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Tidal Lagoon Power - Presentation to CCC

On April 17 2015 the Committee on Climate Change held their first meeting in Wales, Cardiff. A range of stakeholders were invited to discuss the challenges faced by Wales in implementing its low-carbon strategy.

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Tidal Lagoon Power - Presentation to CCC

  2. 2. An island nation with…  …the best tidal range resource in Europe and 2nd best worldwide  …a 1400 year history of tapping it  Shallow waters, suitable bathymetry & population proximity  …variance in tide times offering the potential for 24 hour generation
  3. 3. National Grid GB Transmission System
  4. 4. Tidal lagoon snapshot  Large marine barrier with one ingress/egress  Bidirectional Kaplan bulb turbines enabling generation on the ebb and flood tides  Total power depends on: 1. the tidal “head”; and 2. surface area of the lagoon (scalable)  Takes three years to build  Design life is 120 years  Lagoon interior “flushed” 4 x a day 4Turbine house & sluice gates Breakwater Breakwater Turbine house & sluice gates
  5. 5. Power generation cycle
  6. 6. “We believe that Wales has the potential to be a world-leader in the marine energy market – as a significant generator and, just as importantly, as an exporter of marine energy knowledge, technologies and services.” Energy Wales: A Low Carbon Transition March 2012 Welsh Government
  7. 7. Establishing a blueprint: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Wall length: 9.5km Area: 11.5km2 Rated capacity (@4.5m head): 240MW Installed capacity: 320MW Daily generating time: 14 hours Annual output (net): ~500GWh Annual CO2 savings: 236,000 t Design life: 120yrs Height of wall: 5-20m Wall above low water: 12m Wall above high water: 3.5m Tidal range Neaps: 4.1m Tidal range Springs: 8.5m 155,000 homes powered: c.90% of Swansea Bay’s domestic use/ c.11% of Wales’ domestic use 24 155,000 homes powered: c.90% of Swansea Bay’s domestic use/ c.11% of Wales’ domestic use
  8. 8. Design evolution: 14 options considered
  9. 9. Breakwater design Water is impounded by a wall or “breakwater” to create a lagoon  Breakwater comprises bunds of quarry run with sand fill in between  Armour rock is placed on top
  10. 10. Design validation Physical scale model testing(HR Wallingford laboratories ) • 2D model on 1:35scale • Testingof frequent &extreme conditions up to 1in 500 yearstorm • Aim: validate & optimise design on armour & cap stability &overtopping
  11. 11. Construction sequence – 1st season Construction sequence: Construct temporary bund – team 1  Construct western bund starting from shore and working out – team 2  Remove ABP breakwater  Construct Phase 1 eastern bund starting from shore – team 2 Installed capacity: 250MW Annual output: 400GWh (equivalent to Swansea’s annual dom. electricity use) Western Bund 2.5 km Temporary Bund Phase 1 of Eastern Bund 2.3 km Removal of ABP breakwater
  12. 12. Construction sequence – 2nd season Construction sequence:  Extend DCWW outfall by 1500m Realignment of Neath Port training wall  Construct phase 2 of the Eastern Bund Installed capacity: 250MW Annual output: 400GWh (equivalent to Swansea’s annual dom. electricity use) Phase 2 of Eastern Bund 3.1 km total Extension of DCWW outfall Realignment of Neath Port training wall
  13. 13. Construction sequence – 3rd season Construction sequence:  Remove temporary bund – team 1  Construct final section of Eastern Bund – team 2  Note materials from temporary bund will be re- used where possible in closing the eastern bund. Installed capacity: 250MW Annual output: 400GWh (equivalent to Swansea’s annual dom. electricity use) Phase 3 of Eastern Bund 1.5 km total Remove temporary bund
  14. 14. Grid connection • Along Western bund wall • South of ABP Queens Dock, and across to Fabian Way • Along Fabian Way in westbound verge •Across Crymlyn Burrows SSSI, under existing metalled track • River Neath crossing – Directional Drilling
  15. 15. Turbine housing
  16. 16. 97% availability in the 47 years 93% efficiency on the ebb 75% efficiency on the flood Year 47 – first overhaul of turbines, 5 turbines received replacement parts Year 48 – control system to be replaced Years 1 and 47 Over 45 years of field data La Rance, salt water, 240MW tidal range power station, Brittany, France
  17. 17. 3D model & CFD modelling • TLP commissioned Deltares (Holland) to do this modelling • Numerical modelling and physical scale model • Alignment with turbine model tests and guarantees • Finished April 2015 Energy modelling
  18. 18. Double regulated bulb turbine
  19. 19. Turbine components
  20. 20. Employment and economic stimulus in Swansea Bay  Construction: Up to 1,900 full time equivalent jobs (FTE) created and supported during construction  Operations, maintenance and associated leisure industries: up to 181 FTE jobs created and supported throughout operational life of lagoon  Gross Value Added: Up to £316m during construction and £76m per annum throughout operational life Source: The Economic Case for a Tidal Lagoon Industry in the UK, The Centre for Economics and Business Research, July 2014 22
  21. 21. Project delivery The project’s major delivery partnerships announced so far are: 24 26 Turbines Client’s Engineer Turbines Equity Partner Equity Partner
  22. 22. Tidal Lagoon Cardiff Indicative design: Average tide: 9.21m Area: 70km2 Length: 22km Turbines: 60-90 Installed cap: 1,800MW - 2,800MW Annual output: 4TWh-6TWh p/a Comfortably enough low carbon electricity to power every home in Wales * *Average annual electricity consumption per Welsh household = 3,928 kWh. 1.319m Welsh households Figures are based on a single indicative design iteration and are not necessary representative of any scheme that may be developed
  23. 23. Renewable energy at nuclear scale But with:  Faster deployment  Longer life  Local ownership  Local supply chain  Safe and inexpensive decommissioning  Coastal flood protection  Amenity value through tourism and recreation  Education, cultural and arts programmes  Conservation, restocking and biodiversity programmes Big ▪ Sustainable ▪ Safe ▪ Certain ▪ Ours ▪ Here now
  24. 24. 6 lagoons 30 TWh 8% 30% UK electricity* = = UK homes or *Upon completion of 6 lagoons (2027) Projected UK power generation ‘27 (DECC, 2013) = 361.4 TWh • Average h’hold consumption (DECC, Mar ‘14) = 3.8 MWh • UK h’holds (ONS, 2013) = 26,414,000
  25. 25. ‘The Economic Case for a UK Tidal Lagoon Industry’, Centre for Economics and Business Research, July 2014 1) A national fleet of 6 lagoons would contribute £27bn to UK GDP during 12 years of construction 2) Creating or sustaining 35,800 jobs on average and 70,900 jobs at its peak 3) In operation, the fleet would contribute £3.1bn per annum to UK GDP 4) Creating or sustaining as many as 6,400 jobs 5) Potential to increase net exports by £3.7bn per year – equivalent to 13% of the current trade deficit Key findings: - 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 Biomass Tidal lagoon Hydro Wind, solar, wave, tidal stream Nuclear Gas Oil Coal and gas CCS Coal Source: DECC Updated Energy & Emissions Projections - September 2013, Cebr projections for 6 UK tidal lagoons GWh
  26. 26. International potential  313 GW of potential tidal range capacity identified to date:  Europe: Russia, UK, France, Germany  Americas: Canada, US, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina  Asia: China, India, S Korea  Australia  At least 80 GW capacity assessed as holding potential for commercial development  Valuing the global tidal range pipeline at £383bn 19 14 Source: The Economic Case for a Tidal Lagoon Industry in the UK, The Centre for Economics and Business Research, July 2014. Analysis including Bernshtein (1996), Baker (1991), Clark (2007)