Terms To Know• Minority: refers to power and privilege, not to numbers• Cultural Blindness: denial of any differences between groups of people• Cultural Pre-competence: recognition of strengths and weaknesses of a culture• Mulattoes: offspring of interracial unions• Black Bourgeoisie: upper middle class Blacks
Terms To Know - continued• Racial Identity: one’s beliefs or feelings about a racial group to which one belongs• African Diaspora: forcible dispersion of peoples of Africa• Institutional Racism: recurring ways injustice is perpetuated on Blacks in the United States• Stereotype: belief that “all Blacks look alike”
History• 1600-1862 – West Africans from various ethnically distinct tribes were forcibly moved to America – They were forced to work as slaves on the Southern tobacco, sugar, and cotton fields – They were treated as objects/property that could be bought and sold – They had no civil status: they could not legally marry, own property, be educated, forbidden from assembling, could not vote or hold political office
More History 1863: -Emancipation Proclamation: freed slaves in the South during the Civil War - Legalized Segregation followed – “Jim Crow” laws - systematic separation of Blacks & Whites in schools, restaurants, theaters, buses, cemeteries, funeral homes, water fountains, and restrooms 1865 - 13th Amendment Signed – slavery was officially abolished
Even More History• 1954: - Brown v Board of Education – made school segregation illegal 1950-1960: - Civil Rights Movement – led by Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – led to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 1960-1970: - Black Pride Movements
African American Children African American children are more likely than children of other racial backgrounds to live in single parent homes often characterized by limited income and other resources Percentage of children living with both parents in 2008: - 35% African American children - 75% Non-Hispanic White children - 64% Hispanic children
Black Residential Patterns in U.S. In 2008, % of African Americans living in various regions of the United States: - 55% in the South - 17.6% in the Northeast - 18.1% in the Midwest - 9.4% in the West
Education On the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) only 13% of African American eighth graders scored at or above the proficient level in reading. NAEP math proficiency rates for students of color is 20 percentage points lower than all other students Students of color are graduating high school at rates 25% lower than the national average African American students are 3 times more likely to be suspended out of school than white peers
Teaching African Americans Need to identify the strengths, weaknesses, and needs of every African American child “Employ a variety of teaching styles” to meet the needs of the diverse learners Create a classroom environment that values the experiences & perspectives of all students Validate their experiences and acknowledge the potential in every child
Degree of Acculturation Four Interpersonal Styles:1. Having An Accultured Interpersonal Style – have assimilated into White culture – they deny or reject their Blackness – limit social & business contacts with Blacks.2. Culturally Immersed Style – orientation is very Africentric – have Black frame of reference & reject White culture, norms, and values – view Whites with suspicion & distrust
Degree of Acculturation – cont.3. Bicultural Style – comfortable in both Black & White societies – exhibit “double consciousness” – function well in both cultures – demonstrate bicultural competence4. Traditional Interpersonal Style – value their own Blackness – limited contact with people outside Black community – comfortable with calling themselves Negro – shows deference to Whites
Religion Black church is very involved in serving African American families It is one of the few institutions that is Black owned and controlled Source of material, emotional, and spiritual assistance Is recognized as a resource to build relationships with African American community
Interesting Tidbits From Readings• Diversity exists among Blacks including physical appearances, socioeconomic status, and interpersonal styles• Higher social status is given to those with more “Whitelike” characteristics• Blacks still experience a great deal of discriminatory and oppressive attitudes from dominant white society• Poverty is not synonymous with African American culture
Discussion Question• Think about your own background and experiences that you have had with the African American culture. Do you agree with the statement that Blacks still experience a great deal of discriminatory and oppressive attitudes from a dominant white society? Why or why not?
References• Alliance for Excellent Education. Caught in the Crisis: Students of Color and Native Students in U.S. High Schools. January 2012. www.all4ed.org• Center for Excellence in Teaching. Teaching in a Diverse Classroom. March 2008. http://cet.usc.edu• Lum, Doman.Culturally Competent Practice. A framework for understanding diverse groups and justice issues. Fourth Edition. 2011.