Tony Russell-Rose, UXLabsJoe Lamantia & Mark Burrell, Endeca
   The landscape of search   The information-seeking process     Models and frameworks     Search strategies and tacti...
Understanding the territory                UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk   3
Web Search                                  Key differences• Multiple engines                            Rich link struc...
James                     Joyce’s                     Ulysses?                       IrishPR6019.O9 U418 G42    writer?   ...
James Joyce’s                                                                              Irish writer?  Ulysses?     Fac...
   Keyword search works when you know what    you want, and how to ask for it     Fails when you don’t know what you wan...
Models and frameworks              UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk   8
   Standard Model     Broder 2002, Sutcliffe      & Ennis 1998   Cognitive Model     Norman 1988,      Marchioni 1989...
• to keep a search on track and Monitoring                 efficientInformation               • for navigating through the...
Search Modes • Monitoring a known topic or set of variables over time • Following a specific plan for information gatherin...
• The immediate intent is to reach aNavigational              particular site                        • The intent is to ac...
UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk   13
Marchionini, 2005                 • Lookup                 • Learn                 • InvestigateSpencer, 2006             ...
Locating Verifying     Monitoring      Comparing      Comprehending ExploringScenarios                  UXLabs - User Expe...
• To find a specific (possibly known) item Locating              • e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technica...
• To examine two or more items to identify similarities & differences                          • e.g. I need to compare ou...
• To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to identify                        patterns & relationships Anal...
Lookup                    • Locating                    • Verifying                    • MonitoringInvestigate            ...
Mode chains and sequences               UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk   20
Analyzing                      Comparing                          Evaluating Engineering: Compare our module set teardown...
Exploring                       Analyzing                         Evaluating Core Engineer: Identify opportunities to opt...
Analyzing                   Comprehending                            Evaluating Engineering: Track module cost versus fun...
Monitoring                       Analyzing                          Evaluating SVP Sales: Monitor how well we are trackin...
Analyzing                      Comparing                        Synthesizing Director, Brand Image: Analyze and understan...
VerifyingAnalyzing                      Comprehending                            Synthesizing                             ...
Applying the insights                 UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk   27
Single element patterns• Comparison views (Comparing)• Contextual views (Analyzing)Whole screen patterns• Dashboard (Monit...
   Map search modes to screen components     Avoid “one size fits all”   Create views by combining components     Comm...
Page 1   Page 2       Page 3   Purpose                                                       Page 4.A | Page 4.B       S...
   Purpose                             Page 1   Page 2   Page 3      Present global       overview / summary            ...
   Purpose                                   Page 1   Page 2      Page 3     Explore unstructured data                  ...
Data                       Source                         B                   analyzeevaluate                             ...
Data      Source                         Metrics   Metrics   Metrics        C                            Bar              ...
Explore                                            Monitor Compare                                                  Compre...
Summary and future work               UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk   36
A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search• A perspective for understanding information-seeking behaviour• A framework for designing ...
Tony Russell-Rose, PhDDirector, UXLabs   Web:     http://uxlabs.co.uk   Email: tgr@uxlabs.co.uk   Blog:    http://isqua...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search

3,616 views

Published on

Classic IR (information retrieval) is predicated on the notion of users searching for information in order to satisfy a particular “information need”. However, it is now accepted that much of what we recognize as search behaviour is often not informational per se. Broder (2002) has shown that the need underlying a given web search could in fact be navigational (e.g. to find a particular site) or transactional (e.g. through online shopping, social media, etc.). Similarly, Rose & Levinson (2004) have identified the consumption of online resources as a further common category of search behaviour.

In this paper, we extend this work to the enterprise context, examining the needs and behaviours of individuals across a range of search and discovery scenarios within various types of enterprise. We present an initial taxonomy of “discovery modes”, and discuss some initial implications for the design of more effective search and discovery platforms and tools.

Published in: Design, Technology, Education
1 Comment
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Excellent points and very well expressed. Search champions and advocates would do well to use this in presenting the case for enterprise search. LWMTECH
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,616
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,862
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
71
Comments
1
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • c/o Grounded Theory
  • [Patentability search?]
  • [Validity search?]
  • [Freedom-to-operate search?]
  • [patent watch?]
  • [gap analysis/SOTA search]
  • A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search

    1. 1. Tony Russell-Rose, UXLabsJoe Lamantia & Mark Burrell, Endeca
    2. 2.  The landscape of search The information-seeking process  Models and frameworks  Search strategies and tactics Patterns of search behaviour  Mode networks Design implications Conclusions UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 2
    3. 3. Understanding the territory UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 3
    4. 4. Web Search  Key differences• Multiple engines  Rich link structure• Single source  Redundancy  Adversarial search & spamEnterprise search• Single engine  User goals & tasks:• Multiple sources  fact finding to exploratory search UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 4
    5. 5. James Joyce’s Ulysses? IrishPR6019.O9 U418 G42 writer? 5
    6. 6. James Joyce’s Irish writer? Ulysses? Fact finding Discovery UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 6
    7. 7.  Keyword search works when you know what you want, and how to ask for it  Fails when you don’t know what you want, or even what questions to ask information retrieval Part of a larger cycle sense- analysis making UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 7
    8. 8. Models and frameworks UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 8
    9. 9.  Standard Model  Broder 2002, Sutcliffe & Ennis 1998 Cognitive Model  Norman 1988, Marchioni 1989 Dynamic Model  Bates 1989, O‘ Day and Jeffries 1993 UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 9
    10. 10. • to keep a search on track and Monitoring efficientInformation • for navigating through the file or link structure structure of the individual resources Query • to support the overall query orreformulation search specification) • to aid the selection of words or Term phrases in the current query UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 10
    11. 11. Search Modes • Monitoring a known topic or set of variables over time • Following a specific plan for information gathering • Exploring a topic in an undirected fashionAnalysis Techniques • Looking for trends or correlations • Making comparisons • Experimenting with different aggregations/scaling • Identifying critical subsets • Making assessments • Interpreting data to find meaning UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 11
    12. 12. • The immediate intent is to reach aNavigational particular site • The intent is to acquire someInformational information assumed to be present on one or more web pages • The intent is to perform some web-Transactional mediated activity UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 12
    13. 13. UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 13
    14. 14. Marchionini, 2005 • Lookup • Learn • InvestigateSpencer, 2006 Morville, 2010• Known-item • Quit• Exploratory • Narrow• Don’t know what • Expand you need to know • Pearl-growing• Re-finding • Pogo-sticking • Thrashing UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 14
    15. 15. Locating Verifying Monitoring Comparing Comprehending ExploringScenarios UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 15
    16. 16. • To find a specific (possibly known) item Locating • e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier – Engineering • To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meetsVerifying some specific criterion • e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist • To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set forMonitoring purposes of management or control • e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales Manager UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 16
    17. 17. • To examine two or more items to identify similarities & differences • e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive Comparing teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality – Engineering • To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of an item or data setComprehending • e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan – Director, Brand Image • To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery Exploring • e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 17
    18. 18. • To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to identify patterns & relationships Analyzing • e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver? – Engineering • To use judgement to determine the significance or value of an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmark or model Evaluating • e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price – Procurement • To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs toSynthesizing create a novel artefact or composite view • e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 18
    19. 19. Lookup • Locating • Verifying • MonitoringInvestigate Learn• Analyzing • Comparing• Evaluating • Comprehending• Synthesizing • Exploring UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 19
    20. 20. Mode chains and sequences UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 20
    21. 21. Analyzing Comparing Evaluating Engineering: Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. Portfolio Manager: Compare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the leads claims Cost Estimators: Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 21
    22. 22. Exploring Analyzing Evaluating Core Engineer: Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts District Manager: Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets Category Manager: Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 22
    23. 23. Analyzing Comprehending Evaluating Engineering: Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. Portfolio Manager: Understand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity Procurement: Understand the cost drivers for a commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 23
    24. 24. Monitoring Analyzing Evaluating SVP Sales: Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division Core Engineer: Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 24
    25. 25. Analyzing Comparing Synthesizing Director, Brand Image: Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan Engineering: Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them Core Buyer: Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 25
    26. 26. VerifyingAnalyzing Comprehending Synthesizing Comparing EvaluatingMonitoring AnalyzingExploring UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 26
    27. 27. Applying the insights UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 27
    28. 28. Single element patterns• Comparison views (Comparing)• Contextual views (Analyzing)Whole screen patterns• Dashboard (Monitoring, Synthesizing)• Visual discovery (Exploring, Evaluating, Verifying)Application-level patterns• Differentiated (Analysing, Comparing, Evaluating, Monitoring  Strategic Oversight) UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 28
    29. 29.  Map search modes to screen components  Avoid “one size fits all” Create views by combining components  Communicate conceptual relationships through Gestalt principles of organization (e.g. similarity, closure, proximity, etc.) Compose applications by combining views UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 29
    30. 30. Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Purpose Page 4.A | Page 4.B  Supports exploration, Search Metrics Bar comparison and visualization View 1 View 2 View 3 Breadcrumb Modes  Locating Results Table  Verifying  Evaluating  Analyzing  Exploring Guided Chart Chart Navigation Components  Breadcrumb View 1 View 2 View 3  Faceted Navigation  Metrics Bar  Results Table Cross Tab  Chart Range Filter  Cross Tab Record Detail UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 30
    31. 31.  Purpose Page 1 Page 2 Page 3  Present global overview / summary Metrics Bar Metrics Bar of key metrics Metrics Bar Metrics Bar Alerts Modes Metrics Bar Metrics Bar  Monitoring Metrics Bar  Exploring Metrics Bar Chart Alerts Components Metrics Bar  Metrics Bar  Alerts  Chart  Cross Tab Cross Tab UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 31
    32. 32.  Purpose Page 1 Page 2 Page 3  Explore unstructured data Search Modes Breadcrumb Results List  Comprehending  Exploring  Synthesizing Compare Components  Search Guided Navigation Record Detail Find Similar  Breadcrumb  Faceted Navigation  Results List  Compare Record Detail  Record Detail  Find Similar UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 32
    33. 33. Data Source B analyzeevaluate compare Data Data Source Source A C UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 33
    34. 34. Data Source Metrics Metrics Metrics C Bar Data Bar Data Bar Data A B C analyze monitorevaluate compare Data Data Source Source A BUXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 34
    35. 35. Explore Monitor Compare ComprehendAnalyze Evaluate UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 35
    36. 36. Summary and future work UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 36
    37. 37. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search• A perspective for understanding information-seeking behaviour• A framework for designing discovery applicationsSearch Modes• Combine academic and practitioner perspectives• Atomic units and composite patternsFurther Work• Larger data sample, more principled sampling strategy• Acquire data directly & consistently (from primary sources)• Refine and validate process UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 37
    38. 38. Tony Russell-Rose, PhDDirector, UXLabs Web: http://uxlabs.co.uk Email: tgr@uxlabs.co.uk Blog: http://isquared.wordpress.com LinkedIn: http://uk.linkedin.com/in/tonyrussellrose Twitter: @tonygrr UXLabs - User Experience Research and Design - www.uxlabs.co.uk 38

    ×