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SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries

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Linked Data knowledge sources such as DBpedia, Freebase, and Wikidata currently offer large amounts of factual data. As the amount of information that can be grasped by users is limited, data summaries are needed. If a summary relates to a specific entity we refer to it as entity summarization. Unfortunately, in many settings, the summaries of entities are tightly bound to user interfaces. This practice poses problems for efficient and objective comparison and evaluation.

In this paper we focus on the question of how to make summaries exchangeable between multiple interfaces and multiple summarization services in order to facilitate evaluation and testing. We introduce SUMMA, an API definition that enables to decouple generation and presentation of summaries. It enables multiple consumers to retrieve summaries from multiple providers in a unified and lightweight way.

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SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries

  1. 1. KIT – University of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and National Research Center of the Helmholtz Association Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods www.kit.edu SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller 15th International Conference on Web Engineering (ICWE 2015) 25.06.2015 Rotterdam
  2. 2. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 2 Outline 1. Motivation 2. SUMMA API definition 3. Implementation 4. Evaluation 5. Related work 6. Conclusions 7. Future work 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  3. 3. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 3 Motivation RDF graphs enable to represent all available information about entities: 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 Pulp Fiction John Travolta Uma Thurman Quentin Tarantino 1994 178 Bruce Willis runtime (minutes) year starring starring starring director Kill Bill Vol. 1 2003 112 runtime (minutes) year starring director
  4. 4. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 4 Motivation RDF graphs enable to represent all available information about entities: Problems: Untidy visualization of specific entities with a graph  Feature-based representation Many entities are involved in more than 1000 relations  Entity summarization 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 Pulp Fiction John Travolta Uma Thurman Quentin Tarantino 1994 178 Bruce Willis runtime (minutes) year starring starring starring director Pulp Fiction Year: 1994 Runtime (minutes): 178 Director: Quentin Tarantino Starring: Bruce Willis John Travolta Uma Thurman Samuel L. Jackson Harvey Keitel Tim Roth Lawrence Bender Amanda Plummer Eric Stoltz Peter Greene Phil LaMarr Julia Sweeney Bur Steers
  5. 5. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 5 Motivation 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 (Source: http://bing.com) (Source: http://bbc.co.uk)
  6. 6. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 6 Motivation 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 (Source: http://bing.com) (Source: http://bbc.co.uk) http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/location.country.capital http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/m.0156q http://rdf.freebase.com/ns/0345h
  7. 7. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 7 Motivation 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 Problem: Tight coupling low interoperability low compatibility Solution: Decoupling Servers Clients ClientServers Separate Servers and Clients Summarization mashups become possible SUMMA SUMMA SUMMA
  8. 8. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 8 Motivation Quantitative evaluation: Qualitative evaluation: A/B-Testing: Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 25.06.2015 Comparator
  9. 9. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 9 SUMMA API definition Producing a summary of an entity What is needed: URI (of the entity e) – the entity needs to be identified k (number) – an upper limit of facts related to e What could be needed: Multi-language support Statement groups (e.g., biographical data) Restriction to specific properties Multi-hop search space 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 PF JT VV actor role _: starring Angela Merkel Date of birth: July 17, 1954 Place of birth: Hamburg (1,73 mio, 2013)
  10. 10. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 10 SUMMA API definition The SUMMA API involves: SUMMA Vocabulary RESTful interaction 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  11. 11. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 11 SUMMA API definition SUMMA Vocabulary: 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 summa:Summary xsd:positiveInteger summa:topK summa:entity rdfs:Resource xsd:String summa:language summa:fixedProperty rdf:Property summa:statement rdf:Statement xsd:positiveInteger summa:maxHops summa:SummaryGroup summa:group summa:path
  12. 12. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 12 SUMMA API definition Vocabulary: 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 @prefix : <http://purl.org/voc/summa/>. [ a :Summary ; :entity dbpedia:Barack_Obama ; :topK "2"^^xsd:positiveInteger . :language "en" ; :maxHops “1"^^xsd:positiveInteger ; :fixedPredicate dbpedia-owl:birthPlace ]
  13. 13. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 13 SUMMA API definition Interaction: 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 Client Server POST [ a :Summary; :entity dbpedia:Barack_Obama; :topK 10 ] . 201 CREATED Location: http://example.com/ summary?entity=dbpedia:Barack_Obama&topK=10 @ prefix summa: <http://purl.org/voc/summa/> . ... GET http://example.com/ summary?entity=dbpedia:Barack_Obama&topK=10 200 OK @ prefix summa: <http://purl.org/voc/summa/> . ...
  14. 14. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 14 SUMMA API definition SUMMA Vocabulary: 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 <http://km.aifb.kit.edu/summaServer/sum?entity=http://dbpedia.org/resour ce/Barack_Obama&topK=2&maxHops=1&language=enhttp://dbpedia. org/ontology/birthPlace> a <http://purl.org/voc/summa/Summary> ; .... summa:statement [ rdf:type rdf :Statement ; rdf:subject dbpedia:Barack_Obama ; rdf:predicate dbpedia-owl:birthPlace ; rdf:object dbpedia:Honululu ; vrank:hasRank [ vrank:rankValue " 5512.0" ^^ xsd:double ] ] ... dbpedia:Honolulu rdfs:label "Honolulu"@en . ...
  15. 15. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 15 Implementation 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 <script> summa("http://dbpedia.org/resource/Marie_Curie", 10, "en", null, "summary1", " http://km.aifb.kit.edu/summa/summarum") ; summa("http://dbpedia.org/resource/Marie_Curie", 10, "en", null, "summary2“, "http://km.aifb.kit.edu/summaServer/sum") ; ... https://github.com/athalhammer/summaServer https://github.com/athalhammer/summaClient http://people.aifb.kit.edu/ath/summaClient
  16. 16. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 16 Evaluation Search Engines: Google Knowledge Graph Microsoft Bing Satori/Snapshots Yahoo Knowledge News Portals (Alexa Top 25 News sites): Forbes BBC News Could the user interfaces be generated with data from the SUMMA API without changing their layout? 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  17. 17. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 17 Evaluation Features: Property Restriction Statement Groups Multi-hop Search Space Languages Five entities: Spain (country) Dirk Nowitzki (person/athlete) Ramones (band) SAP (company/organization) Inglourious Basterds (movie) 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 (Source: http://google.com)
  18. 18. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 18 Evaluation Results: 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  19. 19. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 19 Related work RDF data access via middle layers: Pubby [1] The Linked Data API [2] RDF content selection and ranking: Fresnel - Display Vocabulary for RDF [3] vRank Vocabulary [4] 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  20. 20. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 20 Conclusions Decouple user interface from actual entity summarization system by defining a common API. Light-weight and extensible vocabulary and interaction mechanism. Reference implementations and their source code are publicly available. Evaluation demonstrates applicability in real-world scenarios. 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  21. 21. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 21 Future work Build adapters to Google Knowledge Graph, Microsoft Bing Satori/Snapshots, Yahoo Knowledge. Implement a platform where SUMMA services can be registered and (re-)used. Extend the vocabulary and interaction mechanism towards user context and personalization factors. 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015
  22. 22. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 22 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015 Questions? andreas.thalhammer@kit.edu @thalhamm
  23. 23. Institute of Applied Informatics and Formal Description Methods (AIFB) 23 Bibliography [1] http://wifo5-03.informatik.uni-mannheim.de/pubby/ [2] https://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/ [3] Christian Bizer, Emmanuel Pietriga, David Karger, and Ryan Lee. Fresnel: A Browser-Independent Presentation Vocabulary for RDF. In Proc. of 5th International Semantic Web Conference, Athens, GA, USA, November 5-9, 2006, LNCS 4273, 2006. [4] Antonio Roa-Valverde, Andreas Thalhammer, Ioan Toma, and Miguel-Angel Sicilia. Towards a formal model for sharing and reusing ranking computations. In Proc. of the 6th Intl. Workshop on Ranking in Databases In conjunction with VLDB 2012, 2012. 25.06.2015 Andreas Thalhammer and Steffen Stadtmüller SUMMA: A Common API for Linked Data Entity Summaries ICWE 2015

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