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When you think of efficient, useful
and advanced technology...
The DIRT Society
When you think of efficient, useful
and advanced technology...
What comes to mind?
The DIRT Society
Was it this?
The DIRT Society
Solanum lycopersicum
A Common Tomato
The DIRT Society
Consider...
The iPhone was first released in 2007, and Apple
has been perfecting the technology ever since.
Scientists hav...
Consider...
The iPhone was first released in 2007, and Apple
has been perfecting the technology ever since.
Scientists hav...
And while we take thousands of years to try and understand
their most basic functions, plants are busy developing new
syst...
They evolve quickly, and in many different
ways. The plants you are most familiar with
make up a tiny portion of plant lif...
They evolve quickly, and in many different
ways. The plants you are most familiar with
make up a tiny portion of plant lif...
For every possible environment on earth,
plants have adapted and developed in
such a way that they can survive. In the
wat...
That’s a lot to study...
The DIRT Society
So, what we’re trying to say is..
Despite all of humanity’s awesome achievements, plants
are developing more quickly and e...
Granted, humankind has the power to destroy
plant life; a power which, unfortunately, we use
and abuse.
The DIRT Society
And yet, without plants, every human on earth
would be dead.
The DIRT Society
So let’s unlock some of the mysteries of the
plant body: Because if you want to work with
the world’s most impressive tech...
Here are the words you need to
know before we continue:
Basic Anatomy
The DIRT Society
Root
The DIRT Society
Stem
The DIRT Society
Leaf
The DIRT Society
Blossom
The DIRT Society
Blossom
Fruit
The DIRT Society
Blossom
Fruit
Seed
The DIRT Society
Pretty simple so far, right?
The DIRT Society
Root
The DIRT Society
Root
Anchors plant to ground.
The DIRT Society
Root
Anchors plant to ground.
Absorbs water and minerals from soil.
The DIRT Society
Root
Anchors plant to ground.
Absorbs water and minerals from soil.
Nutrient (food) storage.
The DIRT Society
Stem
The DIRT Society
Stem
Stable center body supports
heavy leaves, fruits and branches.
The DIRT Society
Stem
Stable center body supports
heavy leaves, fruits and branches.
Moves leaves upwards and outwards
to find sunlight.
Th...
Stem
Stable center body supports
heavy leaves, fruits and branches.
Moves leaves upwards and outwards
to find sunlight.
Ho...
Leaf
The DIRT Society
Leaf
Creates food using sunlight.
The DIRT Society
Leaf
Creates food using sunlight.
Bends, folds and moves depending
upon weather and light.
The DIRT Society
Leaf
Creates food using sunlight.
Bends, folds and moves depending
upon weather and light.
Location of respiration
(breath...
Leaf
Creates food using sunlight.
Bends, folds and moves depending
upon weather and light.
Location of respiration
(breath...
Blossom
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Blossom
The reproductive organs of
sexual plants.
The DIRT Society
Blossom
The reproductive organs of
sexual plants.
The site of fertilization.
The DIRT Society
Blossom
The reproductive organs of
sexual plants.
The site of fertilization.
House sex cells,
called “gametes.”
The DIRT S...
Blossom
The reproductive organs of
sexual plants.
The site of fertilization.
House sex cells,
called “gametes.” Can develo...
Fruit
The DIRT Society
Fruit
Protects seeds using soft,
fleshy walls and tissue.
The DIRT Society
Fruit
Protects seeds using soft,
fleshy walls and tissue.
May attract consumers.
The DIRT Society
Seed
The DIRT Society
Seed
Protective enclosures.
The DIRT Society
Seed
Protective enclosures.
Contain all of the
genetic material (and
food) needed to
begin growing
another independent
pla...
Back up. Plants breathe?
Absolutely. Plants “exhale” both
oxygen and water. But when?
And why?
The DIRT Society
Back up. Plants breathe?
1. Plants throw away their
garbage! The result of food
production is an excess of
molecules like ...
Back up. Plants breathe?
1. Plants throw away their
garbage! The result of food
production is an excess of
molecules like ...
Back up. Plants breathe?
1. Plants throw away their
garbage! The result of food
production is an excess of
molecules like ...
Back up. Plants breathe?
Thus, the hotter the
plant, the more it
“sweats” and hydrates
itself.
Plants do, naturally, what
...
But even more impressively:
Imagine if, when you feel hungry, all you had to do was
go outside and sit in the sunlight. Th...
But even more impressively:
Imagine if, when you feel hungry, all you had to do was
go outside and sit in the sunlight. Th...
Here’s how:
Photosynthesis is a plant’s way of feeding itself. By using photons,
or light energy, a plant can turn otherwi...
Here’s how:
Photosynthesis is a plant’s way of feeding itself. By using photons,
or light energy, a plant can turn otherwi...
Written out, photosynthesis looks something like this:
CO2 + H2O + Photons = H2O + O2 + Carbohydrates
(Carbon dioxide and ...
Written out, photosynthesis looks something like this:
CO2 + H2O + Photons = H2O + O2 + Carbohydrates
(Carbon dioxide and ...
But what about Autumn and Winter? Why do some
plants lose their leaves, and how can they survive?
The DIRT Society
It takes a lot of energy to create and maintain leaves, and a plant’s energy comes from light.
The DIRT Society
It takes a lot of energy to create and maintain leaves, and a plant’s energy comes from light.
During certain seasons, les...
It takes a lot of energy to create and maintain leaves, and a plant’s energy comes from light.
During certain seasons, les...
And did we say that plants reproduce? Sexually?
The DIRT Society
And did we say that plants reproduce? Sexually?
Correct! Some plants reproduce sexually.
The most obvious examples are flo...
And did we say that plants reproduce? Sexually?
You’ll never look at a bouquet of
flowers the same way again!
The DIRT Soc...
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Anther
Petal
Ovule
Ovary
Sepal
The DIRT Society
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Anther
Petal
Ovule
Ovary
Sepal
Receives male gametes (pollen)
The DIRT Society
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Petal
Ovule
Ovary
Sepal
Distributes pollen
The DIRT Society
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Anther
Ovule
Ovary
Sepal
Attracts pollinators
The DIRT Society
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Anther
Petal
Ovary
Sepal
Cell becomes seed when fertilized
The DIRT Society
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Anther
Petal
Ovule
Ovary
Protects young flower (bud)
The DIRT Society
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Anther
Petal
Ovule
Sepal
Organ becomes
fruit if fertilized,
and houses
seeds
The DIRT Soci...
The Anatomy of a Flower:
Stigma
Anther
Petal
Ovule
Ovary
Sepal
The DIRT Society
Another weird plant fact?
The DIRT Society
Another weird plant fact?
They excel at employing others to aid
them in their dirty work.
The DIRT Society
Attracting their work force:
Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact,
you’ve probably been involved in...
Attracting their work force:
Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact,
you’ve probably been involved in...
Attracting their work force:
Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact,
you’ve probably been involved in...
Attracting their work force:
Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact,
you’ve probably been involved in...
Attracting their work force:
Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact,
you’ve probably been involved in...
And it gets even more strange:
Plants can communicate with one another.
The DIRT Society
And it gets even more strange:
Plants can communicate with one another.
Plants can send electrical and chemical
signals wh...
And it gets even more strange:
Plants can communicate with one another.
Scientists are still trying to understand the exac...
And it gets even more strange:
Plants can communicate with one another.
Scientists are still trying to understand the exac...
So plants “breathe,” create food, self-
regulate, hydrate, physically morph to adapt
to changing seasons, reproduce sexual...
Even in death, plants are working.
When a plant dies, it immediately begins enriching the soil with its decomposing
body. ...
Even in death, plants are working.
When a plant dies, it immediately begins enriching the soil with its decomposing
body. ...
Even in death, plants are working.
Farmers try to use this process. To enrich their own soil, they will compost plants
and...
Even in death, plants are working.
Farmers try to use this process. To enrich their own soil, they will compost plants
and...
So consider: How advanced are plants
compared to... Humans?
The DIRT Society
So consider: How advanced are plants
compared to... Humans?
As seeds, a young plant is ready to sprout with just a little ...
So consider: How advanced are plants
compared to... Humans?
But when humans are born, they are entirely dependent. Without...
So consider: How advanced are plants
compared to... Humans?
Hence the saying: It takes a village to raise
a child.
The DIR...
So consider: How advanced are plants
compared to... Humans?
So, while not every seed will grow into a successful plant, no...
And here’s a gruesome thought:
The DIRT Society
And here’s a gruesome thought:And here’s a gruesome thought:
We can’t survive without an enormous
population of plants. We...
And here’s a gruesome thought:And here’s a gruesome thought:
We can’t survive without an enormous
population of plants. We...
So have a little respect.
The DIRT Society
So have a little respect.
And take some time to admire the technological genius
...of this.
The DIRT Society
You can learn much more at:
www.thedirtsociety.com
The DIRT Society
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Introduction to Plants and Plant Science (The DIRT Society)

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Educational module developed for beginners in plant science, biology, and related fields. Introduces anatomy, basic functions, reproduction, photosynthesis, etc.

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Introduction to Plants and Plant Science (The DIRT Society)

  1. 1. When you think of efficient, useful and advanced technology... The DIRT Society
  2. 2. When you think of efficient, useful and advanced technology... What comes to mind? The DIRT Society
  3. 3. Was it this? The DIRT Society
  4. 4. Solanum lycopersicum A Common Tomato The DIRT Society
  5. 5. Consider... The iPhone was first released in 2007, and Apple has been perfecting the technology ever since. Scientists have been trying to understand the mechanical genius of basic plants for centuries. The DIRT Society
  6. 6. Consider... The iPhone was first released in 2007, and Apple has been perfecting the technology ever since. Scientists have been trying to understand the mechanical genius of basic plants for centuries. It seems as if, for every puzzle we solve, a dozen more questions arise. The DIRT Society
  7. 7. And while we take thousands of years to try and understand their most basic functions, plants are busy developing new systems and methods of survival without the help of engineers or technicians.
  8. 8. They evolve quickly, and in many different ways. The plants you are most familiar with make up a tiny portion of plant life on earth. Of those, the plants you rely on for food are an even tinier fraction. The DIRT Society
  9. 9. They evolve quickly, and in many different ways. The plants you are most familiar with make up a tiny portion of plant life on earth. Of those, the plants you rely on for food are an even tinier fraction. Put it into perspective this way: Out of 50,000 edible plants on earth, about 60% of your diet is made up of... 3. If you’re missing out on 49,997 possible vegetable dishes, how familiar with plants are you, really? They are everywhere, taking many shapes and developing new functions and systems with every generation.The DIRT Society
  10. 10. For every possible environment on earth, plants have adapted and developed in such a way that they can survive. In the water or on land, you’ll find a huge variety of successful plants. The DIRT Society
  11. 11. That’s a lot to study... The DIRT Society
  12. 12. So, what we’re trying to say is.. Despite all of humanity’s awesome achievements, plants are developing more quickly and efficiently than we seem able to do. The DIRT Society
  13. 13. Granted, humankind has the power to destroy plant life; a power which, unfortunately, we use and abuse. The DIRT Society
  14. 14. And yet, without plants, every human on earth would be dead. The DIRT Society
  15. 15. So let’s unlock some of the mysteries of the plant body: Because if you want to work with the world’s most impressive technology, you’ll want to begin with plants. The DIRT Society
  16. 16. Here are the words you need to know before we continue: Basic Anatomy The DIRT Society
  17. 17. Root The DIRT Society
  18. 18. Stem The DIRT Society
  19. 19. Leaf The DIRT Society
  20. 20. Blossom The DIRT Society
  21. 21. Blossom Fruit The DIRT Society
  22. 22. Blossom Fruit Seed The DIRT Society
  23. 23. Pretty simple so far, right? The DIRT Society
  24. 24. Root The DIRT Society
  25. 25. Root Anchors plant to ground. The DIRT Society
  26. 26. Root Anchors plant to ground. Absorbs water and minerals from soil. The DIRT Society
  27. 27. Root Anchors plant to ground. Absorbs water and minerals from soil. Nutrient (food) storage. The DIRT Society
  28. 28. Stem The DIRT Society
  29. 29. Stem Stable center body supports heavy leaves, fruits and branches. The DIRT Society
  30. 30. Stem Stable center body supports heavy leaves, fruits and branches. Moves leaves upwards and outwards to find sunlight. The DIRT Society
  31. 31. Stem Stable center body supports heavy leaves, fruits and branches. Moves leaves upwards and outwards to find sunlight. Houses a network of channels that move nutrients up and down to all parts of the body. The DIRT Society
  32. 32. Leaf The DIRT Society
  33. 33. Leaf Creates food using sunlight. The DIRT Society
  34. 34. Leaf Creates food using sunlight. Bends, folds and moves depending upon weather and light. The DIRT Society
  35. 35. Leaf Creates food using sunlight. Bends, folds and moves depending upon weather and light. Location of respiration (breathing) in plant. The DIRT Society
  36. 36. Leaf Creates food using sunlight. Bends, folds and moves depending upon weather and light. Location of respiration (breathing) in plant. Communicates with other organisms. The DIRT Society
  37. 37. Blossom The DIRT Society
  38. 38. Blossom The reproductive organs of sexual plants. The DIRT Society
  39. 39. Blossom The reproductive organs of sexual plants. The site of fertilization. The DIRT Society
  40. 40. Blossom The reproductive organs of sexual plants. The site of fertilization. House sex cells, called “gametes.” The DIRT Society
  41. 41. Blossom The reproductive organs of sexual plants. The site of fertilization. House sex cells, called “gametes.” Can develop into fruits and seeds. The DIRT Society
  42. 42. Fruit The DIRT Society
  43. 43. Fruit Protects seeds using soft, fleshy walls and tissue. The DIRT Society
  44. 44. Fruit Protects seeds using soft, fleshy walls and tissue. May attract consumers. The DIRT Society
  45. 45. Seed The DIRT Society
  46. 46. Seed Protective enclosures. The DIRT Society
  47. 47. Seed Protective enclosures. Contain all of the genetic material (and food) needed to begin growing another independent plant. The DIRT Society
  48. 48. Back up. Plants breathe? Absolutely. Plants “exhale” both oxygen and water. But when? And why? The DIRT Society
  49. 49. Back up. Plants breathe? 1. Plants throw away their garbage! The result of food production is an excess of molecules like hydrogen and oxygen that must be released. The DIRT Society
  50. 50. Back up. Plants breathe? 1. Plants throw away their garbage! The result of food production is an excess of molecules like hydrogen and oxygen that must be released. 2. By releasing moisture, plants cool themselves off. This is similar to sweating in animals. The DIRT Society
  51. 51. Back up. Plants breathe? 1. Plants throw away their garbage! The result of food production is an excess of molecules like hydrogen and oxygen that must be released. 2. By releasing moisture, plants cool themselves off. This is similar to sweating in animals. 3. This release creates a pull, or vacuum, which forces the roots to absorb more moisture. The DIRT Society
  52. 52. Back up. Plants breathe? Thus, the hotter the plant, the more it “sweats” and hydrates itself. Plants do, naturally, what people have to remind themselves to do! The DIRT Society
  53. 53. But even more impressively: Imagine if, when you feel hungry, all you had to do was go outside and sit in the sunlight. Then, as if by magic, the exact food you crave would appear. The DIRT Society
  54. 54. But even more impressively: Imagine if, when you feel hungry, all you had to do was go outside and sit in the sunlight. Then, as if by magic, the exact food you crave would appear. Plants do this. They create their own food whenever they have access to a little light. The DIRT Society
  55. 55. Here’s how: Photosynthesis is a plant’s way of feeding itself. By using photons, or light energy, a plant can turn otherwise unusable materials into carbohydrates, or energy storage. The DIRT Society
  56. 56. Here’s how: Photosynthesis is a plant’s way of feeding itself. By using photons, or light energy, a plant can turn otherwise unusable materials into carbohydrates, or energy storage. This process takes place on leaves, generally. The surface reflects back the light it will not use, giving plants colors as diverse as their light requirements. The DIRT Society
  57. 57. Written out, photosynthesis looks something like this: CO2 + H2O + Photons = H2O + O2 + Carbohydrates (Carbon dioxide and water, plus a little light, are turned into water, oxygen and sugar.) The DIRT Society
  58. 58. Written out, photosynthesis looks something like this: CO2 + H2O + Photons = H2O + O2 + Carbohydrates (Carbon dioxide and water, plus a little light, are turned into water, oxygen and sugar.) That transformation from gas to sugar occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells, which are highly concentrated in plant leaves. The DIRT Society
  59. 59. But what about Autumn and Winter? Why do some plants lose their leaves, and how can they survive? The DIRT Society
  60. 60. It takes a lot of energy to create and maintain leaves, and a plant’s energy comes from light. The DIRT Society
  61. 61. It takes a lot of energy to create and maintain leaves, and a plant’s energy comes from light. During certain seasons, less light reaches the earth’s surface. Plants will reduce the amount of energy spent on leaf maintenance because the cost outweighs the gain. The DIRT Society
  62. 62. It takes a lot of energy to create and maintain leaves, and a plant’s energy comes from light. During certain seasons, less light reaches the earth’s surface. Plants will reduce the amount of energy spent on leaf maintenance because the cost outweighs the gain. Like hibernating animals, some plants choose to conserve enough energy to survive until food (light) becomes plentiful again. They enter a dormant state, drop their leaves, and wait. The DIRT Society
  63. 63. And did we say that plants reproduce? Sexually? The DIRT Society
  64. 64. And did we say that plants reproduce? Sexually? Correct! Some plants reproduce sexually. The most obvious examples are flowering plants: The blossoms you see are the plant’s sex organs. The DIRT Society
  65. 65. And did we say that plants reproduce? Sexually? You’ll never look at a bouquet of flowers the same way again! The DIRT Society
  66. 66. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Anther Petal Ovule Ovary Sepal The DIRT Society
  67. 67. The Anatomy of a Flower: Anther Petal Ovule Ovary Sepal Receives male gametes (pollen) The DIRT Society
  68. 68. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Petal Ovule Ovary Sepal Distributes pollen The DIRT Society
  69. 69. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Anther Ovule Ovary Sepal Attracts pollinators The DIRT Society
  70. 70. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Anther Petal Ovary Sepal Cell becomes seed when fertilized The DIRT Society
  71. 71. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Anther Petal Ovule Ovary Protects young flower (bud) The DIRT Society
  72. 72. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Anther Petal Ovule Sepal Organ becomes fruit if fertilized, and houses seeds The DIRT Society
  73. 73. The Anatomy of a Flower: Stigma Anther Petal Ovule Ovary Sepal The DIRT Society
  74. 74. Another weird plant fact? The DIRT Society
  75. 75. Another weird plant fact? They excel at employing others to aid them in their dirty work. The DIRT Society
  76. 76. Attracting their work force: Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact, you’ve probably been involved in many acts of plant reproduction without knowing it. The DIRT Society
  77. 77. Attracting their work force: Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact, you’ve probably been involved in many acts of plant reproduction without knowing it. • Flowers may use shapes, colors, patterns, and scents to attract insects and animals. The DIRT Society
  78. 78. Attracting their work force: Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact, you’ve probably been involved in many acts of plant reproduction without knowing it. • Flowers may use shapes, colors, patterns, and scents to attract insects and animals. • These “vectors” then move pollen to the female organs on the same or different plants, allowing them to be fertilized. The DIRT Society
  79. 79. Attracting their work force: Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact, you’ve probably been involved in many acts of plant reproduction without knowing it. • Flowers may use shapes, colors, patterns, and scents to attract insects and animals. • These “vectors” then move pollen to the female organs on the same or different plants, allowing them to be fertilized. • The fruit and seeds produced are then eaten and excreted by animals after being carried away to a new location. The DIRT Society
  80. 80. Attracting their work force: Plants use outside means to spread their offspring. In fact, you’ve probably been involved in many acts of plant reproduction without knowing it. • Flowers may use shapes, colors, patterns, and scents to attract insects and animals. • These “vectors” then move pollen to the female organs on the same or different plants, allowing them to be fertilized. • The fruit and seeds produced are then eaten and excreted by animals after being carried away to a new location. • Vectors may also contribute by harvesting, burying, or carrying plant reproductive materials (as you might by picking flowers, walking on grass, or brushing a seedpod.) The DIRT Society
  81. 81. And it gets even more strange: Plants can communicate with one another. The DIRT Society
  82. 82. And it gets even more strange: Plants can communicate with one another. Plants can send electrical and chemical signals when threatened or under attack. The DIRT Society
  83. 83. And it gets even more strange: Plants can communicate with one another. Scientists are still trying to understand the exact process, but are now confident that plants come equipped with multiple communication devices, including chemical compounds and small electrical signals. The DIRT Society
  84. 84. And it gets even more strange: Plants can communicate with one another. Scientists are still trying to understand the exact process, but are now confident that plants come equipped with multiple communication devices, including chemical compounds and small electrical signals. So I was thinking about going to the salad bar later... Oh, ha ha Louis. The DIRT Society
  85. 85. So plants “breathe,” create food, self- regulate, hydrate, physically morph to adapt to changing seasons, reproduce sexually, utilize a work force of animals, and communicate with each other. Anything else? The DIRT Society
  86. 86. Even in death, plants are working. When a plant dies, it immediately begins enriching the soil with its decomposing body. The rotting plant is nutrient rich, and it is broken up by worms, insects, mold, fungi and microorganisms until it is integrated into the soil. The DIRT Society
  87. 87. Even in death, plants are working. When a plant dies, it immediately begins enriching the soil with its decomposing body. The rotting plant is nutrient rich, and it is broken up by worms, insects, mold, fungi and microorganisms until it is integrated into the soil. Thus, even in death, a plant is making its environment a better, safer place for future generations. The DIRT Society
  88. 88. Even in death, plants are working. Farmers try to use this process. To enrich their own soil, they will compost plants and plant products to use as a conditioner between seasons. The DIRT Society
  89. 89. Even in death, plants are working. Farmers try to use this process. To enrich their own soil, they will compost plants and plant products to use as a conditioner between seasons. And, if given thousands of years, this decomposed material creates beds of carbon upon which modern human technology is dependent. Unfortunately, we are using this material more quickly than we are replacing it. The DIRT Society
  90. 90. So consider: How advanced are plants compared to... Humans? The DIRT Society
  91. 91. So consider: How advanced are plants compared to... Humans? As seeds, a young plant is ready to sprout with just a little bit of moisture and an adequate temperature. Within the body of a seed, the parent plant has packed food, protection, and an innate sense of direction, gravity, and survival instincts. The DIRT Society
  92. 92. So consider: How advanced are plants compared to... Humans? But when humans are born, they are entirely dependent. Without medical care, clothing, shelter, clean water, nutritious food, basic education, language, and monitoring... Humans can’t grow into adults. They die as infants. The DIRT Society
  93. 93. So consider: How advanced are plants compared to... Humans? Hence the saying: It takes a village to raise a child. The DIRT Society
  94. 94. So consider: How advanced are plants compared to... Humans? So, while not every seed will grow into a successful plant, no successful plant in the wild needed “a village” to help it grow. The DIRT Society
  95. 95. And here’s a gruesome thought: The DIRT Society
  96. 96. And here’s a gruesome thought:And here’s a gruesome thought: We can’t survive without an enormous population of plants. We would burn up in our hot atmosphere, suffocate from lack of oxygen, or die of disease and starvation. The DIRT Society
  97. 97. And here’s a gruesome thought:And here’s a gruesome thought: We can’t survive without an enormous population of plants. We would burn up in our hot atmosphere, suffocate from lack of oxygen, or die of disease and starvation. Plants, however “simple” you might find them... Are self-reliant. They don’t need humankind. They’ll continue to grow, adapt, reproduce and flourish.. Even when humans are gone. The DIRT Society
  98. 98. So have a little respect. The DIRT Society
  99. 99. So have a little respect. And take some time to admire the technological genius ...of this. The DIRT Society
  100. 100. You can learn much more at: www.thedirtsociety.com The DIRT Society

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