandson of the MughalEmperor Zaheeruddin MuhammadBabur, the rulerwho founded the Mughal dynasty in India. At the endof his reign in 1605 the Mughal empire covered mostof the northern and central India. He is mostappreciated for having a liberal outlook on all faithsand beliefs and during his era, culture and artreached to zenith as compared to his predecessors.
  5. 5. Muslim, Indian and Western Historians all see Akbar as the greatest ruler throughout Indian history. He became emperor at the age of thirteen in 1556. He immediately began seizing land in Hindustan. He conquered more lands than any of his ancestors before him had. He was very wise in his rulings and tried to govern all his people equally and fairly. Since his conquered lands were so many he assigned governors to each region called mansabars.
  6. 6. Jahangir (Urdu: Persian: Hindi: full title:Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Khushru-i-Giti Panah, Abul-Fath Nur-ud-din MuhammadJahangir Padshah Ghazi [Jannat-Makaani]) (20September 1569 – 8 November 1627) was the ruler ofthe Mughal Empire from 1605 until his death. Thename Jahangir is fromPersian meaning"Conqueror of the World". Nur-ud-din or Nur al-Din isan Arabic name which means " Light of the Faith."Born as Prince Muhammad Salim, he was the thirdand eldest surviving son of Mogul Emperor Akbar.Akbars twin sons, Hasan and Hussain, died ininfancy. His mother was the Rajput Princess ofAmber, Jodhabai (born Rajkumari HiraKunwari, eldest daughter of Raja Bihar Mal orBharmal, Raja of Amber, India).
  7. 7. Akbar was succeeded by his favorite son, Jahangir, who ruled the empire from 1605 to 1628. Jahangir did not pursue military conquests as forcefully as his father, buthe did manage to extend the empire into Bengal. His father had once said that any Empire that is not expanding is in decline. Jahangir had a great passion for the arts: painting, culture architecture, philosophy, and literature. He was known to carry the Mughal Empire through their richest cultural period.
  8. 8. Shah Jahan (also spelled ShahJehan, Shahjehan,(Urdu: Persian: January 5, 1592 – January 22, 1666) (fulltitle His Imperial Majesty Al-Sultan al-Azam walKhaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala HazratAbul-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah JahanI, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah GhaziZillullah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahanshah—E--SultanantUl Hindiya Wal Mughaliya, Emperor of India ) was theemperor of the Mughal Empire in the IndianSubcontinent from 1628 until 1658. The name ShahJahan comes from Persian meaning "King of theWorld." He was the fifth Mughal emperorafter Babur, Humayun,Akbar, and Jahangir. Whileyoung, he was favourite of his legendarygrandfather, Akbar the Great. He is also calledShahjahan the Magnificent. Besides being adescendant of Genghis Khan, Emperor of MongolEmpire and Tamerlane, he is also a descendant ofEmperorCharlemagne, the King of the Franks, King ofthe Lombards and the Emperor of the Romans.
  9. 9. Aurangzeb, Emperor Shah Jahans sixth son, wasborn on 24th October 1618 at Dohad in MadhyaPradesh, and wrested Indias crown from hisfather before the end of June 1658, afterdefeating his brother Prince Dara Shukohsarmies, first at Dharmat near Ujjain (15th April1568) and the second, led by Dara himself, atSamugarh on 29th May 1658. The War ofSuccession to the richest throne in the world waspractically over with this victory, and Aurangzebsecured his position by making Murad, hisbrother and accomplice in his impetuous pursuitfor power, his prisoner, by treachery, on 25thJune. He had already made his old fatherEmperor Shah Jahan a prisoner in the Agra Fort(8th June 1658).
  10. 10. • Known for manuscripts and Persianminiature paintings.• Very symbolic.• Involved a lot of nature(birds, flowers, animals, etc.)• Very colorful and detailed.•In 1680 Emporer Shah Jahan bannedmusic and painting from his court, but heallowed architectural art, such as the PearlMosque and the Taj Mahal.
  11. 11. • Nearly 400 monuments havesurvived a time-span of 132 years.•White marble and red sandstonewas favored.•Semi-precious gemstones werepopular (jade, crystal, etc.)• Used arches sparingly.• Symmetry and balance stressed.• Used octagons a lot.
  12. 12. • Kurta ~ an informal dress worn byMughal men and women.• Sometimes sewn with gold orsilver threads.• Cut in long, flowing panels forcomfort; about knee-length.• Traditional wear inAfghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
  13. 13. • Spicy• Dried fruit• Rich and Creamy• Known for various sauces• Numerous kabobs• Non vegetarian!
  14. 14. MilitaryBabur, the first Mughal emperor , succeeded to the throne of Fergana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old.He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to invasion of Mongol group, the uzbegs. In 1526 he defeated the sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at panipat & captured Delhi & Agra
  15. 15. Mughal relations with other rulersAs the Mughals became powerful many other rulers also joined them voluntarily. The rajputs are good example of this. many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well. once defeated, however, they were honorably treated by Mughals, given lands back as assignments.
  16. 16. ReligionMughals followed a different kind of religion.It was named sulh-i-kul .As in the wide expanse of the divine compassion there is room for all classes and the followers of all creeds, so…. in his Imperial dominions, which on all sides were limited only by the sea, there was room for the professors of opposite religions, & for beliefs, good & bad, and the road to intolerance was closed . Sunnis and shias met in one mosque and Christians and Jews in one church to pray. He consistently followed the principle of “universal peace” {sulh-i-kul} it was also followed by jahangir & shan jahan.
  17. 17. Mughals Traditions of successionThe Mughals did not believe in the rule of primogeniture where the eldest son inherited his father’s estate. Instead they followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of` coparcenary inheritance amongst all sons.Which do you think is a fairer division of inheritance: primogeniture or coparcenary?
  18. 18. Akbar’s policiesThe broad features of administration were laid down by Akbar. The empire was divided into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions. Subadar was supported by other officers. Akbar’s nobles commanded large armies and had access to large amounts of revenue. While they were loyal the empire functioned efficiently.
  19. 19. He was defeated by the new Afghan leader, Sher Khan Sur (later known as Sher Shah), wandered in exile in Persia, and finally settled in Kabul. After 15 years, by which time the Sur regime was in a shambles, Humayan recaptured Hindustan just before his death in 1556. His young son Akbar soon recovered the lost empire, expanding its almost to the entire upper India. Akbar, who is often considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire, laid the grounds for the significant economic growth and the fabulous art and building activities of his successors. He died in 1605 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Jahangir.
  20. 20. Mughal influence on the subcontinentThe main Mughal contribution to the south Asia was their unique architecture. They also influenced these points:
  21. 21. The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totally disregarded their state duties and were unable to