Roman empire


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Roman empire

  1. 1. The Roman Empire
  2. 2. The Gracchi <ul><li>Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus tried to reform the republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius was elected Tribune in 133 BCE. He limited the amount of land senators could use. </li></ul><ul><li>He also confiscated some of their land. </li></ul>
  3. 3. You don't mess with the Senate <ul><li>Tiberius also suggested moving the landless citizens to work on the confiscated lands from the senators. </li></ul><ul><li>A mob of angry senators clubbed Tiberius to death. (ouch). </li></ul>
  4. 4. You don't mess with the senate, part 2 <ul><li>Gaius was elected Tribune in 123 BCE and tried to introduce measures such as using public funds to provide food and grain for the poor of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaius too, was murdered by the senate. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Marius <ul><li>Marius, a consul, reformed the Roman army. (107 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Marius removed the land requirement on the military, signing up any citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers served for pay and booty. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marius <ul><li>Marius' idea made soldiers faithful to their commanders, rather than to Rome. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sulla <ul><li>Consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla was elected consul on 88 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>After his term expired, soldiers of Consul Marius prevented him from taking a post that would have given Sulla fame and honor. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In response, Sulla marched his army towards Rome, and civil war erupted. </li></ul><ul><li>82 to 79 BCE, Sulla ruled as dictator of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla retired peacefully and died in his villa. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gaius Julius Caesar <ul><li>Julius Caesar, a nephew of Marius became really popular. </li></ul><ul><li>He was an opponent of Sulla. </li></ul><ul><li>He had stayed away from Rome during Sulla's dictatorship, and returned after his death. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>He was very popular as a general, so much that he gained enemies in the Roman senate. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a great speaker, and his oratory and spending on the public gained him a following among the poor of Rome. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>To protect himself from the possible wrath of the senate, Caesar allied himself with Gaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus. They formed the First Triumvirate in 60 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>With the Triumvirate's support, Caesar became consul in 59 BCE. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Caesar obtained a command post in Gaul, where he became really popular as a general. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the next 10 years, he would bring Gaul to its knees. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Crassus died and Pompey became increasingly jealous of Caesar. </li></ul><ul><li>He became consul and convince the senate to order Caesar back to Rome without his army. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Caesar disobeyed his order and instead marched unto Rome with his army. </li></ul><ul><li>Once Caesar crossed the Rubicon (a river), he knew he would be declared a traitor. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Pompey and his followers ran away to Greece, leaving Rome alone to be conquered by Caesar. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar first dominated Italy and Spain, then defeated Pompey in Greece. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>From Greece, Caesar moved to Egypt, where he put Cleopatra, of the Ptolemy line in power as an ally. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>In 46 BCE, Caesar returned home to Rome, where he was declared 'Dictator for Life'. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar kept the republican structure, but he was king in everything but name. </li></ul><ul><li>He reduced the role of the Senate as an advisory body. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Caesar established the 365 1/4 calendar that was used in Europe until AD 1592. </li></ul><ul><li>The senate was less than thrilled with their new lame role, so a conspiracy was hatched to get rid of Caesar. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stabby, Stabby! <ul><li>On March 15, 44 BCE, Caesar was stabbed to death by members of the senate, including his two friends Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Brutus. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Second Triumvirate <ul><li>Caesar had chosen his nephew Octavian as heir. (18 yrs. of age at the time). Nevertheless, a struggle for the control of Rome erupted. </li></ul><ul><li>While Octavian was in Greece, Marc Anthony drove the conspirators away and took control in Rome. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Octavian, Marc Antony and Caesar's second in command, Lepidus, formed a second triumvirate in 43 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Anthony reconquered Asia Minor from Brutus and Cassius. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Octavian <ul><li>Antony and Octavian divided the Roman world. </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Antony joined with Cleopatra in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian forced Lepidus out of office and took power in Italy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Octavian convince the senate to declare war on Antony and Cleopatra. </li></ul><ul><li>In the battle of Actium (Greece), Octavian defeated their fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>Within a year, Octavian captured Alexandria. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Octavian was careful no to end like his uncle. </li></ul><ul><li>in 27 BCE, Octavian was named Augustus (revered one). </li></ul><ul><li>After that, he was known as Augustus Caesar. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Although Augustus never used the title Emperor, the Roman empire begins with him. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome expanded greatly during Augustus' Reign. </li></ul><ul><li>However, he was not able to expand past Germany, and in the battle of the Teutoburg Forest, three of his legions were defeated. </li></ul>