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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION ▪ The art of teaching does not merely involve a simple transfer of knowledge from one to other. Instead, it is a complex process that facilitates and influences the process of learning. ▪ Quality of a teacher is estimated on how much the students understand from his/her teaching. The classrooms cannot be used as a learning platform for acquiring primary teaching skills. Training of medical teachers in specific teaching skills is a major challenge in medical education programs.
  3. 3. DEFINITION ▪ Allen, D.W (1966): Micro-teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time. ▪ Allen,D.W. and Eve,A.W. (1968): Micro-teaching is defined as a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behaviour and to practices teaching under controlled conditions. ▪ Bush,R.N (1968): Micro-teaching is a teacher education technique which allows teachers to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in a planned series of 5-10 minutes encounter with a small group of real students, often with an opportunity to observe the result on video-tape.
  4. 4. BASIC CONCEPTS ▪ Microteaching is a teacher training technique for learning teaching skills. It employs real teaching situation for developing skills and helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching. ▪ The Stanford technique involved the steps of “plan, teach, observe, re-plan, re- teach and re-observe” ▪ Effective student teaching should be the prime quality of a teacher. As an innovative method of equipping teachers to be effective, skills and practices of microteaching have been implemented.
  5. 5. MICRO-TEACHING IN INDIA ▪ Micro-Teaching was introduced in India in 1967 - D.D. Tiwari of Government Central Pedagogical Institute, Allahabad. ▪ In 1970, G.B. Shaw experimented with Micro-Teaching at M.S. University, Baroda. Then the Technical Teachers Training Institute, Madras introduced Micro-Teaching to train the technical teachers. ▪ In 1947, Dr. N.L. Dosajh used Micro-Teaching as a teaching device in Teachers Training Institute, Chandigarh. He also wrote a book namely: Modification of Teacher Behaviour through Micro- Teaching’. NCERT, SCERT, in the different states have been propagation this concept.
  6. 6. EFFICIENT TECHNIQUE AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING ▪ Microteaching can be practiced with a very small lesson or a single concept and a less number of students. ▪ The modern-day multimedia equipment such as audio–video recording devices has a key role in the learning process. ▪ microteaching helps in eliminating errors and builds stronger teaching skills for the beginners and senior teachers. Microteaching increases the self-confidence, improves the in-class teaching performances, and develops the classroom management skills.
  7. 7. FEATURES OF MICRO-TEACHING: ▪ 1. Micro-Element: ▪ Micro teaching reduces to complexities of the teaching situation in terms of students, duration of the lesson and subject matter to be taught so as to enable the trainee to concentrate on the training process. ▪ Training is also given in the mastery of only one skill at a time. One should master the components of the task of teaching before he attempts to perform effectively the complicated task of teaching at macro-level.
  8. 8. ▪ 2. Teaching Skills and Teaching Strategies: ▪ (i) Pre-Instructional Skill: ▪ This involve writing of instructional objectives, sequencing and organising knowledge to be presented in order to achieve specific objectives, appropriate content, proper organisation, selection of proper audio-visual aids etc ▪ ii) Instructional skills: ▪ Like skills of introducing a lesson, skills of explaining and illustrating, reinforcement, probing questions, reinforcing pupil participation, diagnosing pupil’s difficulties etc. ▪ (iii) Post-Instructional skills: ▪ Like skills of writing test items, interpreting pupils, performance in a test, planning remedial measures etc.
  9. 9. ▪ 3. The feed-back Element: ▪ In the present system of assessing the teaching competency of the trainees, feedback is given by the supervisor. ▪ (a) Oral feedback by the supervising teachers. ▪ (b) Observation schedules filled in by the peer group participating in the micro- lesson ▪ (c) Audio-tape recording is a source of accurate feedback. ▪ (d) Video-tape recording provides the most accurate and powerful source of feedback.
  10. 10. ▪ 4. Safe Practice Ground: ▪ A micro-teaching laboratory appears to possess all the inherent features of the classroom. ▪ 5. The Teaching Models: ▪ The trainees have many opportunities to study the desired patterns of behaviour through a tape or film of teaching models or a demonstration given by the supervisor.
  11. 11. PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING MICRO-TEACHING ▪ 1. Principle of One Skill at a Time: ▪ In Micro-Teaching, training of one skill is given till the person has acquired mastery over it. Then the second skill is taken up and so on. Thus, we find that Micro-Teaching is based on the principle of giving training of one skill at a time. ▪ 2. Principle of Limited Contents: ▪ Micro-Teaching, limited contents are taken up and the teacher is required to use those contents only. It helps the beginner teacher teach that limited material easily and confidently.
  12. 12. ▪ 3. Principle of Practice: ▪ Micro-Teaching is based on the sound principle of practice. Here lot of practice is given by taking up on is skill at a time. Practice makes a man perfect. It helps the pupil- teacher in becoming better and better. ▪ 4. Principle of Experimentation: ▪ The pupil-teacher and the supervisor conduct experiment on teaching skills under controlled conditions. Variables like time duration of the lesson, contents of the lesson to be taught, number of students sitting in the class etc., can be easily controlled.
  13. 13. 5. Principle of Immediate Feedback: ▪ The micro lesson lasts for four or five minutes only. Thereafter, feedback is provided to the pupil-teacher. It helps the pupil-teacher to know his drawbacks and improve them effectively without any delay. ▪ 6. Principle of Evaluation: ▪ In Micro-Teaching, each micro lesson is supervised by the supervisor or the peers. Drawbacks in teaching are pointed out and suggestion for improvement is given. Self-evaluation is also possible. Thus, evaluation ensures good learning by the pupil-teacher.
  14. 14. ▪ 7. Principle of Continuity: ▪ Learning of different skills of teaching is a continuous process in Micro-Teaching programme. The pupil-teacher is learning one skill at a time and learning continues till he has mastered the skill. For each skill, the principle of continuity is implied. It makes the teacher good and effective. ▪ 8. Principle of Individualised Training: ▪ In Micro-Teaching, each trainee is given training very thoroughly. There is individual attention by the supervisor. The drawbacks in teaching are pointed out, suggestions given one by one and thus improvement is brought about.
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTICS OF MICRO-TEACHING ▪ 1. It is a teacher training technique and not a method of classroom instruction. ▪ 2. It is micro in the sense that if scales down the complexities of real teaching. ▪ (a) Out of contents, a single concept is taken up at a time. ▪ (b) Only one skill at a time is practiced. ▪ (c) Size of the class is reduced and thus the number of students is just 5 to 7. ▪ (d) Duration of each micro lesson is 5 to 7 minutes.
  16. 16. ▪ 3. Feedback is provided immediately after the completion of the lesson. ▪ 4. The use of Video Tape and Closed Circuit Television makes the observation very objective. ▪ 5. It is highly individualized training device. ▪ 6. There is a high degree of control in practicing a skill when this technique is used. ▪ 7. Micro-Teaching is an analytic approach to training. ▪ Micro-Teaching involves actually teaching a real lesson to real pupils with none of the role-playing of earlier modelled teaching situations.
  17. 17. COMPONENTS OF MICRO-TEACHING ▪ (i) A teacher, ▪ (ii) The pupils (usually 4 or 5), ▪ (iii) A brief lesson, ▪ (iv)The objectives of the specific Micro-Teaching occasion, ▪ (v) Feedback by the supervisor, or by using audio tape recordings, video tape recordings and closed circuit television.
  18. 18. INVOLVES A PROGRAMME OF MT ▪ 1. A particular skill is defined to students in terms of specific teaching behaviours. ▪ 2. The teacher-educator can be given a demonstration lesson where the particular skill is employed. ▪ 3. The pupil-teacher then pre-decided model on a suitable topic relating to the particular skill which he proposes to practice.
  19. 19. ▪4. The pupil-teacher teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils; preferably of peer group is a simulated condition. ▪5. Feedback is provided immediately to the pupil-teacher by audiotape or video-tape recorder. ▪The observation schedule maintained by the college supervisor and peer group observers can provide useful information for the feedback session. This session is sometimes called ‘critique session. ”
  20. 20. ▪ 7. The revised lesson is re-taught to a different but comparable group of pupils. ▪ 8. The lesson is again observed and observations are noted in the performs. Feedback is again provided on the re-teach session. This step is called ‘re-feedback session’. ▪ 9. The plan, teach, feed-back, re-plan, re-teach and re-feedback sessions will constitute a single micro-teaching cycle. This cycle may be repeated till adequate level of skill acquisition takes place.
  21. 21. THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Microteaching in medical education ▪ The traditional medical teaching emphasizes on the transmission of factual knowledge and hence, the teachers are the main source of information. But, the conventional methods of medical teacher training are not adequate. So, the teaching objectives have now shifted to the student centered, measurable, achievable, relevant, and timely concept.
  22. 22. ▪Implementation of Microteaching in Medical Education ▪ There was an increase in interests toward introducing microteaching techniques in the Indian medical schools. This training technique provides medical teachers an excellent opportunity to improve their teaching skills. The Medical Council of India has also recommended training for medical teachers for their continued, efficient performance in that capacity at any age.
  23. 23. CORE SKILLS APPLICABLE IN CLINICAL TEACHING ▪ Lesson planning ▪ The content should be concise, appropriate, relevant, and could cover the specified duration. Presentation and explanation ▪ This involves the skills required to explain with clarity and proper understanding of the concepts. The components include teacher enthusiasm, creating readiness by a beginning statement or topic sentence, effective explanation, planned repetition, and concluding statements or key messages with summary of explanation.
  24. 24. Illustrating with examples Reinforcement ▪ This skill is meant for increasing the participation of the learners in the development of teaching process. Use of positive verbal and non-verbal cues would be key component for this skill. Stimulus variation ▪ Securing and sustaining the attention of the learner is imperative for a good teacher. The effective components of the skill are gestures, change in speech pattern, and change in interaction style.
  25. 25. Probing questions ▪It is important to allow and encourage the fellow trainees to ask structured questions and clarify doubts. Redirection, refocusing, and increasing critical awareness are significant components of this skill. Classroom management Using audio-visual aids
  26. 26. Core teaching skills ▪ The videodisc instructional package may have significant impact on trainee teachers’ performance in the demonstration of microteaching skills in the class. The skills required to think critically and effectively are the core part of a microteaching activity. ▪ constructive feedback from the colleagues also plays a critical role in improving the general teaching competence.
  27. 27. MAIN ASSUMPTION ▪ 1. Real teaching: Micro-teaching is real teaching. Although the teaching situation is a constructed one in the sense that teacher and students work together in a practice situation, nevertheless, bonfire teaching does take place. ▪ 2. Reducing complexities: Micro-teaching lessens the complexities of normal class-room teaching. Class size, scope of content, and time are all reduced. ▪ 3. Focus on training: Micro-teaching focuses on training for the accomplishment of specific tasks. These tasks may be the practice of techniques of teaching, the mastery of certain curricular materials, or the demonstration of teaching methods.
  28. 28. ▪ 4. Increased control of practice. The rituals of time, students, methods of feedback and supervision, and many other factors can be manipulated. As a result, a high degree of control can be built into the training programme. ▪ 5. Expanding knowledge of results: Immediately after teaching a brief micro- lesson, the trainee engages in a critique of his performance. To give him a maximum insight into his performance, several sources of feedback at his disposal.
  29. 29. FIVE R’s IN MICROTEACHING Recording Reviewing RespondingRefining Redoing
  30. 30. CREATION OF MICRO-TEACHING SETTING: ▪ In the Indian model of Micro-Teaching developed by NCERT : ▪ (a) Number of pupils: 5-10 ▪ (b) Type of pupils: Real pupils or preferably peers. ▪ (c) Type of supervisor: Teacher educators and peers. ▪ (d) Time duration of a micro lesson: 6 minutes. ▪ (e) Time duration of a Micro-Teaching cycle: 36 minutes.
  31. 31. PROCEDURE IN MICRO-TEACHING: ▪ 1. Defining the skill: A particular skill is defined to trainees in terms of teaching behaviours to provide the knowledge and awareness of teaching skills. ▪ 2. Demonstrating the skills: The specific skill is demonstrated by the experts or shown through video-tape or film to the teacher trainee. ▪ 3. Planning the lesson: The student teacher plans a short (micro) lesson with the help of his supervisor, in which he can practice a particular skill.
  32. 32. ▪ 4. Teaching the lesson: The pupil-teacher teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils (5-10). The lesson is observed by supervisor or peers or video-taped or audio-taped or televised at close circuit television (CCTV). ▪ 5. Discussion: The teaching is followed by discussion to provide the feedback to the trainee. ▪ 6. Re-planning: In the light of the discussion and suggestions the pupil-teacher re-plans the lesson in order to practice the small skill effectively.
  33. 33. ▪ 7. Re-teaching: The revised lesson is re-taught to another small group of students of same class for the same class duration to practice the small skill. ▪ 8. Re-discussion: The re-teaching is again followed by discussion, suggestions and encouraging the teaching performance. Thus the feedback is again provided to the trainee. ▪ 9. Repeating the cycle: The ‘teach re-teach’ cycle is repeated till desired level of skill is achieved.
  34. 34. MERITS OF MICRO-TEACHING ▪ 1. It is an effective feedback device for the modification of teacher’s behaviour. ▪ 2. It is highly individualized type to teacher training. ▪ 3. It is useful for developing teaching efficiency in pre-service and in-service teacher training programme. ▪ 4. It helps in systematic and objective observation by providing specific observation schedule. ▪ 5. It helps in acquiring various types of skills which ultimately form the basis of successful teaching.
  35. 35. ▪ 6. It reduces the complexities of normal class-room teaching such as size of class, time and problem of discipline. ▪ 7. It is a training device for improving teaching practice and to prepare effective teachers. ▪ 8. Teaching is a complicated type of activity. Micro-Teaching simplifies it so as to make it suitable for the beginner teachers. ▪ 9. It develops the feeling of confidence among the teachers. ▪ 10. It provides economy in mastering the teaching skills. The use of video-tape enables the trainee to analyse his own teaching performance.
  36. 36. ▪ 11. It can be done either in real class-room conditions or simulated conditions. ▪ 12. It focuses on training for the practice of instructional skills, mastery of certain curricular materials and practice of techniques of teaching. ▪ 13 It permits increased control and regulates teaching practice. ▪ 14. It enables the trainee to make progress in developing teaching skills at his own rating depending upon ability. ▪ 15. Trainees get satisfaction when they hear and see themselves through audio- video-tapes
  37. 37. DEMERITS OF MICRO-TEACHING ▪ 1. Through Micro-Teaching one trainee is trained at a time. ▪ 2. It is more time consuming as a trainee will take 35 minutes to practice one skill only. ▪ 3. It presents fragmented view of teaching. ▪ 4. The immediate feedback which is a must may not be feasible in all conditions. ▪ 5. Due to short lesson of 6 minutes, a trainee cannot get training in evaluation, diagnostic and remedial skills. ▪ 6. It cannot fit in Indian conditions and situations due to its short practice period which may create academic and administrative problems in the schools.
  38. 38. ▪ 7. It depresses the creativity of teachers. During teaching a teacher evolves something new but he has to stop as the micro lesson ends. ▪ 8. Micro-Teaching can be carried on successfully only in controlled environment but generally it is found classroom situations are flexible. ▪ 9. It wastes a lot of time of students. Each micro lesson goes on for 5 to 10 minutes where the main emphasis is on teaching technique, learning by students is almost ignored. ▪ 10. Micro-Teaching alone may not be sufficient. There is need of integrating it with other teaching techniques.
  40. 40. 1 Objectives are specified in behavioural terms Objectives are general and not specified in behavioural terms. 2 Class consists of small group of 5-10 students. Class consists of 40-60 students. 3 The teacher takes up one skill at a time The teacher practices several skills at a time. 4 Duration time for teaching is 5-10 minutes. The duration is 40-50 minutes. 5 There is immediate feed-back. Immediate feed-back is not available 6 Teaching is carried on under controlled situation. There is no control over situation. 7 Teaching is relatively simple. Teaching become complex. 8 The role of supervisor is specific and well defined to improve teaching. The role of the supervisor is vague. 9 Patterns of class room interaction can be studied objectively. Patterns of classroom interactions cannot be studied objectively. MICRO TEACHING TRADITIONAL TEACHING
  41. 41. CONCLUSION ▪ Microteaching works as a focused instrument which helps to practice essential teaching skills safely and effectively at any age. Learning is a change in behaviour, which is brought about by activity, training, or experiencing at any age. When the learner is more experienced, learning becomes more effective. ▪ The most important quality of the participants of microteaching sessions is the ability to give and receive constructive feedback with an open mind and achieves appropriate teaching-learning goals. In addition, it increases self-confidence of teacher in an atmosphere of friendliness and equanimity
  44. 44. NET REFERENCES      ▪JOURNEL REFERENCE  www.Bcg.perpectives   