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Safely Prescribing Opioids in Practice
Foundation for Medical Excellence Pain
Conference-Panel
Feb 19, 2015
Gary M. Frankl...
Overarching things to consider
• New patients vs “legacy” patients
• New patients
– Avoid use of opioids in conditions for...
Overarching things to consider
• When to avoid chronic opioid use
– Current substance abuse (+ cannabis use disorder,
DSM-...
Clinically meaningful improvement
• At least 30% improvement, function>pain measures after 3
months of opioid use
• Brief ...
Overarching things to consider
• Legacy patients (already on chronic opioids)
– Apply criteria as to whether tapering is i...
When to Access Addiction Treatment
• Assess for opioid use disorder or refer for an assessment if a
patient demonstrates a...
What can prescriber do to more safely and
effectively use opioids for chronic pain?
• Opioids not first line Rx for most r...
Case definition for when to taper
• Patient requests opioid taper.
• Patient is maintained on opioids for at least 3 month...
Non-Pharmacologic Alternatives
• Do NOT pursue diagnostic tests unless risk factors or specific
reasons are identifie
• Us...
Pharmacologic Alternatives
• Use acetaminophen, NSAIDs or combination for minor to moderate pain
• Consider antidepressant...
Opioid Use in Special Populations
• Cancer survivors – Model pain treatments after chronic non-
cancer pain strategies, ra...
For electronic copies of this
presentation, please e-mail Laura
Black
ljl2@uw.edu
For questions or feedback, please
e-mail...
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Breakout C1 Franklin TFME

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Safely Prescribing Opioids in Practice

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Breakout C1 Franklin TFME

  1. 1. Safely Prescribing Opioids in Practice Foundation for Medical Excellence Pain Conference-Panel Feb 19, 2015 Gary M. Franklin, MD, MPH Research Professor Departments of Environmental Health, Neurology, and Health Services University of Washington Medical Director Washington State Department of Labor and Industries
  2. 2. Overarching things to consider • New patients vs “legacy” patients • New patients – Avoid use of opioids in conditions for which the evidence base for use is very weak • Avoid opioids in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain, headaches, and fibromyalgia • For acute use in more severe pain or after minor surgical procedures, use alternatives to opioids or limit opioid use to just a few days of short-acting opioids (eg, after wisdom tooth extraction) • Risk assessment and clear decision whether or not to embark on chronic opioid use
  3. 3. Overarching things to consider • When to avoid chronic opioid use – Current substance abuse (+ cannabis use disorder, DSM-V) – No clinically meaningful improvement (30%) in pain AND function during acute/subacute use – Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants (esp carisoprodol-meprobamate)
  4. 4. Clinically meaningful improvement • At least 30% improvement, function>pain measures after 3 months of opioid use • Brief instrument should be applied at every prescribing visit • Use only validated instruments to measure clinically meaningful improvement in function and pain. The following tools have been validated and are easy ways to track function and pain: a. PEG – A 3-item tool to assess Pain intensity, interference with Enjoyment of life, and interference with General activity. b. Graded Chronic Pain Scale – A 2-item tool to assess pain intensity and pain interference.
  5. 5. Overarching things to consider • Legacy patients (already on chronic opioids) – Apply criteria as to whether tapering is indicated – 100% of patients on opioids chronically are dependent-they will experience withdrawal – Opioid use disorder (addiction) may be present even in the absence of aberrant behavior by DSM- 5 criteria-TALK TO THE FAMILY
  6. 6. When to Access Addiction Treatment • Assess for opioid use disorder or refer for an assessment if a patient demonstrates aberrant behavior • Refer patient to an addiction disorder specialist. If that cannot be done, consult directly with a specialist to identify a treatment plan – Combination of medication and behavioral therapies has been found to be most successful – Medication assisted treatment with either buprenorphine (office- based) or methadone (federally licensed opioid treatment program) Slide 6
  7. 7. What can prescriber do to more safely and effectively use opioids for chronic pain? • Opioids not first line Rx for most routine conditions • Use both pharm and non-pharm alternatives • IF you are using opioids chronically: • Opioid treatment agreement • Screen for prior or current substance abuse/misuse (alcohol, illicit drugs, heavy tobacco use) • Screen for depression • Prudent use of random urine drug screening (diversion, non- prescribed drugs) • Do not use concomitant sedative-hypnotics or benzodiazepines • Track pain and function to recognize tolerance • Seek help if morphine equivalent dose (MED) reaches 80 mg/day MED (eg, Ohio) and pain and function have not substantially improved • Use your state Prescription Drug Program to track all sources of conrolled substances! Slide 7
  8. 8. Case definition for when to taper • Patient requests opioid taper. • Patient is maintained on opioids for at least 3 months, and there is no sustained clinically meaningful improvement in function (CMIF), as measured by validated instruments (Appendix B: Validated Tools for Screening and Assessment) • Patient’s risk from continued treatment outweighs the benefit (e.g. decreased function and increased risk for opioid-related toxicity from concurrent drug therapy or comorbid medical conditions) • Patient has experienced a severe adverse outcome or overdose event • Patient has a substance use disorder (except tobacco) • Use of opioids is not in compliance with pain management rules or consistent with guidelines • Patient exhibits aberrant behaviors (Table 9) http://www.agencymeddirectors.wa.gov/guidelines.asp Berna et al, Mayo Clin Proc 2015; 90: 828-42
  9. 9. Non-Pharmacologic Alternatives • Do NOT pursue diagnostic tests unless risk factors or specific reasons are identifie • Use interventions such as listening, providing reassurance, and involving the patient in care • Recommend graded exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR), various forms of meditation and yoga or spinal manipulation in patients with back pain • Address sleep disturbances, BUT, the greatest risk lies in co- prescribing benzodiazepines and sedative/hypnotics with opioids, even at lower doses of opioids • Refer patient to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program if s/he has significant, persistent functional impairment due to complex chronic pain Slide 9
  10. 10. Pharmacologic Alternatives • Use acetaminophen, NSAIDs or combination for minor to moderate pain • Consider antidepressants (TCAs/SNRIs) and anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain, other centralized pain syndromes, or fibromyalgia • Avoid carisoprodol (SOMA) due to the risk of misuse and abuse. Do NOT prescribe muscle relaxants beyond a few weeks as they offer little long- term benefit • Prescribe melatonin, TCAs, trazodone, or other non-controlled substances if the patient requires pharmacologic treatment for insomnia Slide 10
  11. 11. Opioid Use in Special Populations • Cancer survivors – Model pain treatments after chronic non- cancer pain strategies, rather than palliative therapies • During pregnancy and neonatal abstinence syndrome – Counsel women on COT to assess potential risk of teratogenicity • Children and adolescents – Avoid opioids in the vast majority of chronic non-malignant pain problems in children and adolescents • Older adults - Initiate opioid therapy at a 25% to 50% lower dose than that recommended for younger adults Slide 11
  12. 12. For electronic copies of this presentation, please e-mail Laura Black ljl2@uw.edu For questions or feedback, please e-mail Gary Franklin meddir@u.washington.edu THANK YOU!

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