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Pricing based on Principles of Marketing Philip Kotler

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Chapter 11- slide 1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Pricing Strategies
Based on Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler
Gopal Thapa
Tribhuvan University
Chapter 11- slide 2
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Pricing Strategies
• New-Product Pricing Strategies
• Product Mix Pricing Strategies
• Price Adjustment Strategies
• Price Changes
Topic Outline
Chapter 11- slide 3
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
New-Product Pricing Strategies
• Market-skimming pricing
• Market-penetration pricing
Pricing Strategies
Chapter 11- slide 4
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
New-Product Pricing Strategies
Market-skimming pricing is a strategy with high
initial prices to “skim” revenue layers from the
market
• Product quality and image must support the
price
• Buyers must want the product at the price
• Costs of producing the product in small volume
should not cancel the advantage of higher prices
• Competitors should not be able to enter the
market easily
Chapter 11- slide 5
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
New-Product Pricing Strategies
Market-penetration pricing sets a low initial
price in order to penetrate the market
quickly and deeply to attract a large
number of buyers quickly to gain market
share
• Price sensitive market
• Inverse relationship of production and
distribution cost to sales growth
• Low prices must keep competition out of
the market
Pricing Strategies
Chapter 11- slide 6
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
Pricing Strategies

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Pricing

  • 1. Chapter 11- slide 1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Pricing Strategies Based on Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler Gopal Thapa Tribhuvan University
  • 2. Chapter 11- slide 2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Pricing Strategies • New-Product Pricing Strategies • Product Mix Pricing Strategies • Price Adjustment Strategies • Price Changes Topic Outline
  • 3. Chapter 11- slide 3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall New-Product Pricing Strategies • Market-skimming pricing • Market-penetration pricing Pricing Strategies
  • 4. Chapter 11- slide 4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall New-Product Pricing Strategies Market-skimming pricing is a strategy with high initial prices to “skim” revenue layers from the market • Product quality and image must support the price • Buyers must want the product at the price • Costs of producing the product in small volume should not cancel the advantage of higher prices • Competitors should not be able to enter the market easily
  • 5. Chapter 11- slide 5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall New-Product Pricing Strategies Market-penetration pricing sets a low initial price in order to penetrate the market quickly and deeply to attract a large number of buyers quickly to gain market share • Price sensitive market • Inverse relationship of production and distribution cost to sales growth • Low prices must keep competition out of the market Pricing Strategies
  • 6. Chapter 11- slide 6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Pricing Strategies
  • 7. Chapter 11- slide 7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Product Mix Pricing Strategies Product line pricing takes into account the cost differences between products in the line, customer evaluation of their features, and competitors’ prices Optional product pricing takes into account optional or accessory products along with the main product Pricing Strategies
  • 8. Chapter 11- slide 8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Product Mix Pricing Strategies Captive-product pricing involves products that must be used along with the main product • Two-part pricing involves breaking the price into: – Fixed fee – Variable usage fee Pricing Strategies
  • 9. Chapter 11- slide 9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Mix Pricing Strategies By-product pricing refers to products with little or no value produced as a result of the main product. Producers will seek little or no profit other than the cost to cover storage and delivery. Pricing Strategies
  • 10. Chapter 11- slide 10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Mix Pricing Strategies Product bundle pricing combines several products at a reduced price Pricing Strategies
  • 11. Chapter 11- slide 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies
  • 12. Chapter 11- slide 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Discount and allowance pricing reduces prices to reward customer responses such as paying early or promoting the product • Discounts • Allowances Pricing Strategies
  • 13. Chapter 11- slide 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Segmented pricing is used when a company sells a product at two or more prices even though the difference is not based on cost Pricing Strategies
  • 14. Chapter 11- slide 14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies To be effective: • Market must be segmentable • Segments must show different degrees of demand • Watching the market cannot exceed the extra revenue obtained from the price difference • Must be legal Segmented Pricing
  • 15. Chapter 11- slide 15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Psychological pricing occurs when sellers consider the psychology of prices and not simply the economics • Reference prices are prices that buyers carry in their minds and refer to when looking at a given product – Noting current prices – Remembering past prices – Assessing the buying situations Pricing Strategies
  • 16. Chapter 11- slide 16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Promotional pricing is when prices are temporarily priced below list price or cost to increase demand • Loss leaders • Special event pricing • Cash rebates • Low-interest financing • Longer warrantees • Free maintenance Pricing Strategies
  • 17. Chapter 11- slide 17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Risks of promotional pricing • Used too frequently, and copies by competitors can create “deal-prone” customers who will wait for promotions and avoid buying at regular price • Creates price wars Pricing Strategies
  • 18. Chapter 11- slide 18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Geographical pricing is used for customers in different parts of the country or the world • FOB pricing • Uniformed-delivery pricing • Zone pricing • Basing-point pricing • Freight-absorption pricing Pricing Strategies
  • 19. Chapter 11- slide 19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies • FOB (free on board) pricing means that the goods are delivered to the carrier and the title and responsibility passes to the customer • Uniformed delivery pricing means the company charges the same price plus freight to all customers, regardless of location Pricing Strategies
  • 20. Chapter 11- slide 20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies • Zone pricing means that the company sets up two or more zones where customers within a given zone pay a single total price • Basing point pricing means that a seller selects a given city as a “basing point” and charges all customers the freight cost associated from that city to the customer location, regardless of the city from which the goods are actually shipped Pricing Strategies
  • 21. Chapter 11- slide 21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies • Freight absorption pricing means the seller absorbs all or part of the actual freight charge as an incentive to attract business in competitive markets Pricing Strategies
  • 22. Chapter 11- slide 22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies Dynamic pricing is when prices are adjusted continually to meet the characteristics and needs of the individual customer and situations Pricing Strategies
  • 23. Chapter 11- slide 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price-Adjustment Strategies International pricing is when prices are set in a specific country based on country-specific factors • Economic conditions • Competitive conditions • Laws and regulations • Infrastructure • Company marketing objective Pricing Strategies
  • 24. Chapter 11- slide 24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Changes • Price cuts • Price increases Initiating Pricing Changes
  • 25. Chapter 11- slide 25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Changes Initiating Pricing Changes
  • 26. Chapter 11- slide 26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Changes Buyer Reactions to Pricing Changes
  • 27. Chapter 11- slide 27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Changes • Questions – Why did the competitor change the price? – Is the price cut permanent or temporary? – What is the effect on market share and profits? – Will competitors respond? Responding to Price Changes
  • 28. Chapter 11- slide 28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Price Changes • Solutions – Reduce price to match competition – Maintain price but raise the perceived value through communications – Improve quality and increase price – Launch a lower-price “fighting” brand Responding to Price Changes
  • 29. Chapter 11- slide 29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Public Policy and Pricing Price fixing: Sellers must set prices without talking to competitors Predatory pricing: Selling below cost with the intention of punishing a competitor or gaining higher long-term profits by putting competitors out of business Pricing Within Channel Levels
  • 30. Chapter 11- slide 30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Public Policy and Pricing Robinson Patman Act prevents unfair price discrimination by ensuring that the seller offer the same price terms to customers at a given level of trade Pricing Across Channel Levels
  • 31. Chapter 11- slide 31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Public Policy and Pricing Robinson Patman Act • Price discrimination is allowed: – If the seller can prove that costs differ when selling to different retailers – If the seller manufactures different qualities of the same product for different retailers Pricing Across Channel Levels
  • 32. Chapter 11- slide 32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Public Policy and Pricing Retail (resale) price maintenance is when a manufacturer requires a dealer to charge a specific retail price for its products Pricing Across Channel Levels
  • 33. Chapter 11- slide 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Public Policy and Pricing Deceptive pricing occurs when a seller states prices or price savings that mislead consumers or are not actually available to consumers • Scanner fraud failure of the seller to enter current or sale prices into the computer system • Price confusion results when firms employ pricing methods that make it difficult for consumers to understand what price they are really paying Pricing Across Channel Levels