K E L L OG-B R IA NDP A CT • 1928: U.S. Secretary of state Frank B. Kellog and French foreign minister Aristide Briand sign the Kellog-Briand pact, making war illegal.
JAPAN AND THE LE AGUE OF NATIONS• 1930: Osachi Hamaguchi, the liberal prime minister of Japan is assassinated. A group of military leaders siezed power.• 1931: Japanese soldiers stage a fake attack on a railway near Mudken (Manchuria). The Japanese blame the attack on China.• The League of Nations condemned Japan for the attack and Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations.
• The League of Nations was not willing to take action against Japan; They did not protect China.• Japan announced its intentions of spreading throughout East Asia and the western Pacific.• 1937: The Japanese gained control of Beijing.• 1939: Japanese controlled ¼ of all China.
MUSSOLINI’S ITALY• Mussolini’s fascist government began in 1922. Mussolini worked hard to improve the economy of Italy and set his sight on taking over Ethiopia. (why Ethiopia?)• Ethiopia called on the League of Nations for help. The League had no military of its own and Ethiopia was declared part of the Italian Empire during the spring of 1936.• None of the major powers were willing to apply the economic sanctions the League imposed on Italy as punishment for the aggresion against Ethiopia. (why?)
FRANCO’SSPAIN • 1923: Rebels create a military dictatorship. • 1931: The dictatorship collapsed when the army withdrew its support. The new leaders created the Second Spanish Republic. • The Second Spanish Republic took away a lot of the power held by the nobles and the Catholic Church. • The conservatives supported a fierce fascist party called La Falange.
• The Frente Popular (popular front) won the 1936 elections.• The Falangists rose and the Spanish Civil War began.• Germany and Italy provided great military aid to Franco. Russia supported the Republic. The US, Great Britain and France also sent aid to the defenders of the Republic.• 1939: General Francisco Franco defeats the international Brigades and becomes the Fascist leader of Spain.
H I T L E R ’S G E R M A NY• The Weimar Republic signed the Treaty of Versailles, angering the German people.• Adolf Hitler rises to power through the use of ‘The Big Lie’. Hitler begins as a member of the Beer Hall Putsch rebellion in Munich.• The National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi) is anti-semitic, anti-communist and extremely nationalistic.• 1932: The Nazi party wins 230 seats in the Reichstag. By the end of the year they handled most of the seats in the Reichstag.• Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor in January, 1933.• After the Reichstag is mysteriously set on fire, Hitler blames the communists for the attack and gains ‘special powers’
• 1933: Adolf Hitler announces his intention to arm Germany and removed Germany of the league of nations.• March 1936: Hitler marches into the Rhineland.• October 1936: The Berlin-Rome Axis is formed.• Japan and Germany sign the anti-comitern pact. Italy would later sign this pact.• 1938: Austria is annexed by admission of Nazi officials in its cabinet.• The Austrian chancellor had agreed a union with Germany, but decided to back down –Germany took over by force as a response.
• Having Austria not only meant greater power and control of Central Europe, but it also meant having geographical proximity to Italy.• Czechoslovakia was Hitler’s next target.• Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland region (the outer rim) was populated by a German majority who wanted to be annexed to the German nation.• Czechoslovakia’s branch of the Nazi party performed violent riots which resulted in the country declaring martial law.• Hitler used this as an excuse to invade Czechoslovakia.
• September 29, 1938: The Munich Conference takes place. Hitler meets Neville Chamberlain (G.B. Prime Minister) and Edouard Daladier (France. Premier); Mussolini is present.• Chamberlain and Daladier accept Hitler’s demand for the Sudetenland.• Nations avoided conflict and abandoned Czechoslovakia at the mercy of Adolf Hitler’s army.• March 1939: Hitler invades Czechoslovakia and wipes it off the European Map.• Spring 1939: Germany invades Lithuania. Takes over Memel.• April 1939: Italy invaded Albania.• The league of Nations did nothing.
PRE PARING FOR WAR• The invasion of Czechoslovakia sent a message that the rest of Europe could no longer ignore.• Chamberlain issued orders to accelarate militarization of England and had a drafting order quickly passed by parliament.• Great Britain and France agreed to join forces in protecting Poland, which was a likely target for the Rome-Berlin Axis.
STALIN’S RUSSIA• France and Great Britain seeked the help of the Soviet Union. Russian leaders did not trust western nations. The Soviet Union had not been involved in any of the major decisions of the League of Nations.• The Soviets required that their deal with France and Great Britain guaranteed the independence of Poland, Finland and the Baltic nations of Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia. The Soviet union seeked military alliances with these nations.• Baltic states rejected the idea. It gave right of passage to Soviet Armies.• This dispute made the alliance with Russia very slow.
• August 1939: Stalin had been simultaneously dealing with France and Great Britan, as well as with the axis. Stalin and Hitler sign the German-Soviet nonaggression pact.• Both Germany and The Soviet Union had secretly divided Europe. Germany was to keep Western Poland. Russia would keep easter Polad and the Baltic countries.
• D anzi g: H i tl er wanted control of the port city of Danzig (Gdansk). Danzig was ‘protected’ by the League of Nations.• Both Germany and Poland shared the right to use the port.• The strip of land that provided access to the port once belonged to Prussia.• This land was given to Poland during the Treaty of Versailles, in order to provide Poland with a access port to the baltic.• By 1937 the Nazi party in the city of Danzig, which had a large German population.• September 1, 1939. Hitler declares Danzig part of the German Reich and, simultaneously, attacks Poland.• France and Great Britain stand by their promise.• World War II begins.
T he B li tzk r i eg• The Blitzkrieg was the new attack tactic. It consisted of a quick and strong strike. Poland surrendered after a month.• The lack of action on the western front made people believe the dillusion that the war was a ‘phony war’.• The Soviets at this point decided to honor the Soviet- German agreement, and attacked East Poland. Once again, Poland disappeared from the map.• The Soviets invaded Finland and were expelled from the League of Nations.• Norway and Denmark fall due to the aid of collaborators like Vidkun Quisling.• With this Hitler gained access to the atlantic ocean and had a perfect place to keep submarines.
WINSTON CHURCHILL• May 1940, Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister. Churchill was one of the few politicians who opposed the appeasement.
• May 10, 1940: The German army invades the low countries: Luxenbourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. By the end of May all three countries surrendered.• Dunkerque (Dunkirk): Invasion at the Netherland-France border.• June 1940: Germany attacks France. Italy declares war on France as well. The French fight an impossible battle and lose.• Philip Petain takes dictatorship over France and surrenders to Hitler.
THE ATLANTIC CHARTE R • August 1941: President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill meet a draft the Atlantic charter, which states that the US and GB: • Do not seek territorial gain. • Would not allow territorial change without the approval of the people involved. • Respected the rights of people to choose their own governments. • All nations have equal rights to trade and raw materials. • Wanted nations to cooperate to ensure a decent economic welfare. • Believed all people have the right to security from want and fear. • Freedom of the seas should be guaranteed. • Creation of an international organization
UP D A T E• By the fall of 1940, Germany had all of Western Europe under it’s control.• Italy and Germany controlled the western mediterranea coastline.• Great Britain had Gibraltar (southern coast of Spain); Malta, Cyprus and Alexandria (Egypt).• The Allies have victories in the Balkans and also managed to drive Rommel’s forces back to Tunisia; The British defeated Italy in Greece.• The Germans also had victories in the Balkans, particularly near Russia. It was clear for Stalin that Hitler had intentions there.
• Japan captures islands of the coast of French Indochina. (blocking the British route between Hong Kong and Singapore).• Japanese forced France to give control of the French Indochina.• The U.S. protested, sent aid to Chinese nationalists and set punitive taxesin oil and iron.• Only the Philippines and Hawaii stood in the way of Japan’s control.• December 7, 1941: Japanese launch a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.• December 8, 1941, Both the US and Great Britain declare war on Japan.
D i e E n d l ösu n g und D i e J u d en fr a g e• The Final Solution is Hitler’s open strategy of the elimination of all Jewish people.• This project was led by Hemrich Himmler, head of the Shutzstaffel (SS)• By 1942, the Wannsee Conference made an official extermination plan.
January, 1942: 26 Nations meet in Washington DC and agree to use all resources available to stop the Axis; Not sign separate treaties and follow the Atlantic charter.Battle of Stalingrad: Hitler’s army is stuck fighting Russian armies. Six bloody months in whi Russians do not give up and force the Germans back. A Soviet counterstrike would follow.February 1943, German forces, trapped in Stalingrad by the Soviets, surrender.1942: General Dwight Eisenhower and General Bernard Montgomery trap Rommel’s forces in Africa. May 1943, axis forces surrender in Africa. North Africa goes entirely to allied control.
• Summer 1943: Allied forces take Sicily, then invaded the Italian mainland. Mussolini resigns. Pietro Badoglio rises as Prime Minister and abolishes the fascist party.• June 1943: The allies defeat the Japanese in the Battle of Midway.• Operation Overlord is prepared and in June 6, 1944, D-Day occurs: The Allies land in the shores of Normandy (France).• August 25, 1944: Allies enter Paris.• Soviets intensified the counterattack and took Estonia, Lithuania, Finland, Latvia, Romania and Bulgaria.• Spring 1945: German defenses finally crumble.