Command words tell you exactly what type of information the examiner wants. Compare: Write Justify: You could bewhat is similar and Explain/give reasons: You are asked to justify a decision different between now being asked to say why you have made. Explain two pieces of something you have already your choices in terms of information. Use described is happening. Use why they are better thanthe word ‘whereas’ ‘because’ to help you answer other options open to you. to help you these questions. There are often compare. two marks awarded for giving just one reason. Where this happens you will be expected to give a simple statement and its Measure: You may be elaboration. asked to measure on a Suggest: This is map or graph. Don’tsimilar to explain but guess – measure tells you that you accurately using the scale are expected to provided. bring in ideas andunderstanding of our own and is not What is meant by?: You are provided on the being asked to give a paper. definition of a geographical Describe: Just write term. You must know the what you see. You may main terms for each of the be asked to describe four Units. When asked for a what you see on a photo, definition, giving an example graph or map. Do not is not enough. explain if you are only asked to describe.
But I don’t know how to revise! Here are some strategies you could use…• Flashcards: On small cards, summarise a case study into one (or both) sides of the cards and refer to itregularly. Make sure that you include key facts and number as you condense the case study to fit the card.• Colour coding: colour code large pieces of text into sections. For example, it could be the social,economic and environmental impacts of the London Docklands Redevelopment• Memory tests: You could look at an important diagram (erg the cross section of a meander) for 20seconds, then cover it over and draw what you remember. Then give yourself another 20 seconds to seewhat you missed and add it in. Eventually, you will be able to draw the sketch without looking at a copy.• Key words test: You could ask someone to read out 10 definitions and you have to say what the key wordis. Then you could try it the other way around which is harder with someone giving you a key word to define.• Spider diagrams (mind maps): Write a key theme in the centre of an A3 piece of paper. Write the sub-themes around it with important ideas and case studies to back them up. Look at the example of migrationon the next page to help you. Stick your finished spider diagram somewhere visible where you will be ableto refer to it often (e.g. fridge door, bedroom ceiling ).• Practice exam questions: Look at the examples of past case study questions. Practice writing responsesto these questions using the flashcards or colour coded case studies you have created.• Summarising: Condense a section of text into a set number of bullet points.• Reading aloud: Read a case study summary aloud, then try to say aloud all the facts and figures youremember without the summary. You could also read your keyword lists aloud.• Repeated writing: Copy out pieces of information more than one time (five times would be appropriate).The repetition will help you to fix the facts in your memory.
Write a definition of each of the following terms: Package holiday Ecotourism Mass Tourism External factors Extreme Environment Adventure Holidays Conservation Stewardship Tourist area/resort life cycle model
Working with a partner complete the star diagrams below for Mass tourism. Positive NegativeExplain the reasons behind the growth in mass tourism. (4)
Factfile:-11-12 milliontourists visit thecountry each year.55%-Asia25-30% -Europe.Tourist numbershave fluctuatedfollowing thetsunami of 2004,Bird flue andunrest inBangkok.
Exam question:-Describe one feature of mass tourism.You have two minutes to answer the question above. Mass tourism is organised tourism (1) for large numbers (1) of people going on holiday to the same place (1). (2 marks)
Tourism in extreme environments WHY has this WHO are these WHERE development people? could this taken place ? photograph have been taken? WHAT are these WHEN was this people doing? photograph taken?
DESCRIBE HOW A NAMED AREA WITH AN EXTREMEENVIRONMENT IS COPING WITH AN INCREASING NUMBER OF TOURISTS Examiners look for an answer which has: Understood and answered THIS question, not just written lots of information about an extreme environment tourist area Made each point clearly Supported each point with relevant detail Organized the answer to build up a logical description To produce a good answer it is necessary to deconstruct the question. This means making sure you are aware of the different part of the question. You have to answer ALL parts if you are to reach the highest level So underline or highlight the key parts of the question
DESCRIBE HOW A NAMED AREA WITH AN EXTREMEENVIRONMENT IS COPING WITH ANINCREASING NUMBER OF TOURISTS
DESCRIBE so not explainNAMED AREA – must use a case study. Alongwith the command word of describe it meansthat you must use details of a named area – amere name would not be enoughCOPING - coping means that the questions isnot answering for consideration of causes,efforts but rather responsesINCREASING this is very significant wordbecause it would allow a good answer to showthat the problem of coping is getting greater duethe increasing number of visitors.
A typical C grade answer has information which gives detail about anamed area but is not sufficiently linked closely enough to the needsof the questionAn A* grade answer answers all parts of the question and makes useof detailed case study information closely related to the way that thequestion is wording. Always write at a minimum of level 2 Always write linked statements, because this triggers access to level 2. No matter how many simple unlinked statements used in your answer it will remain in level 1. Linking two or more of these statements, by means of a conjunction or another ‘joining’ word, means that there has been some development or elaboration of a simple or basic fact or idea.
Reaching Level 3 For Level 3, you need to bring in a case study, e.g. ‘… For example, In Nepal they try to make sure local people earn a decent living from tourism. Local people are trained as guides giving them the skills to do the job effectively. This gives these people the confidence to get involved in tourism and start their own business. The setting of a minimum level of skill for porters through training, improves the service to tourists and a higher income can be expected. Between 1996 and 1998 there was a 50% rise in the number of households involved in tourist related activities. The training courses increased
HOW NEPAL TRIES TO COPE WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TOURISTINDUSTRY.Encourage tourists to visit a wider area and not concentrate in a few areassuch as the trail to Everest Base camp. Also to try and extend the touristseason. At the moment c50% of the annual total visits are in the two monthsof October and November. This is done by restricting the number of tourists to certain areas or byreducing prices for people who visit less frequented areas or visit out of thepeak seasonReduce the amount of firewood used by locals and tourists and so decreasethe rate of deforestation. Use appropriate technology, such as micro-hydroschemes. In one area the firewood consumption was reduced by 60%between 1996 and 1998Cut down the number of people camping in unauthorised sites. The numberof designated campsites have been increased and they have been advertisedmore widelyDecrease the difference in the amount of money gained from tourismbetween different parts of the country and different groups of people. Theincome from tourism is more fairly shared between the government and theareas where the revenue is created
Make sure local people earn a decent living from tourism. Local people are trained as guides giving them the skills todo the job effectively. This gives these people theconfidence to get involved in tourism and start their ownbusiness. The setting of a minimum level of skill for portersthrough training, improves the service to tourists and ahigher income can be expected. Between 1996 and 1998there was a 50% rise in the number of households involvedin tourist related activities. The training courses increasedthe basic daily income for porters and pack animal operatorsby 30%Get local people involved in the decision-making processregarding tourism matters. This increases the support andco-operation of the locals for conservation projects. Itmakes use of local knowledge to the benefit of the touristsand the environment.
Time forreflection ! •Working with a partner talk for one minute about the content of todays lesson What went well? Where you need to revise in more depth. Be honest with your self