2007.04.12 Nmnh Science Board


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2007.04.12 Nmnh Science Board

  1. 1. Biodiversity Heritage Library Tom Garnett Smithsonian Institution Libraries
  2. 2. Taxonomic Literature <ul><li>Over 250 years of systematic description of life </li></ul><ul><li>Systema naturae (10 th ed. 1758) by Carl von Linné </li></ul>
  3. 3. Taxonomic Literature The cited half-life of publications in taxonomy is longer than in any other scientific discipline * * * The decay rate is longer than in any scientific discipline - Macro-economic case for open access, Tom Moritz
  4. 4. Taxonomic Impediment <ul><li>Specimen collections </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Gray’ literature </li></ul><ul><li>Index cards </li></ul><ul><li>Field notebooks </li></ul>
  5. 5. Taxonomic Literature <ul><li>that there is access to information held in national/regional/global collections </li></ul><ul><li>that electronic data is efficiently captured and provided in useable form </li></ul><ul><li>that existing information held in literature and by current experts is made available electronically </li></ul><ul><li>that stability of scientific names of organisms, used to access this information, is promoted </li></ul><ul><li>- Darwin Declaration, 1998 </li></ul>The essential requirements for accessing and utilising this global information are:
  6. 6. Taxonomic Impediment Biologia Centrali-Americana. Edited by Frederick Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin. London : Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter, 1879-1915
  7. 7. Digital Divide? Vishwas Chavan travels a lot. An informatician based at the National Chemical Laboratory in Pune, India, he collects data on what types of animal live where in India to enter into a biodiversity database … Much of the information Chavan seeks is in old, out-of-print tomes … To find them, Chavan has spent years trailing around libraries. He dreams of the day when books such as these are scanned and made available as digital files on the Internet. “ Science in the Web Age: The Real Death of Print” by Andreas von Bubnoff Nature 438, 550-552 1 December 2005
  8. 8. Biodiversity Heritage Library <ul><li>2003, Telluride. Encyclopedia of Life meeting </li></ul><ul><li>February 2005. London. Library and Laboratory: the Marriage of Research, Data and Taxonomic Literature </li></ul><ul><li>May 2005. Washington. Ground work for the Biodiversity Heritage Library </li></ul><ul><li>June 2006. Washington. Organizational and Technical meeting </li></ul><ul><li>August 2006. New York Botanical Garden. BHL Director’s Meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>October 2006. St. Louis/San Francisco. Technical meetings </li></ul><ul><li>February 2007. Museum of Comparative Zoology. Organizational meeting </li></ul>
  9. 9. Biodiversity Heritage Library <ul><li>American Museum of Natural History (New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Field Museum (Chicago) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural History Museum (London) </li></ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Institution (Washington) </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Botanical Garden </li></ul><ul><li>New York Botanical Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Botanic Garden, Kew </li></ul><ul><li>Botany Libraries, Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>Ernst Meyer Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Biological Laboratory / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biodiversity Heritage Library
  11. 11. <ul><li>Core literature pre-1923: 400,000 (80 million pages) </li></ul><ul><li>All pre-1923: 600-750,000 (120-150 million pages) </li></ul><ul><li>All literature: 1.4-1.6 million (280-320 million pages) </li></ul>Biodiversity Heritage Library
  12. 12. View
  13. 14. 9. Page View
  14. 21. Internet Archive Scribe Scanner <ul><li>Single Scribe Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human operated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 volumes per shift per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 70,000 pages from a single machine per week </li></ul></ul>
  15. 22. Internet Archive Scribe Scanner
  16. 23. Internet Archive Scribe Scanner
  17. 24. Internet Archive Scribe Scanner
  18. 25. Biodiversity Heritage Library
  19. 26. Biodiversity Heritage Library