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Jericho

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About the ancient city of Jericho

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Jericho

  1. 1. Ancient Cities<br />Jericho<br />Tracie Middleton<br />ENGL 5334 – Dr. Hawkins<br />October 16, 2008<br />
  2. 2. “Jericho, the city of palm trees” II Chron28:15<br />Jericho is frequently identified in ancient texts by its famed walls and palm trees. <br />Both characteristics are represented in this ancient mosaic map in the floor of a Greek Orthodox church in Madaba, Jordan. The mosaic shows a walled city surrounded by palm trees, giving the name Iericw(“Jericho” in Greek).<br />
  3. 3. Location<br />The city of Jericho is located west of the Jordan River and northwest of the Dead Sea.<br />The area around Jericho is semi-arid desert. The city itself, however, is by a spring-fed oasis, giving it the title “the city of palms.”<br />
  4. 4. Ancient city<br />The ancient city, called “Tell es-Sultan,” is less than 2 miles to the northwest of the modern city of Jericho. ‘Tell’ means ‘Mound’ in Arabic and in Hebrew.<br />Excavations at Tell es-Sultan have uncovered layered remains of 23 ancient civilizations, the earliest from about 9000 BC, just after the end of the last ice age.<br />
  5. 5. Timeline of settlements<br /><ul><li>Before agriculture
  6. 6. Stone structures
  7. 7. At the beginning of the Holocene epoch in geologic history
  8. 8. 40 sq km settlement
  9. 9. Surrounded by stone wall, with stone tower
  10. 10. Round, mudbrick houses with clay floors
  11. 11. Rectangular mudbrick buildings on stone foundations
  12. 12. More domesticated plants, possibly also sheep
  13. 13. Advanced defenses
  14. 14. Massive stone revetment
  15. 15. Destruction layer dated ~ 1550 BC
  16. 16. Uninhabited for several centuries after</li></li></ul><li>Tower and walls<br />The 10 m high stone tower, Pre-Pottery Neolithic period <br />(~ 8000 BC)<br />Surrounding walls from this period were 5 ft thick and 12-17 ft high. Some archeologists say they may have been flood barriers.<br />Part of a retaining wall from the Bronze Age (~ 1600 BC)<br />
  17. 17. Destruction<br />Drawing of layers of rubble from Kathleen Kenyon’s excavations (1952-1958)<br />Excavations of the mound yielded many layers of remains from civilizations built one on top of the other, which was common for ancient cities. At Jericho, many people were particularly curious about remains of the walls from the Bronze Age, because of the biblical account of the ‘Battle of Jericho’ where the walls famously “fell down flat” – or as later songs would say, “came tumblin’ down.”<br />
  18. 18. Joshua 6:1-27 “The Battle of Jericho”<br />Now Jericho was shut up inside and out because of the Israelites; no one came out and no one went in. <br />The Lord said to Joshua, "See, I have handed Jericho over to you, along with its king and soldiers. You shall march around the city, all the warriors circling the city once. Thus you shall do for six days, with seven priests bearing seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark. <br />Taking of Jericho – Jean Fouquet<br />On the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, the priests blowing the trumpets. When they make a long blast with the ram's horn, as soon as you hear the sound of the trumpet, then all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and all the people shall charge straight ahead." <br />
  19. 19. So Joshua son of Nun summoned the priests and said to them, "Take up the ark of the covenant, and have seven priests carry seven trumpets of rams' horns in front of the ark of the Lord."  <br />To the people he said, "Go forward and march around the city; have the armed men pass on before the ark of the Lord."<br />Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, The Battle of Jericho<br />As Joshua had commanded the people, the seven priests carrying the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Lord went forward, blowing the trumpets, with the ark of the covenant of the Lord following them. And the armed men went before the priests who blew the trumpets; the rear guard came after the ark, while the trumpets blew continually. <br />
  20. 20. To the people Joshua gave this command: "You shall not shout or let your voice be heard, nor shall you utter a word, until the day I tell you to shout. Then you shall shout." <br />So the ark of the Lord went around the city, circling it once; and they came into the camp, and spent the night in the camp.  Then Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of the Lord.  The seven priests carrying the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the ark of the Lord passed on, blowing the trumpets continually. The armed men went before them, and the rear guard came after the ark of the Lord, while the trumpets blew continually.  On the second day they marched around the city once and then returned to the camp. <br />They did this for six days. On the seventh day they rose early, at dawn, and marched around the city in the same manner seven times. It was only on that day that they marched around the city seven times.  <br />And at the seventh time, when the priests had blown the trumpets, Joshua said to the people, <br />"Shout! For the Lord has given you the city.”<br />
  21. 21. “The city and all that is in it shall be devoted to the Lord for destruction. Only Rahab the prostitute and all who are with her in her house shall live because she hid the messengers we sent. As for you, keep away from the things devoted to destruction, so as not to covet and take any of the devoted things and make the camp of Israel an object for destruction, bringing trouble upon it. But all silver and gold, and vessels of bronze and iron, are sacred to the Lord; they shall go into the treasury of the Lord."  <br />So the people shouted, and the trumpets were blown. As soon as the people heard the sound of the trumpets, they raised a great shout, and the wall fell down flat; so the people charged straight ahead into the city and captured it.  <br />Then they devoted to destruction by the edge of the sword all in the city, both men and women, young and old, oxen, sheep, and donkeys. <br />
  22. 22. curse tradition<br />Joshua 6:26<br />I Kings 16:34<br /><ul><li>Joshua then pronounced this oath, saying, "Cursed before the Lord be anyone who tries to build this city—this Jericho!</li></ul>At the cost of his firstborn he shall lay its foundation, <br />and at the cost of his youngest he shall set up its gates!"<br />In his days Hiel of Bethel built Jericho; he laid its foundation at the cost of Abiram his firstborn, and set up its gates at the cost of his youngest son Segub, according to the word of the Lord, which he spoke by Joshua son of Nun. <br />
  23. 23. Other biblical references<br /><ul><li>As a landmark:Several passages use Jericho as a landmark- “in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho” (Numbers and Deuteronomy) and in describing how land was divided among tribal groups (Joshua)
  24. 24. As an example:During the recital of Israel’s conquest of the kingdoms of Canaan in the book of Joshua, the writer describes how Joshua completely defeated each one “as he had done to Jericho and her king.”
  25. 25. As part of the history recital:In Joshua 24:11, we see the Jericho’s defeat being integrated into Israel’s history recital: “When you went over the Jordan and came to Jericho, the citizens of Jericho fought against you, and also the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites; and I handed them over to you.” </li></ul>The inclusion of Jericho in the history recital continues into the Christian tradition in Hebrews 11:30. “By faith the walls of Jericho fell after they had been encircled for seven days.”<br />
  26. 26. So…..<br />Did the walls come tumblin’ down?<br />

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