Xingu Social Carbon Program
Xingu Social Carbon Program
     Potential for RED

COICA and Amazon Alliance 
COICA d A      ...
Xingu Social Carbon Program
Xingu Social Carbon Program
     Potential for RED
       Eng. Flávia Gabriela 
          g
  ...
Overview and main aspects
       Overview and main aspects
•   Why the Xingu is a region with potential for RED?
    Wh th...
Localization
The Xingu Basin
       g
Why the Xingu Basin is a region with 
         potential for RED?
• S l ( i
  Scale ( Xingu river 1,870 km; Xingu basin 51...
Smallholders/Family Farmers




                                                      Local Government
                   ...
Drivers of Amazon Deforestation
              1970 ‐ 1997
• Federal integration programs
  – Roads
  – Colonization projec...
Expansion of 
    Agricultural frontier




Source: ISA
our




Source: C.Stickler
Deforestation in Xingu  Headwaters
 Deforestation in Xingu ‘’Headwaters’’

• Deforestation Rate between 2000 ‐2007 oscilla...
Amazonas River
Amazonas River
  Transamazônica
     Highway




Cuiabá-Stantarém
Highway (BR-163)




                                   ...
Dynamics of Deforestation in Xingu 
                     ‘’Headwaters’’




Source: C. Stickler, WHRC (2008)
5 to 13% of 
5 to 13% of
annual Brazilian 
Amazon 
deforestation 




 1.2% of global 
 emissions 
 from land use 
 change...
Land Tenure Issues of Forest in the Brazilian Amazon




Source: C. Stickler, 
Relatively well-                                      Good (not perfect)
   defined land title                            ...
General Objectives of the CSX Initiative
General Objectives of the CSX Initiative
• I
  Increase the synergy between disti...
Principles of the Program CSX (8)
  Principles of the Program CSX (8)
• Shared responsibility: Reducing emissions of green...
Principles of the Program CSX
    Principles of the Program CSX
• E it bl di t ib ti
  Equitable distribution of benefits:...
Principles of the Program CSX
     Principles of the Program CSX
• T
  Transparency:  The program should be guided by clea...
Distribution of Benefits: 
   Proposal for a compensation fund
• Th
  Three funds:
         f d
1. Forest Peoples' Fund ‐ ...
Percentual de área desmatada
                             em áreas protegidas da Amazônia Brasileira

                    ...
Distribution of Benefits: 
    Proposal for a compensation fund
2. Government Fund – Forest Governance:
   projects manage...
Distribution of Benefits: 
    Proposal for a compensation fund
3. Fund for Private Forestry‐ Incentive the conservation i...
Opportunity costs

Cattle 
Cattle                        Soy 
                              Soy                           ...
Opportunity costs

60 ‐70% of the 
deforestation
 in the region 
could be avoided 
with a 
opportunity cost 
inferior to U...
Benefits Distribution Mechanism 
   Benefits Distribution Mechanism
                            Compensation for 
        ...
Distribution Mechanism
        Distribution Mechanism
• One must also define the criteria related to 
                 q  ...
Support Mechanisms for RED in the 
               Xingu
Governance Tools:
  • Ecological Economic Zoning Xingu Basin: Soci...
Support Mechanism for RED in the 
                  Xingu
• 1.5 million hectares of 
  land registered, largely 
  located...
Geo‐ referenciated  Registry of properties 




              Current – Situation 2005   Following restoration – Forestry ...
Support Mechanism for RED in the 
               Xingu
• SLAPR I
  SLAPR. Improvement of the Sistema d Li
                ...
Registered rural properties in the 
Environmental Licensing System
Environmental Licensing System
Simulating Forest Cover
                                            Current Forest   Reduce Legal
            Initial     ...
Simulating Carbon Stocks
                                            Current Forest   Reduce Legal
            Initial    ...
National and sub National articulation 
              Schemes 
• National Plan of Reductions of deforestation in 
      i ...
ear
Km²/Ye     Brazilian Amazon Deforestation
           Brazilian Amazon Deforestation




                     Years
Policy of reduction of deforestation
     y
    National Plan
  (Baseline, target, 
    priorities,  $$, 
    priorities $...
Base Line and Monitoring
       Base Line and Monitoring
• Historic Base Line:
• Ex‐Post: average from 
  2000 to 2007 195...
Base Line
                              Base Line

                                     • Modeling Scenarios ‘’ex 
       ...
Previsão do Cenário:
               P i ã d C ái


                  (
                  (Mais do Mesmo)
                 ...
Monitoring and Validation
        Monitoring and Validation
• National Institute of Spatial 
  researches ‐ Instituto Naci...
Governance
• Executive committees with the participation of all 
          i         i      ih h     i i i      f ll
  sta...
Finance Mechanism
           Finance Mechanism
•   Voluntary Market
•   Private donations
    Private donations
•   Amazon...
Targets
• The targets must be defined and negotiated 
   h                b d fi d d            i d
  with the stakeholder...
Social Capital


                                              Civil society




                        Entrepreneurs
   ...
Main challenges 
           Main challenges
• Direct engagement and approval of the opportunity by the 
  local actors/ st...
Thank you for your attention...
Thank you for your attention
Flávia Gabriela Oyo França – Env. Engineer
      Climate Chan...
Xingu social carbon program red potential ipam flavia gabriela franca
Xingu social carbon program red potential ipam flavia gabriela franca
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Xingu social carbon program red potential ipam flavia gabriela franca

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Workshop on South‐South collaboration on REDD demonstration

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Xingu social carbon program red potential ipam flavia gabriela franca

  1. 1. Xingu Social Carbon Program Xingu Social Carbon Program Potential for RED COICA and Amazon Alliance  COICA d A Alli Readiness for REDD process  Readiness for REDD process Eng. Flávia Gabriela  g Climate change program ‐ IPAM REDD Readiness  South South Collaboration  REDD Readiness ‐ South‐South Collaboration Workshop
  2. 2. Xingu Social Carbon Program Xingu Social Carbon Program Potential for RED Eng. Flávia Gabriela  g Climate change program ‐ IPAM REDD Readiness  South South Collaboration  REDD Readiness ‐ South‐South Collaboration Workshop
  3. 3. Overview and main aspects Overview and main aspects • Why the Xingu is a region with potential for RED? Wh th Xi i i ith t ti l f RED? • Divers of Deforestation in Xingu Headwaters • Land tenure aspects Land tenure aspects • General Objectives of the XSC Program Initiative • Principles of the XSC Program Initiative p g • Distribution of Benefits • Current support Mechanisms for RED in the Xingu • Baseline and Monitoring • Governance • Finance Mechanisms Fi M h i • Main challenges and Targets
  4. 4. Localization
  5. 5. The Xingu Basin g
  6. 6. Why the Xingu Basin is a region with  potential for RED? • S l ( i Scale ( Xingu river 1,870 km; Xingu basin 511,000  i 18 0k i b i 11 000 km²  +/‐ 50% of protected areas; • Hot Spot of deforestation – – Average of 20,000km² of deforestation between 1996‐ 2007 • 139,000km² Indigenous lands recognized and  entitled  • Social and cutural diversity: (18 indigenous tribes,  y ( g traditional and local communities, smallholders producers, medium and big agro‐industrialists)
  7. 7. Smallholders/Family Farmers Local Government L lG t Indigenous Peoples Indigenous Peoples Agro‐industrialists Social‐Environmental  Movement Source: C.Stickler Scientists
  8. 8. Drivers of Amazon Deforestation 1970 ‐ 1997 • Federal integration programs – Roads – Colonization projects – Subsidies for large scale cattle ranching Subsidies for large‐scale cattle ranching • Drivers largely endogenous (Amazon, Brazil) – Virtually no export of beef – Frontier expansion for the sake of frontier Frontier expansion for the sake of frontier  expansion itself.
  9. 9. Expansion of  Agricultural frontier Source: ISA
  10. 10. our Source: C.Stickler
  11. 11. Deforestation in Xingu  Headwaters Deforestation in Xingu ‘’Headwaters’’ • Deforestation Rate between 2000 ‐2007 oscillated from  650 t 3170 k 2/ 650 to 3170 km /year ((average: 1950 km2/ 1950 k /year) ) • Total 92 856 km² of remaining forest (72% original  Total ‐ 92,856 km of remaining forest (72% original forest) ‐ 20,730 km² of Savannas (Cerrado) (55%  remaining). g) • Non protected areas (outside indigenous lands or  conservation units):  58,641 km² rain forests and  ² 14,381 km² of Savanna.
  12. 12. Amazonas River
  13. 13. Amazonas River Transamazônica Highway Cuiabá-Stantarém Highway (BR-163) Desmatamento 2005
  14. 14. Dynamics of Deforestation in Xingu  ‘’Headwaters’’ Source: C. Stickler, WHRC (2008)
  15. 15. 5 to 13% of  5 to 13% of annual Brazilian  Amazon  deforestation  1.2% of global  emissions  from land use  change h 0.2% of global  emissions  from land use  from land use change
  16. 16. Land Tenure Issues of Forest in the Brazilian Amazon Source: C. Stickler, 
  17. 17. Relatively well- Good (not perfect) defined land title enforcement capacity ~30% of private lands registered Private lands, registered Indigenous lands Protected/restricted use areas (government) Source: C. Stickler
  18. 18. General Objectives of the CSX Initiative General Objectives of the CSX Initiative • I Increase the synergy between distinct initiatives  th b t di ti t i iti ti from the different actors of the Xingu Basin; • Consolidate a concept of social and  environmental carbon for the region  • Develop a fair benefit sharing mechanism;  constructed in a consented manner with the  constructed in a consented manner with the local civil society;   • Strength the negotiations surrounding on REDD  h h i i di in the UNFCCC 
  19. 19. Principles of the Program CSX (8) Principles of the Program CSX (8) • Shared responsibility: Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases  from the global deforestation is a global interest, the liability for  such a reduction should therefore be shared by all (the  such a reduction should therefore be shared by all (the countries).  p • Compensation: Effort to reduce emissions from deforestation or  forest conservation should be totally acknowledged as the  provision of environmental services in a global scale and,  therefore, should be properly economically compensated .  th f h ld b l i ll t d • Right to Receive Economic Resources of Compensation: The  compensation should favor those (sectors of society) which,  compensation should favor those (sectors of society) which played the efforts to reduce the deforestation,  promote  conservation and restoration of forests, particularly : forest  peoples (IP, traditional and small producers settlers) ,  governments and owners of private forests.
  20. 20. Principles of the Program CSX Principles of the Program CSX • E it bl di t ib ti Equitable distribution of benefits: Th b fb fit The benefits  fit of compensation should be distributed fairly  between those sectors of society, giving priority  between those sectors of society giving priority to the society sectors that historically  fought for  p preservation/conservation of their forest areas,  / , avoiding the perverse incentive for those who  always benefit from deforestation. • Additional effort: Needs to be additional to the  efforts of developed countries in reducing their  own emissions ‐ occurring within the Convention  own emissions occurring within the Convention or under the new Protocol after 2012.
  21. 21. Principles of the Program CSX Principles of the Program CSX • T Transparency:  The program should be guided by clear  Th h ld b id d b l understanding of the implications (social, economical and  environmental) of different perspectives adopted to reduce  emissions from deforestation. i i f d f t ti • Access to information and effective participation: Must be  g guided by the previously broad access to information so that  y p y beneficiaries are able to participate in its construction and  beyond. It should be guarantied the effective participation of  all stakeholders  • Respect the rights of local populations , Indigenous Peoples  and Traditional Communities: The CSX recognize and respect  the rights of indigenous and traditional peoples to their  the rights of indigenous and traditional peoples to their traditional territories, their resources and their traditional  ways of forest use in accordance with UN declaration of  Indigenous peoples Rights and (ILO Convention 169). Indigenous peoples Rights and (ILO Convention 169)
  22. 22. Distribution of Benefits:  Proposal for a compensation fund • Th Three funds: f d 1. Forest Peoples' Fund ‐ This fund should enable the  compensation to indigenous peoples, extractives  compensation to indigenous peoples extractives communities, and some small producers settlers, with  forest areas. Forestry subsidy: forestry grant or subsidy for non‐ timber or timber forestry products This fund is justified by the fact that the peoples of  This fund is justified by the fact that the peoples of the Brazilian Amazon forest has a key role of  p protecting the forest and reduction of deforestation.  g The decisions and the priorities of the use of the fund   will de defined by the forest people.
  23. 23. Percentual de área desmatada em áreas protegidas da Amazônia Brasileira 3.50 matada 3.00 2.50 % de área desm 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 Áreas UC de Terras Reservas Fora das militares proteção indígenas Extrativistas UCs integral UCs uso Sust Tipo de área protegida
  24. 24. Distribution of Benefits:  Proposal for a compensation fund 2. Government Fund – Forest Governance: projects management , monitoring  and command and control  forest mechanisms – Also education and health programs This fund will be managed for and between government and  local society in order to result in actions to improve the power  of supervision, monitoring and control. p , g This feature should be added to the government budget  already existent for these actions.  This fund is necessary to ensure, in time (long run), financial  resources beyond the current budget for the maintenance and  consolidation of governance in the region, free of unforeseen   g g event on budgets, changes in government priorities and  political mood.  The priorities will be defined en strategic participatory   The priorities will be defined en strategic participatory planning process (government and society)
  25. 25. Distribution of Benefits:  Proposal for a compensation fund 3. Fund for Private Forestry‐ Incentive the conservation in private  lands (legal) Resources of this fund will be allocated to owners of private forests  Resources of this fund will be allocated to owners of private forests (medium and large landowners) or legalized in the process of  legalization and who already have registered at SLAPR.  g y g Compensation will be important to ensure a mechanism for the  award of not deforest and to conserve the forest as a basis for  change in the economic logic and use of land in the region. Need to be discussed with the social actors involved.  Based on studies of opportunity costs in the region (cattle, soy,  timber)
  26. 26. Opportunity costs Cattle  Cattle Soy  Soy Timber  Timber Source: Nepstad et al. 2007, Soares et al. 2006, Vera‐Diaz et al. 2007, Merry et al., in press.
  27. 27. Opportunity costs 60 ‐70% of the  deforestation in the region  could be avoided  with a  opportunity cost  inferior to US$  i f i t US$ 20/T C
  28. 28. Benefits Distribution Mechanism  Benefits Distribution Mechanism Compensation for  Compensation for reductions Market Forest Peoples' Fund  Fund for Private Forestry Forest Peoples Fund y Government Fund – Forest Governance Demonstrated  reduction
  29. 29. Distribution Mechanism Distribution Mechanism • One must also define the criteria related to  q y when and the quantity each fund should  receive.  • The initial proposal is that based on studies in The initial proposal is that, based on studies in  the Brazilian Amazon (Nepstad et al. 2008),  show that most (> 50%) of the funds received  h h ( ) f h f should be allocated in the People of the Forest  Fund
  30. 30. Support Mechanisms for RED in the  Xingu Governance Tools: • Ecological Economic Zoning Xingu Basin: Social and  economical potentials and socio environmental  economical potentials and socio environmental vulnerabilities; Legalization of land (including the possibility of compensation  Legalization of land (including the possibility of compensation and reduction of legal reserve), the guarantee of indigenous  lands and extractive reserves and the planning and limitation  expansion of livestock and agribusiness. • Socio Register / Register of Social Environmental  Commitment: voluntary registry of properties whose owners  C it t l t it f ti h have a commitment to improve the "social environmental  performance of their properties. performance" of their properties.
  31. 31. Support Mechanism for RED in the  Xingu • 1.5 million hectares of  land registered, largely  located within the  headwaters of the  Xingu River. • The produces that are The produces that are  part of the registry   oug o ece e ought to receive  benefits from the  p g program
  32. 32. Geo‐ referenciated  Registry of properties  Current – Situation 2005 Following restoration – Forestry  Source: C.Stickler code 2035  (80%)
  33. 33. Support Mechanism for RED in the  Xingu • SLAPR I SLAPR. Improvement of the Sistema d Li t f th Si t de Licenciamento i t Ambiental de Propriedades Rurais (Environmental  Licensing System of rural Properties ) g y p ) • Official registry of rural properties (forestry code) • Current Forestry code: y a) Legal reserve of Foresty = 80% legal reserve (Forestry  Amazon Region) ; 35% legal reserve (Cerrado )of the  property  where the native vegetation should be  property where the native vegetation should be protected or reforested  b) Riparian Foresty = ...100% permanent protection  Riparian Foresty 100% permanent protection areas (riparian zone); vegetation which protects  the  adjacent of rivers, creeks, headwaters... Etc.
  34. 34. Registered rural properties in the  Environmental Licensing System Environmental Licensing System
  35. 35. Simulating Forest Cover Current Forest Reduce Legal Initial Business as Usual Code Reserve 2005 2035 2035 2035 104,386 km2 45,246 km2 96,898 km2 89,208 km2 14,462 km2 3988 km2 10,409 km2 9698 km2 Source: C. Stickler, 
  36. 36. Simulating Carbon Stocks Current Forest Reduce Legal Initial Business as Usual Code Reserve 2005 2035 2035 2035 735 MtC 337 MtC 769 MtC 647 MtC +318 MtC +264 MtC Source: C. Stickler,  +84 MtC +16 MtC
  37. 37. National and sub National articulation  Schemes  • National Plan of Reductions of deforestation in  i l l f d i fd f i i the Amazon (PPCDAM) – Action Plan on  prevention and control of deforestation • National Plan on Climate Change (dec. 2008) g ( ) • State Plans of reduction of deforestation :  conditions established in order to the  conditions established in order to the Amazonian states participate in the decisions  of the Amazon Fund and the use the  of the Amazon Fund and the use the resources.
  38. 38. ear Km²/Ye Brazilian Amazon Deforestation Brazilian Amazon Deforestation Years
  39. 39. Policy of reduction of deforestation y National Plan (Baseline, target,  priorities,  $$,  priorities $$ Amazon Fund registry system C  (?) Program or P State action Plan of  Project reduction of  deforestation  (strategies, targets ,  acctions , $$)  Program or Xingu  Social  projects Carbon  b program  (proposal) Forestry  people Fund  people Fund Forestry  Private  Governance   forest   Fund Fund
  40. 40. Base Line and Monitoring Base Line and Monitoring • Historic Base Line: • Ex‐Post: average from  2000 to 2007 1950  Km²/year
  41. 41. Base Line Base Line • Modeling Scenarios ‘’ex  Ante’’ SimAmazonia 2 • Deforestation (red) in year  2050 as simulated under  2050 as simulated under business‐as‐usual scenario.  • BAU Scenario: Deforested:  2.7 million Km², Forest: 3,2  illi ² million Km², non‐ forest:  1.5 million km² • 16 Pg (billion tons) of  carbon emissions to the  carbon emissions to the atmosphere Source: Soares‐Filho et al. 2006 
  42. 42. Previsão do Cenário: P i ã d C ái ( (Mais do Mesmo) ) BAU BAU até 2030
  43. 43. Monitoring and Validation Monitoring and Validation • National Institute of Spatial  researches ‐ Instituto Nacional  de Pesquisas Espaciales  de Pesquisas Espaciales ‐ INPE • a) PRODES PROJECT – Satellite  Monitoring the Amazon Forest  b) DETER – Program of  deforestation detection in real  time (15 15 days) time (15‐ 15 days) • c) DEGRAD – Detection system  of forest degradation • Scientific Committee  of the  Amazon Fund or a Specific  comities to the Program and a  comities to the Program and a external certification.
  44. 44. Governance • Executive committees with the participation of all  i i ih h i i i f ll stakeholders • Indigenous peoples • Small farmers • Medium and large Agro‐ Producers • National and Local NGO’s National and Local NGO s • Universities • Ci il Civil society in General i i G l • Municipalities and States
  45. 45. Finance Mechanism Finance Mechanism • Voluntary Market • Private donations Private donations • Amazon Fund • CDM  of riparian forest areas • Public incentives Public incentives • Carbon market – mandatory  (pos‐2012?)
  46. 46. Targets • The targets must be defined and negotiated  h b d fi d d i d with the stakeholders • The 1st proposal in the first meetings between  p the partners of the executive committee  discussed a reduction of deforestation of 5%  g ( of the average between 1990 and 2007 (in the  nest 15 years) • Recover all the riparian vegetation from the Recover all the riparian vegetation from the  headwaters of Xingu
  47. 47. Social Capital Civil society Entrepreneurs E t Source: C. Stickler, 
  48. 48. Main challenges  Main challenges • Direct engagement and approval of the opportunity by the  local actors/ stakeholders • Synergy and coherence with the singular actions of the  d h h h l f h different actors in the region • F i B Fair Benefit distribution regimes, taking into account the  fi di ib i i ki i h direct involved stakeholders and also the local and regional  governments • Define with precision a base line taking into account  different situations (protected areas, private lands,  different situations (protected areas private lands indigenous lands…) Baselines Ex‐post and ex‐ante • Articulate the Xingu initiative with the state and federal Articulate the Xingu initiative with the state and federal  planning
  49. 49. Thank you for your attention... Thank you for your attention Flávia Gabriela Oyo França – Env. Engineer Climate Change Program ‐ IPAM g g flaviagabriela@ipam.org.br www.climaedesmatamento.org.br www climaedesmatamento org br Acknowledgments • Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia ‐ IPAM • The Woods Hole Research Center ‐ WHRC • UFMG

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