Sea-water reverse osmosis (SWRO) - the basics

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Presented by Richard Whiting at TWCA annual convention www.twca.org March, 2012 Seven Seas Water Corporation Bahamas-BVI-Florida-Mexico-Netherlands Antilles-Trinidad & Tobago-TCI-USVI

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Sea-water reverse osmosis (SWRO) - the basics

  1. 1. March, 2012 Seven Seas Water CorporationBahamas-BVI-Florida-Mexico-Netherlands Antilles-Trinidad & Tobago-TCI-USVI 1
  2. 2. Seven Seas WaterAgenda1. Sea-water reverse osmosis; the basics2. Water Quality3. The importance of pre-treatment4. Texas SWRO development5. BOO(T) form of contract; fast-track to implementation pPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 2
  3. 3. Seven Seas Water Overview of SSW• Currently own and operate 9 facilities with a total production of 10 MGD in the Caribbean• By end of 2012, will have increased to 12 facilities with a total production of 24 MGD• Will be the sole provider of potable water in the USVI at 9.5 MGD• All projects have been executed under the BOO(T) form of contract• Have invested $100m to date, with no debt• Now expanding into markets in Chile, Mexico, & the USAPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 3
  4. 4. Seven Seas Water1. Sea-water1 Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) - the basicsPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 4
  5. 5. Seven Seas Water SWRO – By the numbers• Total number of operational SWRO plants worldwide: >6 000 >6,000• Total production: >11,000 MGD (>12,000,000 acre-feet/year) – At 100gpd average consumption2, sufficient to supply 100 gp g p pp y million persons per day• Total number of operational sea-water RO plants in the USA: >70• Total production: >100 MGD (>125,000 acre-feet/year) – At 100gpd average consumption2, sufficient to supply 1 million persons per day (population of Texas is 26 million)• 1.desaldata.com 1d ld t• 2.dshs.state.tx.usPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 5
  6. 6. Seven Seas Water SWRO - PictorialPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 6
  7. 7. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Schematic (pressure)• Typical schematic Pressure: 750-1000psiPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 7
  8. 8. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Membrane construction• Membrane constructionPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 8
  9. 9. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Schematic (PX)• Typical schematic Pressure: 750-1000psi Low pressure potable water High pressure feed water High pressure brine Low pressure Low pressure brine feed waterPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 9
  10. 10. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Energy recoveryPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 10
  11. 11. Seven Seas Water2.2 Water QualityPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 11
  12. 12. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Feed water• Typical feed (sea water) water quality parameters Parameter Typical SW Feed, mg/L Dissolved Solids TDS 35,000 Suspended Solids S d d S lid TSS 10.0 10 0 Turbidity NTU 5.0 pH 8.2 Chlorine 0.0 Hardness 1,702 Bicarbonate HCO3 110 Carbonate C b t CO3 20 Flouride F 1.3 Chloride Cl 19,400 Bromide Br 67 Sulfate SO4 2,700 Lithium Li 0 Sodium S di Na N 10,800 10 800 Potassium K 398 Magnesium Mg 1,290 Calcium Ca 412 Iron Fe 0.0 Strontium Sr 7.9 Barium Ba 0.0 00 Silica SiO2 5.0 Boron B 4.5PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 12
  13. 13. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Post pretreatment• Typical post-pretreatment water quality parameters Typical Pretreatment Parameter Typical SW Feed, mg/L Effluent, mg/L Dissolved Solids TDS 35,000 35,000 Suspended Solids S d d S lid TSS 10.0 10 0 2.0 20 Turbidity NTU 5.0 1.0 pH 8.2 8.2 Chlorine 0.0 0.0 Hardness 1,702 1,702 Bicarbonate HCO3 110 110 Carbonate C b t CO3 20 20 Flouride F 1.3 1.3 Chloride Cl 19,400 19,400 Bromide Br 67 67 Sulfate SO4 2,700 2,700 Lithium Li 0 0 Sodium S di Na N 10,800 10 800 10,800 10 800 Potassium K 398 398 Magnesium Mg 1,290 1,290 Calcium Ca 412 412 Iron Fe 0.0 0.0 Strontium Sr 7.9 7.9 Barium Ba 0.0 00 0.0 00 Silica SiO2 5.0 5.0 Boron B 4.5 4.5PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 13
  14. 14. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Post pretreatment Effect of Pretreatment on WQ Parameters 10.0 10 0 (SDI<3) 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 ppm 5.0 Sea water p Pre-treatment effluent 4.0 3.0 2.0 20 1.0 0.0 Suspended Solids Turbidity ParameterPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 14
  15. 15. Seven Seas Water SWRO - Permeate• Typical permeate water quality parameters Typical Pretreatment Typical Permeate Parameter Effluent, mg/L Effluent, mg/L Dissolved Solids TDS 35,000 350  Suspended Solids S d d S lid TSS 2.0 20 0  0 Turbidity NTU 1.0 <0.1 pH 8.2 6.2  Chlorine 0.0 0.0  Hardness 1,702 17  Bicarbonate HCO3 110 1  Carbonate C b t CO3 20 0  0 Flouride F 1.3 0  Chloride Cl 19,400 194  Bromide Br 67 1  Sulfate SO4 2,700 27  Lithium Li 0 0  Sodium S di Na N 10,800 10 800 108  108 Potassium K 398 4  Magnesium Mg 1,290 13  Calcium Ca 412 4.12  Iron Fe 0.0 0.0  Strontium Sr 7.9 0.1  Barium Ba 0.0 00 0.0  00 Silica SiO2 5.0 0.1  Boron B 4.5 0.5 PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 15
  16. 16. Seven Seas Water SWRO - Permeate 2.0 20 Effect of Membranes on WQ Parameters 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 ppm 1.0 Pre-treatment effluent Permeate 0.8 0.6 0.4 04 0.2 0.0 Suspended Solids S d d S lid Turbidity T bidit ParameterPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 16
  17. 17. Seven Seas Water SWRO - Permeate 35,000 35 000 Effect of Membranes on WQ Parameters 30,000 25,000 25 000 20,000 ppm Pre-treatment effluent Pre treatment p 15,000 15 000 Permeate 10,000 5,000 0 Dissolved Chloride Sodium Solids ParameterPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 17
  18. 18. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Post treatment Post-treatment• Typical post-treatment water quality parameters (potable) Typical Permeate Typical Post Treatment Parameter Effluent, mg/L Effluent, mg/L Dissolved Solids TDS 350  410  Suspended Solids S d d S lid TSS 0  0 0  0 Turbidity NTU <0.1 <0.1 pH 6.2  7.2  Chlorine 0.0  2  Hardness 17  37 Bicarbonate HCO3 1  40  Carbonate C b t CO3 0  0 0  0 Flouride F 0  0  Chloride Cl 194  194  Bromide Br 1  1  Sulfate SO4 27  27  Lithium Li 0  0  Sodium S di Na N 108  108 108  108 Potassium K 4  4  Magnesium Mg 13  13  Calcium Ca 4.12  24  Iron Fe 0.0  0.0  Strontium Sr 0.1  0.1  Barium Ba 0.0  00 0.0  00 Silica SiO2 0.1  0.1  Boron B 0.5  0.5 PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 18
  19. 19. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Post treatment 0 40 Post treatment Post-treatment WQ Parameters 35 30 25 ppm 20 Permeate p Post treatment potable 15 10 5 0 Hardness Bicarbonate Calcium ParameterPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 19
  20. 20. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Brine• Comparison: Feed water - Brine Parameter Typical SW Feed, mg/L Typical Brine, mg/L Dissolved Solids TDS 35,000 58,100  Suspended Solids S d d S lid TSS 10.0 10 0 15  15 Turbidity NTU 5.0 8  pH 8.2 8.4  Chlorine 0.0 0.0  Hardness 1,702 2,825  Bicarbonate HCO3 110 183  Carbonate CO3 20 33  33 Flouride F 1.3 2  Chloride Cl 19,400 32,204  Bromide Br 67 111  Sulfate SO4 2,700 4,482  Lithium Li 0 0  Sodium Na 10,800 10 800 17,928  17 928 Potassium K 398 661  Magnesium Mg 1,290 2,141  Calcium Ca 412 684  Iron Fe 0.0 0.0  Strontium Sr 7.9 13.1  Barium Ba 0.0 00 0.0  0.0 Silica SiO2 5.0 8.3  Boron B 4.5 7.2 PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 20
  21. 21. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Brine 60,000 Comparison of Feed Sea Water to Brine 50,000 40,000 ppm 30,000 Sea water Brine 20,000 10,000 10 000 0 Dissolved Chloride Sodium Solids ParameterPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 21
  22. 22. Seven Seas Water3.3 The Importance of Pre treatment Pre-treatmentPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 22
  23. 23. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Pre treatment Pre-treatment• Typical schematic Critical water qualityPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 23
  24. 24. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Pretreatment effect on TSS• Typical post-pretreatment water quality parameters Typical Pretreatment Parameter Typical SW Feed, mg/L Effluent, mg/L Dissolved Solids TDS 35,000 35,000 Suspended Solids S d d S lid TSS 10.0 10 0 2.0 20 Turbidity NTU 5.0 1.0 pH 8.2 8.2 Chlorine 0.0 0.0 Hardness 1,702 1,702 Bicarbonate HCO3 110 110 Carbonate C b t CO3 20 20 Flouride F 1.3 1.3 Chloride Cl 19,400 19,400 Bromide Br 67 67 Sulfate SO4 2,700 2,700 Lithium Li 0 0 Sodium S di Na N 10,800 10 800 10,800 10 800 Potassium K 398 398 Magnesium Mg 1,290 1,290 Calcium Ca 412 412 Iron Fe 0.0 0.0 Strontium Sr 7.9 7.9 Barium Ba 0.0 00 0.0 00 Silica SiO2 5.0 5.0 Boron B 4.5 4.5PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 24
  25. 25. Seven Seas Water SWRO - Pretreatment• Pretreatment design is critical to the operation and efficiency of the sea-water reverse osmosis (desalting) process• The primary aim of pretreatment is to is to lower the Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Biological Constituents• The target is to achieve a Silt Density Index (SDI-15) <3• Typical pretreatment for sea water includes the following: – MF or UF or dual-stage multi-media filtration – Coagulation & flocculation (less common)PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 25
  26. 26. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Pretreatment schematic Feed F d water t Low pressure pump Media Filter (1o filtration) Cartridge Filter (2o filtration) High pressure pump to MembranesPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 26
  27. 27. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Pretreatment pictorialPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 27
  28. 28. Seven Seas Water4.4 Texas SWRO DevelopmentPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 28
  29. 29. Seven Seas Water SWRO – By the numbers• Total number of operational SWRO plants worldwide: >6 000 >6,000• Total production: >11,000 MGD (>12,000,000 acre-foot/year) – At 100gpd average consumption2, sufficient to supply 100 gp g p pp y million persons per day• Total number of operational sea-water RO plants in the USA: >70• Total production: >100 MGD (>125,000 acre-foot/year) – At 100gpd average consumption2, sufficient to supply 1 million persons per day (population of Texas is 26 million)• 1.desaldata.com 1d ld t• 2.dshs.state.tx.usPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 29
  30. 30. Seven Seas Water Texas – TCEQ• In Texas SWRO is considered ‘an innovative technology’ Texas, an technology• A pilot study is mandated via TCEQ staff guidance documents• Th TCEQ pilot study guidance is very detailed & prescriptive The il t t d id i d t il d i ti compared to a more performance-based approach elsewhere• The pilot study process is time consuming: – Protocol to be developed & approved – Pilot plant construction & commissioning – At least 3 months operations l t th ti – Pilot report developed & submitted for TCEQ approval (9-12 months)• Can be a 1-2 year period to complete the pilot study processPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 30
  31. 31. Seven Seas Water Pilot studies• Typically Pilot studies are executed for the following reason: Typically, – To ensure that the pretreatment will operate effectively & efficiently• It appears that the TCEQ approach is based on protecting public health & safety, and the tax-payer, by ensuring a functional SWRO facility with optimal Capex and Opex selectionPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 31
  32. 32. Seven Seas Water Texas – Pilot study need• Typically pilot studies are not required for SWRO facilities Typically,• Of the 12 SSW SWRO facilities, no pilot study was executed• If th are executed, it is due to large variations in th f d water they t d i d t l i ti i the feed t quality, e.g. a pilot study was executed for the Point Lisas facility in Trinidad, which experiences large fluctuations in turbidity in the feed water ranging from 1 100 NTU 1-100• If required, pilot studies are often executed while the construction of the remainder of the facility is ongoing, i.e. the p y g g, pilot study is y executed by the same company responsible for the design & construction of the facilityPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 32
  33. 33. Seven Seas Water Texas – Pilot study implication• The mandated pilot study process will take 1-2 years• Permitting/licensing to take 12-18 months• C Construction t take 15 months t ti to t k th• Total time from start of the pilot study process to the facility commissioning can easily be around 48 monthsPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 33
  34. 34. Seven Seas Water Texas – Pilot study need• Consider the 48 months from start of pilot study to start of operations• The current Texas regulations dictate that the full-scale plant must use the same process, membranes, etc. as the pilot study – During the last 36-48 months, RO membrane pressure has reduced from a typical 870psi to 735psi – At the same time, square footage has increased from a typical 370ft2 to 440ft2 per element – By dictating that the full-scale plant must be the same as the y g p pilot study, the resulting ‘new’ plant will be outdated, inefficient, & unable to easily adopt improvements in the technologyPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 34
  35. 35. Seven Seas Water SWRO – executed pilot studies• 2 SWRO pilot studies executed in Texas: – LMWD completed in August 2010 – Brownsville PUB completed in October 2008 – N ith h b Neither has been submitted t TCEQ for approval b itt d to f l – The advances in membrane technology since the execution of these studies has been significant – Having to stick with the same process and materials of the prescriptive pilot study will assure an out-of-date full-scale facility – ???: Does this mean that as and when the projects are to proceed, there a need for a second pilot study?PROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 35
  36. 36. Seven Seas Water Texas – Pilot study need• If the purpose of the pilot study is to ensure the optimal operations of the full-scale facility, & in the process protect the tax-payer & public health & safety, the current regimen will not produce the desired result• What if the investment is made by the private sector? – Still have to ensure optimum life-cycle solution (price) – Still have to ensure public health & safety – Performance will be the sole critical metricPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 36
  37. 37. Seven Seas Water5.5 BOO(T) form of contract; fast-track fast track to project implementationPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 37
  38. 38. Seven Seas Water SWRO – D&C project execution• Typical D&C process – RFP for pilot plant – RFP for engineering firm to design SWRO facility • Li it d choice available (includes permitting) Limited h i il bl (i l d itti ) – RFP for construction company to build SWRO facility based on design – What to do about O&M? • Find qualified operators & execute internally? – No strong position with supply chain g y • O&M contract to 3rd party? – another RFP• Where does the accountability lie?• This IS a specialized fieldPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 38
  39. 39. Seven Seas Water SWRO – P3 legislation• S B 1048 P3 legislation came into effect on September 1 2011 S.B. 1,• Specifically references ‘water supply facility’• BOO(T) form of contract suits the P3 – P bli P i t P t f f t t it th Public Private Partnership hi - approach √ Finance the project √ Reduce time for implementation by executing pilot study, permitting, & final design concurrently √ Eliminate design risk (for client) √ Eliminate construction risk (for client) √ Eliminate operations & maintenance risk (for client) √ Client only pays when SWRO facility is producing contractual quantity & qualityPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 39
  40. 40. Seven Seas Water SWRO – P3 legislation• The primary purpose of the P3 approach is the optimal transfer of public sector risk (that would be involved in a traditional project) to the private sectorPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 40
  41. 41. Seven Seas WaterSummaryPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 41
  42. 42. Seven Seas Water SWRO – Summary• SWRO is an established technology albeit specialized technology,• A need in Texas for SWRO• N New P3 l i l ti allows BOO(T) f legislation ll BOO(T)–form of contract for SWRO f t tf facilities• BOO(T) approach will significantly shorten the project execution time (pilot study – permitting – design – build – commissioning)• Economically-viable approach in Texas, even when considering the municipal bond market & other available financial instruments• Will provide comfort to Board/Municipality/District that tax- payer risk has been minimizedPROPRIETARY & CONFIDENTIAL 42
  43. 43. March, 2012 Seven Seas Water CorporationBahamas-BVI-Florida-Mexico-Netherlands Antilles-Trinidad & Tobago-TCI-USVI 43

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