The lexical approach

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  • The lexical approach

    1. 1. The Lexical Approach Michael Lewis, 1993<br /><ul><li>Group’s members:</li></ul>Le Thi Thanh Thao<br />Nguyen Thi Ngoc Anh<br />Nguyen Thi Thanh Hau<br />Ly Thi Kim Cuong<br />
    2. 2. The Lexical Approach Michael Lewis, 1993<br />What is “The Lexical Approach”?<br />Types of Lexis<br />Principles of LA<br />Considerations on LA<br />Procedure<br />Implications<br />Recommendation<br />Conclusion<br />
    3. 3. Lexical Approach<br />I. What is “The Lexical Approach”?<br />Concentrating on developing learners’ proficiency with lexis, or words and word combinations.<br />Reflecting a belief in the centrality of the lexis to<br /> - language structures<br /> - language use<br /> - multiword lexical units or “chunks”<br />
    4. 4. Lexical Approach<br />II. Types of Lexis<br />1 “Lexical chunk” are groups of words that can be found together in language<br /><ul><li>Example: "in my opinion," "to make a long story short,” “by the way,” “at the end of the day,” “Do you mind if I…” “That will never happen to me”</li></ul>2. Collocation refers to the regular occurrence together of words<br /><ul><li>Example collocations of verbs with nouns:</li></ul>Do my hair/ the cooking/ the laundry<br /> Make my bed/ a promise/ coffee/ a meal<br />
    5. 5. Lexical Approach<br />II. Types of Lexis (Cont) <br />3. Idioms: dead drunk, cost the earth, keep your feet on the ground<br />4. Similes: as old as the hills, as still as dead, as hungry as a wolf, as easy as A.B.C<br />5. Connectives: finally, to conclude, whereas, meanwhile, consequently<br />6. A conversational gambit is an opening used to start a conversation with someone : Guess what! Tell you what, Hello, how are you?<br />…<br />
    6. 6. Lexical Approach<br />III. Principles of LA<br />Language = Grammar + Vocabulary<br />Observe – Hypothesis – Experiment Circle (Present – Practise - Produce)<br />Gramaticalized lexis--not lexicalized grammar<br />Holistic - not atomistic<br />Lexicon-is-prime<br />
    7. 7. IV. Considerations on designing LA class<br />Objectives<br />Syllabus<br />Roles of teachers <br />Roles of learners<br />Materials <br />
    8. 8. Considerations on designing LA class<br />Objectives<br /><ul><li>To realize a syllabus and accompanying materials based on lexical rather than grammatical principles.
    9. 9. To cover the most frequent words together with their patterns and uses.</li></li></ul><li>2. Syllabus<br />Subsumes a structural syllabus<br />Indicates how the structures which make up syllabus should be exemplified. <br />Specify the basic meanings of English: the most common, most important and most basic meanings<br />Common topics and related tasks are the backbone.<br />Considerations on designing LA class<br />
    10. 10. Considerations on designing LA class<br />3. The teacher’s roles<br />Teacher’s talk is the major source of learner’s input<br />Organizing the technological system, providing scaffolding to help learners<br />The teacher methodology:<br />Task<br />Planning <br />Report<br />
    11. 11. Considerations on designing LA class<br />4. The learner’s roles<br />Replace the idea: the teacher is “ the knower”  the learner is “the discoverer”<br />Data analyst<br />
    12. 12. Considerations on designing LA class<br /> 5. Materials<br />TYPE 1<br />Course <br />packages<br />TYPE 2<br />Collection of <br />vocabulary<br />teaching <br />activities<br />TYPE 3<br />“print-out” <br />version of <br />computer<br /> corpora<br />in text format<br />TYPE 4<br />Computer <br />concordance <br />Programs<br />
    13. 13. Concordancers and Corpora<br />Corpus : a collection of examples of texts/utterances of a language<br />Concordancer : computer software which analyses corpora. See : <br />http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx<br />http://sara.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/lookup.html<br />
    14. 14. V. Procedure<br /><ul><li>Procedural sequences vary depending on which of the employed materials and activities.
    15. 15. Classroom procedures usually include the use of activities:</li></ul>-> draw Ss’ attention to lexical collocations<br /> -> enhance Ss’ retention and use of collocations<br />
    16. 16. Classroom activities<br /><ul><li>Listening and Reading intensively and extensively.
    17. 17. Repetition and recycling of activities.
    18. 18. Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context.
    19. 19. Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations.
    20. 20. Working with dictionaries and other reference tools. </li></li></ul><li>As a suggestion of Woolard (2000):<br /><ul><li>Reexamine the course books for collocations and adding exercises.
    21. 21. Develop activities that Ss themselves can discover collocations (in and outside of the classroom)</li></ul>V. Procedure<br />
    22. 22. V. Procedure<br />Another suggestion from Hill (2000):<br /> Classroom procedures involve:<br /> a) teaching individual collocations<br /> b) making Ss aware of collocations<br /> c) extending the already-known of Ss by adding collocation restrictions to known vocabulary<br /> d) storing collocations through encouraging Ss to keep a lexical notebook.<br />
    23. 23. VI. Implications<br />Provide input: text and discourse<br />Provide activities  ask sts to work actively on the chunks<br />Give sts chance for practicing of those chunk productively<br />Repeat and recycle activities with those expressions<br />
    24. 24. VII . Recommendations<br />Important sources<br /><ul><li>The COBUILB Bank of English Corpus
    25. 25. The Cambridge International Corpus
    26. 26. The British National Corpus</li></ul>Use corpora but be corpus-based, not corpus-bound<br />Concentrate on items - no direct translational equivalence <br />Text and discourse, rather than sentence-based<br />LA is not the lexical syllabus<br />
    27. 27. VIII . Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Refer to only one component of communicative competence.
    28. 28. Lack the full characterization of an approach or method.
    29. 29. Still an idea in search of an approach and a methodology.</li></ul>We, Ts, should spend less time explaining English language grammar, more time exposing Ss to useful language and doing awareness arising activities.<br />The way we view language affects the way we teach it.<br />
    30. 30. References<br />http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/knowledge-wiki/chunks<br />http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/lexical-approach-1-what-does-lexical-approach-look<br />http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/chunkterm.htm<br />http://www.cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp/information/tesl-ej/ej09/r10.html<br />

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