Project GLOBE (Global Leadership andOrganizational Behavior Effectiveness)An ongoing research effort, which was conducted by Robert J.House and his team, study of differences in cultural patternsThe team has collected information from nearly 20,000 middle managers in 61 cultures who were asked to describe both the cultural practices and the cultural values in their culturesThe GLOBE research program builds on Hofstede’s work and on that of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck
9 dimensions are used to describe the dominantpatterns of a culture: Power distance Uncertainty avoidance In-group collectivism based on the work of Institutional collectivism Hofstede Gender egalitarianism Assertiveness Performance orientation Future orientation based on the work of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Humane orientation.
1. Power distance Definition: Refers to the degree to which cultures believe that social and political power should be distributed disproportionately, shared equally and concentrated among a few top decision makers. High power-distance cultures Low power-distance cultures (In France, Argentina, Nigeria) (In Australia, Denmark, Albania) •It’s very appropriate to have •It’s important to minimize or differences among social classes eliminate social class differences •Upward mobility ought to be •Upward mobility is high limited •The decisions of the powerful •Questioning and challenging the authorities should be met with decisions of authorities is each unchallenged acceptance person’s duty and responsibility
2.Uncertainty AvoidanceDefinition: The extent to whichcultures feel threatenedby the unpredictability offuture and establish morestructure in the form ofrules, regulations, ritualsand mandatory practices.
High uncertainty avoidance cultures Low uncertainty avoidance cultures(in Sweden, Switzerland and China) (in Russia, Bolivia and South Korea)•Prefer to avoid uncertainty as cultural •Have a higher tolerance for uncertaintyvalue, desire or demand consensus and ambiguityabout societal goals•Do not tolerate dissent or allow •Are much more comfortable with thedeviation in the behaviors of cultural unpredictability of lifemembers=>Prefer to develop many ways to => Rules and regulations are kept to acontrol people’s social behaviors: minimum, dissent is tolerated andFormal regulations, informal rules about deviance is regarded as peculiar oracceptable conduct, elaborate rituals eccentric rather than as threatening.and religious practices.
3.In-Group Collectivism express pride, loyaltyReflects the degree to which peopleand solidarity with their family or similar group.High in-group collectivism cultures Low in-group collectivism cultures(in Georgia, Morocco and Philippines) (in New Zealand, Finland and the Netherlands)•Individuals take pride in and define •The independence and autonomy oftheir sense of self in term of their the individual is an overriding feature.family or similar group•People’s identities within •People’s identities are separate fromcollectivistic cultures are closely tied those of the group.to their ingroups•Strong Group membership are •Group membership is regarded asrequired and desired voluntary and allegiance with one’s ingroup is not expected to be strong.
4.Institutional collectivismConcerned with the basis upon which decisions are made and the groups resources are allocated.Represents the degree to which cultures support, value, and prefer to distribute rewards based on group versus individual interest
High institutional collectivism cultures Low institutional collectivism cultures(in Qatar and Japan) (in Italy and Greece)Decisions that juxtapose the benefits to Decisions are based on what is good forthe group with the benefits to the the individual, with little regard for theindividual nearly base the decision on group.what is best for the group=> Group activities are typically preferred => The person is the primary source ofto individual actions. motivation, individual autonomy and actions tend to dominate.
5.Gender Egalitarianism According to Hofstede, masculinity-femininity dimension have been separated into :A belief in equality between women and menA preference for forcefull assertiveness Gender Egalitarianism Definition: The extent to which a culture minimizes differences ingender expectations for men vs women
Cultures at the midpoint of the Cultures low in gender egalitarianismgender egalitarianism(In Hungary and Poland ) (In Austria anh Egypt)Gender quality is preferred Engage in unequal treatment of men and women•Men and women should be treated in •The differences between men and womenthe same way require dissimilar expectations and treatment•Unequal treatment solely because ofone’s biological sex or gender •View the divergence in gender roles andconstitutes discrimination and should expectations as normal and natural.not occur.
6.AssertivenessRequires every culture to find a solution, pertains to the cultural preference for : Dominance and forcefulness Nurturance and social supportDescribes the extent to which people value and prefer: Tough aggressiveness Tender non-aggressiveness
High-context culturesValue strength, success andtaking the initiative•Competition is good, winning isdesirable and rewards should goto those who are victorious.•People are encouragedto be competitive, visible andsuccessful•Representative cultures:Germany and Hong Kong
Low-contextculturesValue modesty, tenderness,warm relationships andcooperation• Competition is bad, a win-loseorientation is unacceptable andrewards should be shared amongall.• Nurturance and social supportare important, a sense of solidarity.• Friendliness is much moreimportant than brilliance• Typical cultures: Kuwait andThailand
7.Performanceorientation Definition The degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for their accomplishments
The ways people are regarded as superior to othersBecause of who they are: the “correct” family background, age, gender, birth order, school.Based on personal achievements: the amount of education, success in business, physical strength, occupation…
High performance- oriented cultures(In Canada and Singapore)Status is based on what aperson has accomplished.•Schooling and education arecritical to one’s success•People are expected todemonstrate some initiative inwork-related tasks andexpectations are high.
Low performance-oriented cultures Low performance-(In Colombia and Guatemala) oriented culturesStatus is based on who youare.Attending the “right” school isimportant, as are familyconnections, seniority, loyaltyand tradition.
People‘s preferred relationship to the natural and spirit worldAs Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck suggested:Some cultures view nature as something to be conquered and controlled.Others view themselves as subjected to nature.
High performance - oriented cultures• Assert their dominance overnature and try to shape theworld to fit their needs•Getting the job done is far moreimportant than maintainingeffective relationships•What really matters is the task-related results that show whatsomeone has accomplished•People value competitiveness,assertiveness and achievement.
Low performance-oriented cultures•People feel more controlledby nature and want to livein harmony with the naturaland spiritual environment.•Maintaining effectiverelationships is moreimportant than is gettingthe job done.•What matters most arecooperation, integrity andloyalty.
Edward Hall’s conceptHigh performance - oriented cultures Low performance-oriented culturesTend to be low-context Tend to be high-context•Prefer to use messages that are •Use high-context messages moreclear, explicit and direct often•Have a monochronic approach to •Their intent is to avoid directtime. confrontations and maintainTime is valuable and limited, events harmony in their relationshipsare sequential and punctuality ispreferred.
8.Future orientationDefinition: the extent to which a culture plans for forthcoming eventsIt describes the degree to which cultures advocate long-term planningDeferred gratification or the deeply felt satisfaction that comes from experiencing the simple pleasures of the present moment
Cultures are high in future Cultures are low in future orientation orientation (Iran, Hong Kong) (Portugal, Venezuela)•Believe that current pleasures are •Like to live “in the moment” andless important than future benefits. are less constrained by doubts about the past or concerns about=> Believe in planning, self-control the futureand activities that have a delayedimpact =>Prefer to enjoy fully the experiences currently under way.•Want to save money and otherresources •Are more likely to spend now rather than save for later=>Believe in strategic planning,value economic success => View material and spiritual achievements as opposing goals and prefer the latter.
9.Humane orientationRefers to the extent to which cultures encourage and reward their members for being benevolent and compassionate toward others or are concerned with self- gratificationCultures high in humane Cultures low in humaneorientation orientation•Value expressions of kindness, Value comfort, pleasure,generosity, caring and compassion. satisfaction, personal enjoyment•People who express social support for •Expected to confront personalothers are admired problems by themselves•Representative cultures: Zambia and •Concerned primarlty with individualIndonesia gratification Representative cultures: Spain and white Africa
Comparing the GLOBE dimensionsCultural patterns represent a universal social choice, made by each culture and learnt from the family and throughout the social institutions : In the degree children are encouraged to have their own desires and motivations In the solidarity and unity expected in the family Throughout the messages that are conveyedSee table 5.4: Information on each of the GLOBE practices for 61 countriesTable 5.5: Information on GLOBE values
The GLOBE research helps to clarify our understanding ofcultural patterns in 2 ways: 1.It separates cultural practices from cultural values (the ways people typically (what people regard as behave in everyday important and believe is communication) ideal) Cultural practices and cultural values are not always similar. Eg: In Spain, power distance is very high but the ideal power distance is low In Nordic European cultures, institutional collectivism is high but
2. It helps to explain the complex nature of cultural patterns by: Providing updated information on a wide range of cultures Refining the distinctions that differentiate among cultures Revising and expanding the cultural dimensionEg: Whereas Japanese are extremely high in institutional collectivism, they are below the average for in-group collectivism
Cultural Taxonomies andIntercultural Competence
Cultural Taxonomies Cultures vary systematically in their choices about solutions to basic human problems The taxonomies :• Offer lenses through which cultural variations can be understood and appreciated• Help to describe the fundamental aspects of cultures• Provide mechanisms to understand all intercultural communication events.
Intercultural CompetenceIn any intercultural encounter, people may becommunicating from very different perceptions The competent intercultural communicator mustrecognize cultural variation in addressing basic humanissues will always be a factor in interculturalcommunication
The Taxonomies allow to use culture-specific knowledge to improve intercultural competence:Begin by seeking out information about the cultural patterns of those individuals you engage withStudy the patterns of your own culture.Requires only a willingness to reflect on your personal preferences.Consider your own preferences by juxtaposing them with the description of typical person from another culture.
Summary Three important taxonomies that can be used to describe cultural variation:Edward Hall placed cultures on a continuum from high to low contextGeert Hofstede described seven dimensions along which dominant patterns of a culture can be ordered:The GLOBE researchers identified nine dimensions of culture and distinguished between cultural practice and cultural value