Writing test


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Writing test

  1. 1. Testing the writing skills Presented by Group 8 <ul><li>Vũ Thị Loan </li></ul><ul><li>Lý Thị Kim Cương </li></ul><ul><li>Dương Vi Bảo </li></ul><ul><li>Kiều Thị Mỹ Hạnh </li></ul><ul><li>5. Le Thị Thanh Thảo </li></ul>
  2. 2. CONTENT <ul><li>The writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>II. Testing composition writing </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Ms. Loan </li></ul><ul><li>III. Setting the composition </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Ms. My Hanh </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Grading the composition </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Mr. Bao </li></ul><ul><li>V. Treatment of written errors </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Objective tests - Puntuation </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Ms. Kim Cuong </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Objective tests – Style and register </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Controlled writing </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Ms. Le Thao </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tests of writing skill Conceptual and judgement Grammatical and rhetorical
  4. 4. The writing skills <ul><li>Language use </li></ul>PURPOSES Judgement skills Mechanical skills Treatment of content Stylistic skills
  5. 5. <ul><li>Aspects of writing </li></ul>The form/types The subject and the format The actual audience Judgement
  6. 6. <ul><li>II. Testing composition writing </li></ul>Levels basic intermediate advanced Types Letter, postcard, diary entry, forms As basic + guide, instructions As intermediate + newspaper report, notes
  7. 7. <ul><li>Basic level </li></ul><ul><li>No confusing errors of grammar or vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of writing legible and readily intelligible </li></ul><ul><li>Able to produce simple unsophisticated sentences </li></ul>Criteria to evaluate writing performance
  8. 8. <ul><li>Intermediate level: </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate grammar, vocabulary and spelling, though possibly with some small mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting generally legible </li></ul><ul><li>Expression clear and appropriate, using a fair range of language … </li></ul>Criteria to evaluate writing performance
  9. 9. <ul><li>Advanced level </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely high standard of grammar, vocabulary and spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily legible handwriting, use language accurately and appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to produce organized, coherent writing … </li></ul>Criteria to evaluate writing performance
  10. 10. Considerations in designing writing tests <ul><li>Test takers must possess writing skills in their own language. </li></ul><ul><li>Test writers shouldn’t be ambitious and unrealistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic topics should be provided (with defined problem, real life, meaningful and purposeful situations). Composition titles should be communicative, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Time is preferable. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3. SETTING THE COMPOSITION <ul><li>presenting the students with a specific situation and context in which to write, a good topic not only provides the necessary and information required for writing but also determines the register and style to be used in the writing task. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, such composition tests have an excellent backwash effect on the teaching and learning preparatory to the examination. </li></ul><ul><li>But, constructing such compositions is difficult.( the writing of the rubrics ) </li></ul>If the description of the situation is too long , the text -> more of a reading comprehension test and no common basic for evaluation <ul><li>Exactly the right amount of context should be provided in simple language written in a concise and lucid manner . </li></ul>Sufficient information must be conveyed by the rubric in order to provide a realistic, helpful basic for the composition
  12. 12. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are many types of setting the composition such as: dialogue, tables containing information, notes,… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The following are provided as particular examples of situational compositions intended to be used in tests of writing: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1: Imagine that this is your diary showing some of your activities on certain days. First, fill in your activities for those days which have been left blank. Then, using the information in the diary, write a letter to a friend telling him or her how you are spending your time. Write about 100 words. The address is not necessary. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Monday Study! Tuesday Study! Wednesday Final exams Thursday Friday Saturday Shopping. Swimming lesson 3 p.m Sunday Picnic with family.
  13. 13. Type 2: Letter- writing Ex: 100wood Lane London NW2 1 st June Dear Jon, I wish to complain about the noise which has come from your home late every night this week. While I realize that you must practice your trumpet some time, I feel you ought to do it at a more suitable time. Ten o’clock in the evening is rather late to star playing. Even if you could play well, the noise would still be unbearable at that time. I hope that in future you will be a little more considerate of the feeling of others. Yours sincerely, W. Woody. Now write a reply to this letter. You do not play the trumpet but on two or three occasions recently you have played some trumpet music on your record player. You did not play the record loudly- certainly not as loudly as Mr. Woody’s television. You want to tell him this but you do not want to become enemies so you must reasonably polite in your letter. The amount of information to which the students must reply should be limited. If this is not done, scoring can become extremely difficult.
  14. 14. Type 3 : Information conveyed in the form of a simple graph or histogram: Ex : Use the chart together with the information below to give a brief survey of the causes of accidents on Link Road between 1977 and 1987 1977-78 : road not in great use 1978-79 :nearby road closed: road now in great use 1979-80 : bus stop moved 100 yards 1980-81:no changes 1981-82:sign: Beware animals 1982-83:no parking signs ( etc.) Provides a suitable stimulus for writing. But, suitable only for more advanced students .
  15. 15. Type 4: using pictures and diagrams - an excellent device for providing both a purpose and content for writing; not only providing sts with the basic material for their composition but also stimulating their imaginative powers. - serving as stimuli for descriptions of objects, people, places and processes as well as those involving the writing of directions, instructions, classifications, comparisons and narratives. Ex: the illustration of two aircraft can be used as a basic for fairly detailed comparison in a test. Boeing 747 length:70.51m light deck wing span:59.64m width of cabin:6.1m no. of passengers: 300- 500 maximum cruising speed:978km/h 4 turbojet engines Anglo- French Concorde length: 62.17m wing span:25.60m no. of passengers: 100-144 maximum cruising speed:2333km/h
  16. 16. - Purpose: to test students’ ability to describe shapes and linear forms , as none of them will have any knowledge of the technical terms required for reference to each picture. It is a researching test of students’ descriptive writing ability. -It is suitable only for fairly advanced students. Ex: The pictures below are arranged from the oldest to the most recent. Use them to comment on developments in traditional ao dai of Viet Nam Type 5: Descriptive writing
  17. 17. Scores are granted for <ul><li> What a student has written </li></ul><ul><li> What marker believes student meant by what student wrote </li></ul><ul><li> Handwriting and general appearance of what has been written </li></ul><ul><li> Previous knowledge of the student </li></ul>
  18. 18. Unreliability <ul><li> Different marker, same composition but different score range </li></ul><ul><li> Test/re-test (student do the same test twice  different outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li> Mark/ re-mark (score the same composition twice  different outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>However, composition is the best way of writing test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Its motivation to write. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> As long as scoring is more reliable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Essentials of a banding system. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How to score? <ul><li>Impression method (less reliable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need more markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhausting, need rests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analytic method (more reliable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to scheme of features carefully drawn up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level, more features to score, depending on needs of testees </li></ul></ul>Error-count method (not recommended) Scores are deducted from maximum score when errors found. Disastrous to purpose of writing composition: communication
  20. 20. Writing tests Subjective test Objective test Free writing Controlled writing
  21. 21. Objective test Mechanics Style Register Punctuation Spelling
  22. 22. Style Register Variation in a person’s writing ( level of formality, from casual to formal) The topic discussed Persons addressed The location… A speech variety used by a particular group of people Colloquialisms Slang Legal language The language used by educated writers of English Same occupation Same interest Restaurant: humorous, casual Seminar: analytic, formal Field of discourse Manner of discourse Mode of discourse Subject matter: wife, children, father, boss.. Colloquial, humorous, casual, formal.. Personal letters, biography,…
  23. 23. <ul><li>The weather has always been an important factor in people’s lives……. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of its effects on all aspects of farming. * </li></ul><ul><li>For it has considerable influence over farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Since farmers concern themselves with it. </li></ul><ul><li>As weather constitutes the dominant worry for farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>On account of its affecting farming affairs. </li></ul>Style <ul><li>Let’s go to the pub. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like to go to the pub? </li></ul><ul><li>I was wondering whether you might like to go down the pub. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Register Notes: - The use of correct register denotes the ability to write for a specific purpose with a specific audience in mind. - Confusion and embarrassment result from the use of inappropriate registers.
  25. 25. Register - Type 1 If possible, replace each underlined word with a much more suitable word. It has now been made out beyond any doubt whatsoever that the nicotine contained in tobacco smoke is poisonous. One minute drop of pure nicotine plunged into the bloodstream of a rat is sufficient to kill it. It has also been proved that the nicotine contained in tobacco smoke sends up the pulse rate and the blood pressure. made out (proved); plunged (injected); sends up (increases)
  26. 26. Register - Type 2 Word level Sentence level Match each word in List A with a word in List B List A List B dosh copper entrain police officer hospitalize money
  27. 27. Controlled Writing Advantages Disadvantages Control students’ freedom of expression in their written work Increase the reliability of the scoring Cause some inhibition for certain students
  28. 28. Types of Controlled Writing Type 1: Using the notes, write a similar paragraph Type 2: Using the notes, complete the sentences Type 3: Rewrite the paragraph Type 4: Form a paragraph from the finished sentences. Type 5: Finish incomplete sentences or ideas in any appropriate way Type 6: Write a sentence to precede the statement
  29. 29. Type 1 : Using the notes, write a similar paragraph Although dogs are only animals, they are very useful and help people a lot. For example, certain dogs help farmers to look after their sheep. Some dogs are useful for hunting and others help to secure people. Although – horses – animals, - useful – a lot. For example, - horses – people – cattle. Some horses – hunting – pull things.
  30. 30. Type 2 : Using the notes, complete the sentences. Pay careful attention to the verbs underlined and insert all missing words. The oblique line (/) are used to divide the notes into sections. Read the example carefully before you start. Example: Parachute jump from aeroplanes and balloons/be very popular sport/many parts of the world. Parachute jumping from aeroplanes and balloons is a be very popular sport in many parts of the world. Greatest height/from which parachute jump ever make / be over 31,000 meters./1960/doctor in United State Air Force/ jump from basket of balloon/and fall nearly 26,000 meters/before open parachute.
  31. 31. Type 3 : Rewrite the paragraph <ul><li>copying with minor alternations: tense/ person changes </li></ul><ul><li>changing the point of view: Write this story as seen by…. </li></ul><ul><li>changing the style or register: Write this story in the form of a humorous account,… </li></ul><ul><li>adding further information </li></ul>
  32. 32. Example for Type 3 A young man who refused to give his name dived into the river yesterday morning to save a twelve-year-old boy. The boy, who run away after being rescued, had been swimming in the river and had caught his foot between two concrete posts under the bridge. He shouted out for help. … . Test (i) Rewrite this story but imagine that you are actually watching everything that is happening. Begin: There is a small boy swimming…. Test (ii) Rewrite this story as told by (a) the young man who saved the boy and (b) the boy who was saved. Test (iii) Write this story as if you were giving evidence at a police station.
  33. 33. Type 4: Form a paragraph from the finished sentences using the joining words given. Each Olympic Games opens. An athlete appears. He holds a torch. It has been carrying from Mount Olympus in Greece. before (-ing) which who where Each Olympic Games opens. There is an athlete who holds a torch which has been carrying from Mount Olympus in Greece appears. - Leave the testees free to join the sentences in the way they consider appropriate. - Since such tests are very subjective and require a lot of time to score, it is better not to provide the testees with linkers but let them free to solve problem in their own way.
  34. 34. Type 5: Finish incomplete sentences or ideas in any appropriate way <ul><li>Read these sentences. Finish each one and then complete the story in your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: One day Hannah and Becky got up early to go……… </li></ul><ul><li>-> Phrase level -> elementary and intermediate level </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Read these sentences. Then write appropriate sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Students who do not know a lot of English can take several steps to prepare for their study in a British university. For example,………. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Sentence level -> upper-intermediate level </li></ul> Enhance the ability to use exemplification, contrast, addition, cause, result, purpose, conclusion and summary
  35. 35. Type 6: Write a sentence correspondence to the given statement <ul><li>……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, it’s impossible to open the windows. </li></ul><ul><li>2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there is no reason to be pessimistic. </li></ul>It was very hot in a small room. There was only one fan in the room, but it was broken. 1. There was a strange-looking creature outside our door. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… .. Do you like it? There were also several cats and dogs.  Demonstrate an awareness of the communicative nature of language while still retaining a large degree of freedom of response.
  36. 36. TREATMENT OF WRITTEN ERRORS Native speakers (not teacher) scoring written work by its degree of intelligibility rather than by the errors. Native speaking teachers evaluating written work by the number and types of errors. Non-native speaking teachers penalizing students for what they consider &quot;basic errors” (e.g.: “ He go”)
  37. 37. <ul><li>Frequently, the student’s performance-and success in accomplishing the task-may be masked by errors and a tired marker may fail to make the necessary effort to respond to the writing as a mean of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>An important distinction (between local and global errors), which provides criteria for determining the communicative importance of errors, has been further developed recently to apply to the marking of free writing. </li></ul>TREATMENT OF WRITTEN ERRORS
  38. 38. TREATMENT OF WRITTEN ERRORS Local errors Global errors misuse of articles omission of prepositions lack of subject and verb agreement incorrect position of adverbs cause only minor trouble and confusion in a particular clause or sentence without hindering the reader’s comprehension of the sentence misuse of connectives the omission, misuse and unnecessary insertion of relative pronouns involve the overall structure of a sentence and result in misunderstanding or even failure to understand the message which is being conveyed
  39. 39. <ul><li>- In most normal writing situations, we can only assess what a student writes and not what he or she wants to write . Pictures were recently used to show how L2 learners (i.e. less fluent learners) used avoidance strategies or reduction strategies avoiding an actual topic. L1 learners (more fluent L2 learners) tended to use paraphrase strategies or achievement strategies . </li></ul><ul><li>-The test writer’s attitude to error gravity and approach to treating errors in marking free writing will vary according to the students 'level of attainment. </li></ul>TREATMENT OF WRITTEN ERRORS
  40. 40. OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS PUNCTUATION <ul><li>TYPE 1 : is very popular and is used to cover a wide range of punctuation marks. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : In the following passage there is no punctuation. Write out the passage, putting in all the punctuation and capital letters. </li></ul><ul><li>lend me your pen please peter asked </li></ul><ul><li>don’t worry i said you can keep it as long as you want. </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWER: </li></ul><ul><li>“ L end me your pen , please ,” P eter asked. </li></ul><ul><li>“ D on’t worry ,” I said. “ You can keep it as long as you want. ” </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>TYPE 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Put the correct punctuation mark in each box. </li></ul><ul><li> May I use your telephone?  he asked </li></ul><ul><li> No, he hasn  t yet  Henry replied. </li></ul><ul><li> How strange  I answered.  I’m sure he wants you to go to his party.  </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWER: </li></ul><ul><li>“ May I use your telephone? ” he asked. </li></ul><ul><li>“ No, he hasn ’ t yet ,” Henry replied. </li></ul><ul><li>“ How strange !” I answered. “ I’m sure he wants you to go to his party. ” </li></ul>OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS PUNCTUATION
  42. 42. <ul><li>TYPE 3 . A greater degree of objectivity can be obtained by using the multiple-choice technique, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Put a circle round the letter (A, B, C, or D) of the correctly punctuated sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Tom asked me if I was going to the meeting? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Tom asked me, if I was going to the meeting? </li></ul><ul><li>C. Tom asked me ,“If I going to the meeting?” </li></ul><ul><li>D. Tom asked me if I was going to the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWER: D </li></ul>OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS PUNCTUATION
  43. 43. <ul><li>TYPE 1 : Dictation </li></ul><ul><li>Dictation of long prose passages is still regarded as an essential method of testing spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE 2 : Multiple-choice items </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice items contain five options, four of which are spelt correctly. The students are required to select the word which is incorrectly spelt, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>1.a. thief b. belief c. seize d. celling e. decieve </li></ul><ul><li>2.a. illegal b. generally c. summary d. beggar e. necessary </li></ul>OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS SPELLING
  44. 44. <ul><li>TYPE 3 : Completion items </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient clues for testees to complete the words </li></ul><ul><li>Write one or more letters in each of the spaces in the following words. (The definitions will help you to recognize the correct word.) </li></ul><ul><li>1. om s n : something left out </li></ul><ul><li>2. o u ing : happening, taking place </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWER: 1. omission </li></ul><ul><li>2. occurring </li></ul>OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS SPELLING
  45. 45. <ul><li>Type 3: Completion items </li></ul><ul><li>Notes : </li></ul><ul><li> Provide a context for the word (in addition to giving a synonym or definition). </li></ul><ul><li>1.I doubt if anyone ever prof ed (=gained) from that business deal. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Don’t worry; my dog will go into the water and retr ve (=bring back) your ball. </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWER: 1. profit </li></ul><ul><li>2. retrieve </li></ul><ul><li>Use underscores in stead of empty blank -> make sure testees know how many letters they need to complete. </li></ul><ul><li>1. om_ _s_ _ n : something left out (omission) </li></ul><ul><li>2. o_ _ u_ _ ing : happening, taking place (occurring) </li></ul>OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS SPELLING
  46. 46. <ul><li>TYPE 4 : Error- recognition items </li></ul><ul><li>In these items the students are required to identify (according to its letter) the part of the sentence in which a word has been misspelt. </li></ul><ul><li>A B C </li></ul><ul><li>1. The dissatisfied woman/ refused to admit / that there was </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>sufficent /coffee for everyone </li></ul><ul><li>A B </li></ul><ul><li>2. Don’t be decieved/ by the new procedure:/ it hardly </li></ul><ul><li>C D </li></ul><ul><li>differs from/ the old corrupt system. </li></ul>OBJECTIVE TESTS: MECHANICS SPELLING
  47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>- Match the language use tasks with language test tasks </li></ul><ul><li>- Construct clear instructions followed by at least one example </li></ul><ul><li>- Carefully choose the appropriate registers not to confuse testees </li></ul><ul><li>- Choose objective or subjective test correspondence to the testees’ level, stage, and the purpose of the test itself </li></ul><ul><li>- Set up a clear and detail criteria for the subjective tests </li></ul><ul><li>- In a certain level, determine which criteria are more important than others </li></ul>