Islam part 3


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Islam part 3

  1. 1. Islam -Part III
  2. 2. Division <ul><li>The subject of Muhammed's successor and the interpretation of the Qur'an divided early muslims. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>When Muhammed died, an assembly of prominent muslims chose Abu Bakr, Muhammed's old friend to be his successor. </li></ul><ul><li>He spread the influence of Islam northwards. </li></ul><ul><li>His successor, 'Umar, kept the expansion. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>When Muslims expanded, they preferred a peaceful surrender than a long battle. </li></ul><ul><li>They tended to be more tolerant than other conquerors: Christians, Jews and some others could choose either to accept Islam or pay an annual tax, but were not usually forced to convert. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The division began when 'Umar's successor, 'Uthman, was killed for allegedly favoring his own clan. </li></ul><ul><li>'Uthman's cousin, Mu'awiya, accused 'Ali, the newly chosen Caliph (muslim ruler), of protecting the assassins. </li></ul><ul><li>The two sides (supporting Mu'awiya and the one supporting 'Ali went to war). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>'Ali was assassinated in 661 and Mu'awiya took over power. Those who accepted his rule became the 'followers of the Sunna' or, Sunnis. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis believe that the consensus of the muslim community determines religious and civil authority. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>'Ali's followers believed that only 'Ali's descendants should have the authority to interpret the Qur'an. </li></ul><ul><li>They are called the Shi'at 'Ali (The party of Ali), known as the Shi'ah. </li></ul><ul><li>This division stands today. 10% of the world's muslims are Shi'ah. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Later, there would be another rift, in the form of the Sufis. The Sufi are muslim mystics, who renounce material wealth and live austere lives. -The only reality is God, nothing else matters. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Advances <ul><li>Even though the muslim world was divided politically, it remained a strong, united civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs adopted the best in science and philosophy of Greece, Rome and Asia. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Muslim writers and scientists wrote encyclopedias and books on many subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>They had the best geographers and cartographers in the world. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>They perfected the astrolabe. </li></ul><ul><li>They learned paper making from the Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>They had extremely advanced medicine (in comparison to Europe at the time). </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Razi wrote of smallpox, surgery and measles long before they were identified. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Our Algebra comes from the word al-jabr, which is arabic for 'restoring'. </li></ul><ul><li>The system of numbers we used today is called 'arabic' because, even though it was developed by mathematicians from India,, it was the arabs who studied it and transmitted the system to the west. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How did it get to the west? <ul><li>The great developments of the muslim culture reached the west through: </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans who reached Cordoba and Toledo, in Spain. Both were conquered by Arabs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Crusades: The attempt of christian Europeans to conquer the Holy Land. </li></ul>