Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Waterdiseases5678905

408 views

Published on

My first presentation for a class seminar during the year 2010 .
General Topic : Waterborne diseases .
Specialized on : How to Control them ?

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Waterdiseases5678905

  1. 1. WATERBORNE DISEASES &EFFECTIVE WAYS TO CURB THEM S.Thamizharasan R.Murali SREC
  2. 2. HOW MANY ARE AT RISK?1.1 Billion people lack “improved” drinking water supply HOW MANY ARE DYING ?1.8 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases ,with vast amount of children under the age of five -WHO
  3. 3. “Dehydration from diarrhoea is still a constant threat to the world’s children, accounting for almost 3 million deaths each year.” USAID Save the Children Program
  4. 4. EVERY DISEASE IS DANGEROUS ,BUTUNCOMMON DISEASES ARE MORE DANGEROUS
  5. 5. CAUSES Pathogenic microorganisms Especially PROTOZOAS
  6. 6. Contamination• Main Cause - Pollutants• Leading cause for death and diseases
  7. 7. Pathway of Contamination
  8. 8. WATER DISEASES CAUSED BY: PROTOZOA GIARDIA LAMBLIA ENTAMEBA HISTOLYTICA
  9. 9. Clinical Diseases: Diarrhoea (steatorrhea) Weight loss Constipation Fatigue
  10. 10. Diagnosis:Identify trophozoites and cysts by microscopicexamination of stool Cyst Trophozoites
  11. 11. DRUG AGAINST GIARDIA LAMBLIA Mode Of Action: • Inhibits Oxidoreductase. • Effective Against All Anaerobic Organisms
  12. 12. ENTAMOEBAHISTOLYTICA
  13. 13. Clinical Disease: • A. Intestinal: Diarrhoea Dysentery (bloody diarrhoea) • B. Extra-intestinal: Liver abscess (most common site) Lung abscess Brain abscess (highly fatal)
  14. 14. Diagnosis• Identify trophozoites and/or cysts in feces. Cannot distinguish E. histolytica from E. dispar bymorphology unless cytoplasm contains RBCs TROPHOZOITES CYST
  15. 15. Drugs of Choice• Intestinal: Metronidazole and Iodoquinol• Extra-intestinal High doses of Metronidazole
  16. 16. CONTROL & PREVENTION Global Community Individual
  17. 17. GLOBAL LEVEL PREVENTION • Public health infrastructure • Standardized surveillance of waterborne diseases outbreaks • Guidelines for investigating and reporting waterborne diseases
  18. 18. COMMUNITY LEVEL PREVENTION • Impacts at all levels through Media • Very powerful , when all the other prevention methods fail
  19. 19. INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREVENTION A simple rule of thumb Boil it , Cook it , Peel it or Forget it
  20. 20. MORE CHALLENGES• Chlorine Resistant Microbes• Climate changes• Economic Barriers for sanitizing large amounts of water
  21. 21. THE ANSWER• Unmet human needs for water• Education• Commitment to elimination of specific waterborne diseases• Research
  22. 22. The FUTURE ??• Even if , by the year 2020 , the proportion of people who are unable to afford or lack access to safe drinking water is halved , between 34 and 76 millions people , mostly children , will die from preventable waterborne diseases - WHO
  23. 23. REFERENCES• WHO• USAID• UNICEF• Prof. RAYMOND CHANG , (CHINA)

×