Glagow lecture 130411 (1)


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Glagow lecture 130411 (1)

  1. 1. Silent transformation of well-being<br />Timo Hämäläinen, Ph.D., Dos.<br />Glasgow Centre for Population Health Seminar Series, 13th April 2011, Glasgow<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Ourold definition of well-being is outdated<br /> (”silenttransformation”)<br />”Problem of choice” in everyday life<br />Pressures on Sense of coherence and mentalwell-being<br />Accumulatingimpacts of short-term and selfishdecisions<br />Law of requisitevariety & well-being<br />Policyimplications<br />Well-being and economiccompetitivenessarenotcontradictory<br />Vision of a sustainablewell-beingsociety<br />12/04/2011<br />
  3. 3. ICT REVOLUTION<br />GLOBALIZATION OF MARKETS <br />AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES<br />SPECIALIZATION OF MARKETS <br />& VALUE-ADDING ACTIVITIES<br />INCREASING KNOWLEDGE INTEN-<br />SITY & NETWORK COOPERATION<br />Big picture: historical transformation<br /><ul><li>HERE WE ARE!</li></ul>SOCIO-INSTITUTIONAL ADJUSTMENT<br />- Everyday life <br />- Shared cognitive frames<br />- values and norms<br />- laws, regulations<br />- policy regime<br />- public sector organization<br />12.4.2011<br />3<br />Source: Freeman & <br />Perez (1988)<br />
  4. 4. Instrumental discourse dominates <br />Economy<br />(crisis, globalization, com-petitiveness, efficiency, productivity, growth)<br />Welfare state<br />(public finances, reorganizing services, social security, equality)<br />Everyday well-being??<br />(welfare?, subjective well-being?, happiness?, good life?)<br />Adapted from: Habermas (1987, Vol. 2)<br />Lähde: Habermas (1987, Vol. 2)<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Key drivers of well-beinghavechanged<br />ENVIRONMENT<br /><ul><li> Natural environment
  6. 6. Infrastructure
  7. 7. Technologies
  8. 8. Organizations
  9. 9. Demographics
  10. 10. Culture (values & norms, activities)
  11. 11. Institutions (laws & regulations)
  12. 12. Politics
  13. 13. Economy
  14. 14. Labor markets
  15. 15. Media</li></ul>SUBJECTIVE <br />WELL-BEING<br />MENTAL COHERENCE<br /><ul><li>Comprehensibility of life</li></ul>- Manageability of life<br />EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES AND ROLES<br />- Worker<br /><ul><li>Consumer
  16. 16. Family member
  17. 17. Relative
  18. 18. Friend
  19. 19. Hobbyist
  20. 20. Citizen</li></ul>MEANINGFULNESS<br /><ul><li> Exceeding self-interest
  21. 21. Serving others
  22. 22. Higher purpose</li></ul>MASLOWIAN NEEDS<br /><ul><li> Self-actualization
  23. 23. Self- and social- esteem
  24. 24. Love and belonging
  25. 25. Security
  26. 26. Physiological needs </li></ul> (thirst, hunger,…)<br />RESOURCES AND <br />CAPABILITIES<br /> - Income & wealth<br />- Knowledge & skills<br /> - Physical & mental<br />health<br /> - Social capital<br /> - Information<br />- Time<br />- Politicalpower<br />- Naturalresources<br />
  27. 27. From deprivation to ”Problem of choice”<br />Increased:<br />resources & capabilities (income, wealth, health, info, knowledge)<br />satisfaction of basic (material) needs<br />freedoms (deregulation & normlessness)<br />personal & resource mobility<br />market supply & marketing pressure<br />hurry (time remains fixed: 24/7)<br />uncertainty due to transformation and complexity<br /> Growing:<br /><ul><li> problems in decision making (due to uncertainty, information overload, </li></ul> spillovers, normlessness)<br /><ul><li>individualism
  28. 28. selfishness (due to normlessness)
  29. 29. conformomity to market and peer pressures
  30. 30. short-termism and procrastination
  31. 31. lack of loyalty in social relationships</li></li></ul><li>12/04/2011<br />
  32. 32. Hectic life in affluent society<br />FRIEND<br />FRIEND<br />FAMILY<br />MEMBER<br />FAMILY<br />MEMBER<br />EMPLOYEE<br /><ul><li> Task 1
  33. 33. Task 2
  34. 34. Task 3
  35. 35. etc.</li></ul>EMPLOYEE<br /><ul><li> Task 1
  36. 36. Task 2
  37. 37. Task 3
  38. 38. etc.</li></ul>+-<br />+-<br />Different:<br /><ul><li> Purposes
  39. 39. Practices
  40. 40. Contexts
  41. 41. Cognitive frames
  42. 42. Languages
  43. 43. Norms </li></ul>Different:<br /><ul><li> Purposes
  44. 44. Practices
  45. 45. Contexts
  46. 46. Cognitive frames
  47. 47. Languages
  48. 48. Norms </li></ul>+-<br />+-<br />CONSUMER<br />RELATIVE<br />CONSUMER<br />RELATIVE<br />+-<br />+-<br />Synergies and<br />conflicts<br />Synergies and<br />conflicts<br />+-<br />+-<br />CITIZEN<br />CITIZEN<br />HOBBY 1<br />HOBBY 1<br />HOBBY 2<br />HOBBY 2<br />
  49. 49. ”Problem of choice” and higher needs<br /><ul><li> Social relationships and social needs
  50. 50. Love and belonging
  51. 51. Social esteem vs. individualism, selfishness, short-termism
  52. 52. Self-actualization (hurry), lack of loyalty
  53. 53. Purpose and meaning in life</li></ul> vs. individualism, selfishness, market pressures, specialization & complexity<br /><ul><li> Mental coherence
  54. 54. Comprehensibility vs. uncertainty, complexity, decision
  55. 55. Manageability making problems, short-termism (hurry),</li></ul> competing loyalties<br />12/04/2011<br />
  56. 56. Antonovsky’s sense of coherence (SOC)<br />Increasing <br />uncertainty<br />& complexity<br />Comprehensibility <br />Problem<br />of choice<br />Manageability <br />Subjective<br />well-being,<br />QoL, mental<br />health<br />Sense of<br />coherence<br />Individualism,<br />normlessness,<br />selfishness,<br />consumerism,<br />materialism &<br />instrumentalism<br />Meaningfulness <br />Source: Aaron Antonovsky;<br />Monica Eriksson & Bengt Lindström<br />Sources: Aaron Antonovsky (1987); Lindström & Erickson (2005)<br />
  57. 57. Sense of coherence, mental health and well-being<br /> “The [empirical] evidence shows that SOC is strongly and negatively related to anxiety, burnout, demoralization, depression and hopelessness, and positively with hardiness, mastery, optimism, self-esteem, good perceived health, quality of life and well-being.” <br />Source: Bengt Lindstrom & Monica Eriksson (2005): “The Salutogenic Perspective and Mental Health”, in Promoting Mental Health, WHO)<br />
  58. 58. Growing mental pressures and demands of working life<br />Pressures <br />on sense of<br />coherence<br />Health Illness<br /> grey area<br />Demands of<br />working life<br />
  59. 59. Sicknesspensionsdue to depression in Finland, 1983–2006 (privatesector) <br />Number<br />3 500<br />3 000<br />2 500<br />2 000<br />1 500<br />1 000<br />500<br />0<br />83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 <br />Source: Finnish centre for pensions<br />
  60. 60. Key problems in decision making<br />Short-termism<br />Selfishness<br />12/04/2011<br />
  61. 61. 1. Short-termism<br /><ul><li>People tend to be myopic in their decision making. Instant gratification and procrastination win over long-term interests (Ainslie 1992; Steel 2011).
  62. 62. People have particular problems in assessing the well-being impacts of their decisions if: </li></ul> - their impacts extend long into the future, and/or <br /> - if their living environments are undergoing major changes (Kahneman & Thaler 2006).<br /><ul><li>People have more alternatives and choice than ever:</li></ul> - resources, capabilities, freedoms and mobility have grown<br /> - behavioral norms and regulation has become less stringent <br /> - market supply (for instant gratifications) has increased<br /><ul><li>But time is still a fixed resource (24/7).
  63. 63. Crowding of life’s activities; growing hurry, short-termism and procrastination; decreasing commitment and loyalty (”grass greener on the other side…?”).</li></ul>12.4.2011<br />15<br />
  64. 64. Weight of new army servicemen in Finland (kg)<br />Source: Santtila et al., Finnish armed forces<br />12.4.2011<br />
  65. 65. Cooper test results of new army servicemen, 1975 - 2006<br />Source: Santtila et al., Finnish armed forces<br />
  66. 66. 18<br />
  67. 67. 2. Selfishness<br /><ul><li>Stregthening of individualism as a value. Emergence of post-modern splintered culture and the decay of common cultural norms.
  68. 68. Growing difficulties in understanding the full consequences of one’s actions due to increasing specialization and complexity.
  69. 69. Market ideology that legitimizes short-term and selfish choices. The ”invisible hand” is assumed to take care of the common good. </li></li></ul><li>Selfishness in Finnish traffic<br />12/04/2011<br />SELFISH DRIVING HABITS<br />NEGLECT OF TRAFFIC RULES<br />AUTUMN-91<br />AUTUMN-95<br />AUTUMN-99<br />AUTUMN-03<br />AUTUMN -09<br />
  70. 70. Why do short-termism and selfishness decrease well-being? <br />Individual decisions often involve small negative externalities (or spillovers), which are not noticed, but which accumulate into big problems:<br /><ul><li>over time, when the individual repeats the same decisions and behaviors
  71. 71. in large groups, when numerous people make similar decisions</li></li></ul><li>Short-term and selfish behavior has accumulating effects on well-being<br /><ul><li>Unhealthy eating habits and inadequate physical excercise  obesity and related illnesses (e.g. diabetes 2)
  72. 72. Alcohol, tobacco and drugs abuse  dependencies, illnesses and death
  73. 73. Overconsumption  over-indebtedness
  74. 74. High investments in career building or favorite hobbies  social relationships and child raising suffer, work related mental illnesses increase
  75. 75. Postponement of having children  childlessness, greying of population
  76. 76. Increasing tourism to far-off countries, more driving with cars  growing environmental problems</li></ul>22<br />
  77. 77. Accumulating impacts of individual decisions in the long-term and in large groups<br />12.4.2011<br />23<br />Environmental,<br />childdevelopment, social relationshipproblems<br />Life management<br />problems<br />(Kahneman, Giddens)<br />Long-term<br />Trafficjams, litter-<br />ing, status compe-<br />tition, etc. <br />(Hirsch, Schelling)<br />Hedonistic instant <br />gratification<br />dominates<br />Short-term<br />One’s own <br />well-being<br />Others’<br />well-being<br />
  78. 78. How could we improve well-being?<br />FRIEND<br />FRIEND<br />FAMILY<br />MEMBER<br />FAMILY<br />MEMBER<br />EMPLOYEE<br /><ul><li> Task 1
  79. 79. Task 2
  80. 80. Task 3
  81. 81. etc.</li></ul>EMPLOYEE<br /><ul><li> Task 1
  82. 82. Task 2
  83. 83. Task 3
  84. 84. etc.</li></ul>+-<br />+-<br />Different:<br /><ul><li> Purposes
  85. 85. Practices
  86. 86. Contexts
  87. 87. Cognitive frames
  88. 88. Languages
  89. 89. Norms </li></ul>Different:<br /><ul><li> Purposes
  90. 90. Practices
  91. 91. Contexts
  92. 92. Cognitive frames
  93. 93. Languages
  94. 94. Norms </li></ul>+-<br />+-<br />CONSUMER<br />RELATIVE<br />CONSUMER<br />RELATIVE<br />+-<br />+-<br />Synergies and<br />conflicts<br />Synergies and<br />conflicts<br />+-<br />+-<br />CITIZEN<br />CITIZEN<br />HOBBY 1<br />HOBBY 1<br />HOBBY 2<br />HOBBY 2<br />
  95. 95. Stafford Beer: Viable System Model<br /><ul><li>Organizational environments are increasingly dynamic and complex. Hierarchical organizations are too slow and inflexible to cope with this.
  96. 96. Need to decentralize power, but then achieving cohesion and synergy becomes a problem.
  97. 97. The Viable System Model offers a way of gaining both functional decentralization and cohesion of the whole.
  98. 98. Recursive structure: All living systems are composed of a series of sub-systems, each having self-organizing and self-regulatory characteristics.
  99. 99. Each viable system requires five elements: operations, coordination, control, intelligence and policy (direction, values, purpose).</li></ul>12/04/2011<br />
  100. 100. Individual’s life as a Viable System<br />The everyday life of a human being is a system of subsystems in which different activities take place. Each activity adds value (well-being) and has its own goals, values, rules, languages, etc.<br />The interdependencies and interfaces of each activity must be coordinated to operate synergistically. How well are our everyday activities coordinated?<br />Is the whole system under our control? How does it affect our well-being as a whole? Can we manage our lives? (coordination & control= manageability!)<br />Intelligence: Do we understand what’s going on in the world around us? Or, who we are? (= comprehensibility!) <br />Policy: What’s the direction and purpose of our life? (= meaningfulness!)<br />
  101. 101. Ashby (1958): Law of requisite variety<br />The variety of the controller must be equal to that of the controlled.<br />If the variety of disturbances (Vd) grows, old institutional responses/mechanisms (Vr) become inadequate in controlling them, and the variety (uncertainty) of outcomes (Vo) grows.<br />Minimal value of Vo is Vd – Vr<br />Given the variety of disturbances, the “goodness” or value of the outcome depends on the “capacity” (variety of responses) of the regulator (decision maker).<br />Due to “limitation on ‘the capacity of Man’”, there is a limit to the variety (choice) that people can deal with.<br />“Problem of choice” means an overwhelming variety of life options. Due to limited time and cognitive capacity, we cannot deal with this variety anymore.  Life management problems!<br />
  102. 102. Policy implications?<br /><ul><li>The variety of living environments must be reduced to manageable proportions by (a) reducing variety or (b) increasingindividual capacity (viability).
  103. 103. Reducing variety and choice:
  104. 104. Being more selective in one’s commitments based on their compatibility and personal strengths (downshifting, flow activities, purpose, work & life bal.)
  105. 105. Outsourcing activities unimportant to well-being (“support economy”)
  106. 106. Coherent living environments (cocooning, retro fashion & brands, nature, human-centric technology, cultural norms & regulation, customized services, working life, media)
  107. 107. Mindfulness training, fundamentalism, traditional values
  108. 108. Improving capacity (viability):
  109. 109. coordination & control (manageability): calendars, PDAs, peer support, close social relationships, health & rest
  110. 110. intelligence (comprehensibility): learning, new skills, meditation
  111. 111. policy (direction & purpose = meaningfulness): spiritualism, volunteering, serving others (or society)</li></ul> Transformational human being (O’Hara)?<br />
  112. 112. Well-being and competitiveness are not contradictory<br /><ul><li>Economic competitiveness and welfare (state) are often seen as contradictory: well-being = welfare state = high taxes & burdensome regulation  poor competitiveness
  113. 113. However, the value-added of products and services depends on their contribution to everyday well-being. 
  114. 114. Superior well-being knowledge supports the development of products and services with more value-added – and hence competitiveness.
  115. 115. In addition, it helps: (a) people to live betterlives; (b) publicsector to produceserviceswithmorevalue-added, (c) policymakers to providebetterpublicgoods and institutions (e.g. living environments)
  116. 116. An updated and sophisticatedunderstanding of well-beingprovides and overall vision for the development of a new and sustainablesocio-economicmodel.</li></ul>12/04/2011<br />
  117. 117. Europe could lead in the road to a sustainable well-being society<br />Environment<br />Everyday well-being<br />(subjective well-being, happiness, good life)<br />Economy<br />(value-added, compe-titiveness, efficiency, productivity, growth)<br />Public sector<br />(public value, efficiency, renewal capacity, social security, equality)<br />Environment<br />Environment<br />Environment<br />Adapted from: Habermas (1987, Vol. 2)<br />Lähde: Habermas (1987, Vol. 2)<br />30<br />