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  1. 1. REDD Initiatives and Governance Florence Daviet World Resources Institute January 22, 2010
  2. 2. Overview • What we mean by “good governance” in relation to REDD • Governance elements in 4 REDD+ spaces – Program development – Common elements • Links to MRV
  3. 3. Thinking about the Balance International - UNFCCC Governance - World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Domestic Governance - US Legislation - Amazon Fund
  4. 4. Leveraging Governance • Plan with process, including for Financing • Independent process for International governance issues • Upfront Criteria/ redress • Transparent / mechanism with trusted financial Fund of specific types of activities consequences institution/ • Clear definition of • Independent MRV mechanisms “Emission (domestic/ • Transparent MRV international) system beyond Reduction” quality carbon • Support for • Redress multiple actors Safeguards mechanism Eligibility
  5. 5. Governance of Forest: A Definition
  6. 6. GOVERNANCE COMPONENTS Revenues Incentives Actors Rules Practice Government Legal/Policy Framework for Forest Fiscal Forest Fiscal Management Forest expertise of the Management Effective accounting system for Transparency national budget authority Roles and Responsibilities for fiscal public spending management Effective accounting system for PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE Civil society Forest revenue sharing mechanisms revenue collection Capacity to work on forest Legal requirements for fiscal transparency Comprehensive and timely Participation revenue issues reporting on fiscal activity Forest Charge System Transparent management of Private Sector Effectiveness of the forest charge system resource funds Financial transparency of Quality of processes to set forest charges Internal controls and auditing of forest resource companies fiscal activity Environmental policies of Economic Incentives External auditing of fiscal activity Accountability lending institutions Effectiveness of economic incentives in the forest sector Implementation of the Quality of processes to set economic Forest Charge System incentives in the forest sector Effective administration and Consideration of the environmental enforcement Coordination impacts of non-forest sector economic Public awareness of forest charges incentives Implementation of Incentive Forest Agency Budget Process Programs Transparency of the annual budget Effective administration and process enforcement Quality of legislative oversight Transparent system to record Capacity payments Monitoring of impacts and effectiveness
  7. 7. Sample Indicator: Transparent Management of Resource Funds Elements of Quality: • Clarity over who manages the fund • Broad stakeholder participation to determine spending priorities • Clear and publicly available rules to guide spending • Fiscal information regularly presented to the legislature and public • Annual external auditing with publicly accessible reports • Regular and publicly accessible reports on impacts of fund spending
  8. 8. UNFCCC “Good Governance” Language Safeguards • Full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, including in particular indigenous peoples and local communities when developing “plans” and “taking mitigation actions” • Transparent and effective national forest governance structures • Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities Request for parties to have: • Transparent national forest monitoring systems • Action plans that address … land tenure issues, forest governance issues, gender considerations, safeguards and ensuring the full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, inter alia, indigenous peoples and local communities
  9. 9. • Will have the institutional capacity to reduce emissions from ELIGIBLE deforestation, including strong forest governance and COUNTRIES mechanisms to equitably distribute deforestation resources for local actions; and a land use or forest sector strategic plan • in a manner that gives due regard to the rights and interests of local ACTIVITY is designed, How does this get communities, indigenous peoples, forest-dependent communities, and vulnerable social groups; • with consultations with, and full participation of, local communities, carried out, indigenous peoples, and forest-dependent communities, in affected areas, as and managed implemented? partners and primary stakeholders, prior to and during the design, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of activities; and • with equitable sharing of profits and benefits derived from offset credits with local communities Protection • Repeats above language of interests
  10. 10. World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility • Transparent and clear stakeholder process/clearTechnical R-PP development: reviewed by roles and Identification of responsibilities/ coordination Bank Staff, Participant’s Advisory Panel, governance in • Identify the underlying causes of deforestation and forest Committee, other s including civil society, developing and domestic and international. degradation, considering… governance issues implementing • Governance quick assessment w/ terms addressing issues Unclear process in independent assessment the R-PP • Identify governance issues related to the gate keeper of of discussed, bank not the implementation specific activities ‘readiness’ Strategic • Consultation: Develop a consultation plan Environmental • Environmental and Social Impacts: Assesswith in country Undertaken by the Bank Impact of readiness and Social package and policies andMay not bedescribedbank policy, mission. measures a formal within Assessment questions about accountability World Bank • Involuntary Resettlement Inspection Panel triggered by complaints. Safeguards • Indigenous Peoples Questions about application to R-PP process (backed by the • Forests and more generally when “safeguards” are Inspection Panel) • Environment triggered. Consequences?
  11. 11. FCPF Guidance questions Consider a discussion of the following questions and issues, and present a proposed work program to address them via analytic studies or other approaches to be undertaken: • Who owns the carbon? Is there a relationship between carbon ownership and land tenure? • How would the REDD revenues generated by these transactions be assigned and/or shared? • What could be the checks and balances to be included in the implementation framework to ensure transparency, accountability and equity? • How could stakeholders be engaged in the implementation framework and the establishment of robust mechanisms for independent monitoring, assessment and review? • What other institutional and governance reforms might be needed (e.g., anti-corruption laws and measures, national best practices for fiscal transparency, clarifying roles and responsibilities within a decentralized forest management system, etc.)?
  12. 12. Amazon Fund Activity approval based on several plans 1. The Sustainable Amazon Plan 2. The Action Plan for Prevention and Control of the Legal Amazon Deforestation (PPCDAM). 3. State plans being considered where they follow the federal components (1) territorial planning, (2) monitoring and control, (3) production activities, (4) governance. Multi-stakeholder management by the Amazon Fund Guidance Committee (COFA). They: 1. Set the fund guidelines and follow up on results 2. Ensure activities are adequate regarding the goals, commitments and policies of the plans
  13. 13. Initial Governance Requests Common best practice: Plans with multi-stakeholder participation MRV of emission reductions – although transparency not emphasized in all cases Safeguards – although implementation still a big question Some discussion about sharing of benefits, most clear in US language
  14. 14. Process or output MRV? Participation in Tracking of financial Tracking REDD policy flows made in improvement in discussion relation to the plan livelihoods Process: Process: Process: Ability of Participation in Transparency of local communities identifying information. Clear to feedback into strategies and accountability political process activities mechanism Output: Actual Output: Increased Output: Accepted transfers of income in law/ policy financing communities
  15. 15. Thank You