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Water Loss Control and Effective Utility Management

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Presentation by Steve Cavanaugh Jr. of Cavanaugh & Associates at the 2017 Gulf Coast Water Conservation Symposium.

Published in: Environment
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Water Loss Control and Effective Utility Management

  1. 1. Water Loss Control in Effective Utility Management M. Steve Cavanaugh, Jr., PE steve.cavanaugh@cavanaughsolutions.com Feb 22, 2017
  2. 2.  Be Financially Viable/Fiscally Prudent  Optimize Financial Resources for Operational Support of Existing Assets from “Source to Tap”  Provide Quality Service  Prioritize Asset Management to Support Effective CIP  Report Online, Near Real-Time KPIs via Dashboard to Support Management Decision Making  Encourage Team Ownership Source: Arcadis Strategic Planning/Core Values include Relevant Goals and Objectives for NRW Management
  3. 3. Quiz According to the AWWA M36 Water Audit Method, an acceptable level of Unaccounted For Water is: A. 15% B. 10% C. 5% D. 0%
  4. 4. Water Loss Control Drivers
  5. 5. Drought is Real January 19, 2016
  6. 6. Drought is RealFebruary 16, 2016
  7. 7. Drought is Real March 22, 2016
  8. 8. Drought is Real April 26, 2016
  9. 9. Drought is Real May 24, 2016
  10. 10. Drought is Real June 28, 2016
  11. 11. Drought is Real July 26, 2016
  12. 12. Drought is Real August 23, 2016
  13. 13. Drought is Real Sept 27, 2016
  14. 14. Drought is Real October 27, 2016
  15. 15. Drought is Real Nov 22, 2016
  16. 16. Drought is Real Dec 20, 2016
  17. 17. Drought is Real Jan 24, 2017
  18. 18. Political Driver-Trust
  19. 19. Economic Driver
  20. 20. Economic Driver
  21. 21. #48 Enterprise Risk Profile Assessment Factors (Table 10) Impact on Bond Ratings * final review, expected publication – December 2015
  22. 22. Regulatory Driver
  23. 23. States are moving very quickly
  24. 24. A little closer to home…
  25. 25. 33 States are reviewing their Water Loss Control reporting Requirements. Most are reconsidering failed % based performance targets
  26. 26. No water loss reporting Rudimentary water loss reporting AWWA M36 terminology & metrics AWWA M36 software AWWA M36 software with validation (Level 1) WA OR TX WI MN IL IN WV MD PA NH TN GA FL CA NM MO KY VA NC SC NY OH ID NV UT AZ MT OK WY CO ND SD NE KS IA MI ME MA ALMS AR LA AK HI DE NJ CT RI DRBC
  27. 27. 27 Phase 1 Establish Annual M36 Water Auditing Achieve Minimum Standard of Audit Reliability Manage Water Loss Performance for Long- Term Reduction Phase 2 Phase 3 Auditing Outreach Training & Tech Asst Data Manage- ment Validation Certification Benchmarking Improvement Statewide Data Validity Statewide Water Loss Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Resource Management Grade C Resource Management Grade B Resource Management Grade A Establish annual M36 Water Auditing for all utilities Educate Regulatory Community on M36 Method and appropriate use of performance indicators Establish Statewide Water Loss Control Committee Develop State Manual and Training Framework Provide extended, progressive training to utilities (funded) Develop and implement data management system Establish posting system and communication protocols Establish minimum standards of validation for quality assurance Determine by Agency or 3rd Party Establish validation program until certification program is in place Design and implement a Certified Water Audit program for sustained quality control Statewide Water Loss Control Committee provides support Suite of Performance and Process Measures System specific improvement over time in a cost-effective manner No universal targets Excessive thresholds established Annual audit submission threshold exceedances System specific progress review at designated regulatory touchpoints Statewide Water Loss Management Program – Model Implementation
  28. 28. 28 Phase 1 Establish Annual M36 Water Auditing Achieve Minimum Standard of Audit Reliability Manage Water Loss Performance for Long- Term Reduction Phase 2 Phase 3 Auditing Outreach Training & Tech Asst Data Manage- ment Validation Certification Benchmarking Improvement Statewide Data Validity Statewide Water Loss Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Resource Management Grade C Resource Management Grade B Resource Management Grade A Establish annual M36 Water Auditing for all utilities Educate Regulatory Community on M36 Method and appropriate use of performance indicators Establish Statewide Water Loss Control Committee Develop State Manual and Training Framework Provide extended, progressive training to utilities (funded) Develop and implement data management system Establish posting system and communication protocols Establish minimum standards of validation for quality assurance Determine by Agency or 3rd Party Establish validation program until certification program is in place Design and implement a Certified Water Audit program for sustained quality control Statewide Water Loss Control Committee provides support Suite of Performance and Process Measures System specific improvement over time in a cost-effective manner No universal targets Excessive thresholds established Annual audit submission threshold exceedances System specific progress review at designated regulatory touchpoints Statewide Water Loss Management Program – Model Implementation
  29. 29. Research Team:
  30. 30. VALIDATION LEVEL DEFINITION self-reported • Water audits have not been validated • Water audit accuracy/reliability is not well understood 1 • Validated water audits have been examined for errors evident in summary data and application of methodology • The data validity grades assigned to inputs accurately reflect utility practices 2 • Validated water audits have been corroborated with investigations of raw data and archived reports of instrument accuracy • The best sources of data to inform the water audit have been identified 3 • Validated water audits have been bolstered by field tests of instrument accuracy • Minimum night flow analysis and/or pilot leak detection supplement the water audit
  31. 31. focus: accurate assignment of data validity grades correct application of audit methodology GOALS: confirm interpretation of methodology identify evident errors assign correct data validity grades OUTCOMES: correct data validity grades recommendations for higher-level validation activity LIMITATIONS: does not correct errors in raw data does not study instrument performance
  32. 32. 32 Phase 1 Establish Annual M36 Water Auditing Achieve Minimum Standard of Audit Reliability Manage Water Loss Performance for Long- Term Reduction Phase 2 Phase 3 Auditing Outreach Training & Tech Asst Data Manage- ment Validation Certification Benchmarking Improvement Statewide Data Validity Statewide Water Loss Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Resource Management Grade C Resource Management Grade B Resource Management Grade A Establish annual M36 Water Auditing for all utilities Educate Regulatory Community on M36 Method and appropriate use of performance indicators Establish Statewide Water Loss Control Committee Develop State Manual and Training Framework Provide extended, progressive training to utilities (funded) Develop and implement data management system Establish posting system and communication protocols Establish minimum standards of validation for quality assurance Determine by Agency or 3rd Party Establish validation program until certification program is in place Design and implement a Certified Water Audit program for sustained quality control Statewide Water Loss Control Committee provides support Suite of Performance and Process Measures System specific improvement over time in a cost-effective manner No universal targets Excessive thresholds established Annual audit submission threshold exceedances System specific progress review at designated regulatory touchpoints Statewide Water Loss Management Program – Model Implementation
  33. 33. Are We Healthy
  34. 34. Wisconsin Pilot 6 systems, 6 months Colorado Pilot 50 systems, 3 months New Mexico Full Scale 134 systems, 11 months Georgia Full Scale 230 systems, 5 years (and counting) California Full Scale 460 systems, 2 years Utah Pilot 20 systems, 6 months North & South Carolina Pilot 18 systems, 12 months
  35. 35. Water Loss Control Industry Best Practices And Available Tools Part 2 – Digging in
  36. 36. AWWA M36 Methodology – State of the Art Water Auditing & Loss Control Water Audit Report for: Reporting Year: All volumes to be entered as: MILLION GALLONS (US) PER YEAR WATER SUPPLIED Volume from own sources: Million gallons (US)/yr (MG/Yr) Master meter error adjustment (enter positive value): Water imported: MG/Yr Water exported: MG/Yr WATER SUPPLIED: 0.000 MG/Yr . AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION Billed metered: MG/Yr Billed unmetered: MG/Yr Unbilled metered: MG/Yr Pcnt: Value: Unbilled unmetered: 0.000 MG/Yr 1.25% 24061 AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION: 0.000 MG/Yr WATER LOSSES (Water Supplied - Authorized Consumption) 0.000 MG/Yr Apparent Losses Pcnt: Value: Unauthorized consumption: 0.000 MG/Yr 0.25% Customer metering inaccuracies: 0.000 MG/Yr Systematic data handling errors: MG/Yr Apparent Losses: 0.000 Real Losses (Current Annual Real Losses or CARL) Real Losses = Water Losses - Apparent Losses: 0.000 MG/Yr WATER LOSSES: 0.000 MG/Yr NON-REVENUE WATER NON-REVENUE WATER: 0.000 MG/Yr = Total Water Loss + Unbilled Metered + Unbilled Unmetered SYSTEM DATA Length of mains: miles Number of active AND inactive service connections: Connection density: conn./mile main Average length of customer service line: ft Average operating pressure: psi COST DATA Total annual cost of operating water system: $/Year Customer retail unit cost (applied to Apparent Losses): Variable production cost (applied to Real Losses): $/Million gallons PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Financial Indicators Non-revenue water as percent by volume of Water Supplied: Non-revenue water as percent by cost of operating system: Annual cost of Apparent Losses: Annual cost of Real Losses: Operational Efficiency Indicators Apparent Losses per service connection per day: gallons/connection/day Real Losses per service connection per day*: gallons/connection/day Real Losses per length of main per day*: gallons/mile/day Real Losses per service connection per day per psi pressure: gallons/connection/day/psi Unavoidable Annual Real Losses (UARL): Not Valid From Above, Real Losses = Current Annual Real Losses (CARL): 0.00 * only the most applicable of these two indicators will be calculated WATER AUDIT DATA VALIDITY SCORE: PRIORITY AREAS FOR ATTENTION: 1: Billed metered 2: Customer metering inaccuracies 3: Total annual cost of operating water system *** UARL cannot be calculated as either average pressure, number of connecions or length of mains is too small: SEE UARL DEFINITION *** Enter a percentage less than 10% in the red cell (J42), or select 'Value' option Based on the information provided, audit accuracy can be improved by addressing the following components: Add a grading value for 9 parameter(s) to enable an audit score to be calculated Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) [CARL/UARL]: Default option selected for unauthorized consumption - a grading of 5 is applied but not displayed Default option selected for Unbilled unmetered - a grading of 5 is applied but not displayed AWWA WLCC Free Water Audit Software: Reporting Worksheet << Enter grading in column 'E' MG/Yr ? ? ? ? ? ? Click to access definition ? ? ? ? ? ? Back to Instructions Please enter data in the white cells below. Where available, metered values should be used; if metered values are unavailable please estimate a value. Indicate your confidence in the accuracy of the input data by grading each component (1-10) using the drop-down list to the left of the input cell. Hover the mouse over the cell to obtain a description of the grades ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (pipe length between curbstop and customer meter or property boundary) Use buttons to select percentage of water supplied OR value ?Click here: for help using option buttons below For more information, click here to see the Grading Matrix worksheet ? Copyright © 2010, American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved. ? ? ? ? WAS v4.2 1991 1999 2006 2009 2014 20172010 20162003 2015 Water Audit Report for: Philadelphia Water Department Reporting Year: ALL VOLUMES TO BE ENTERED AS ANNUAL QUANTITIES WATER SUPPLIED Volume from own sources: M 95,526.0 million gallons (US) per year Master meter error adjustment: M 695.4 million gallons (US) per year Water Imported: M 0.0 million gallons (US) per year Water Exported: M 7,210.2 million gallons (US) per year . WATER SUPPLIED: . 89,011.2 million gallons (US) per year . . AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION . Billed metered: M 57,535.2 million gallons (US) per year Billed unmetered: M 0.0 million gallons (US) per year Unbilled metered: M 179.3 million gallons (US) per year Unbilled unmetered: E 693.6 million gallons (US) per year . AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION: . 58,408.1 million gallons (US) per year . . WATER LOSSES (Water Supplied - Authorized Consumption) . 30,603.1 million gallons (US) per year . Apparent Losses . Unauthorized consumption: E 1,145.2 million gallons (US) per year Customer metering inaccuracies: E 162.5 million gallons (US) per year Data handling errors: E 2,751.2 million gallons (US) per year Apparent Losses: . 4,058.9 million gallons (US) per year Real Losses . Real Losses (Water Losses - Apparent Losses): . 26,544.2 million gallons (US) per year . WATER LOSSES: . 30,603.1 million gallons (US) per year . . NON_REVENUE WATER . NON-REVENUE WATER: . 31,476.0 million gallons (US) per year . SYSTEM DATA . . Length of mains: M 3,160.0 miles Number of active AND inactive service connections: M 548,289 Connection density: . 174 conn./mile main Average length of private pipe: E 12.0 ft . Average operating pressure: E 55.0 psi . COST DATA . . Total annual cost of operating water system: M $167,604,000 $/Year Customer retail unit cost (applied to apparent losses): M $3.95 Variable production cost (applied to real losses): M $133.58 $/million gallons (US) DATA REVIEW - Please review the following information and make changes above if necessary: - Input values should be indicated as either measured or estimated. You have entered: 12 as measured values 6 as estimated values 0 without specifying measured or estimated - It is important to accurately measure the master meter - you have entered the measurement type as: measured - Cost Data: No problems identified PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Financial Indicators Non-revenue water as percent by volume: 35.4% Non-revenue water as percent by cost: 11.7% Annual cost of Apparent losses: $16,012,518 Annual cost of Real Losses: $3,545,768 Operational Efficiency Indicators Apparent losses per service connection per day: 20.28 gallons/connection/day Real losses per service connection per day*: 132.64 gallons/connection/day Real losses per length of main per day*: N/A Real losses per service connection per day per psi pressure: 2.41 gallons/connection/day/psi Unavoidable Annual Real Losses (UARL): 5.98 million gallons/day 12.17 * only the most applicable of these two indicators will be calculated AWWA WLCC Water Audit Software: Reporting Worksheet Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) [Real Losses/UARL]: 2004 under-registered $/1000 gallons (US) ? ? ? ? ? ? Click to access definition ? ? ? ? ? ? Back to Instructions Please enter data in the white cells below. Where possible, metered values should be used; if metered values are unavailable please estimate a value. Indicate this byselecting a choice from the grayboxto the left, where M = measured (or accuratelyknown value) and E = estimated. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (pipe length between curbstop and customer meter or property Copyright © 2006, American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved. M36 1st Ed. Water Audit Report for: Reporting Year: PLEASE CHOOSE REPORTING UNITS FROM THE INSTRUCTIONS SHEET BEFORE ENTERING DATA Master Meter Error Adjustments WATER SUPPLIED Pcnt: Value: Volume from own sources: Water imported: Water exported: Enter negative % or value for under-registration WATER SUPPLIED: 0.000 Enter positive % or value for over-registration . AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION Billed metered: Billed unmetered: Unbilled metered: Pcnt: Value: Unbilled unmetered: 0.000 1.25% 24061 AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION: 0.000 WATER LOSSES (Water Supplied - Authorized Consumption) 0.000 Apparent Losses Pcnt: Value: Unauthorized consumption: 8 0.000 0.25% Customer metering inaccuracies: 5 0.000 1.00% Systematic data handling errors: 4 0.000 0.25% Apparent Losses: 0.000 Real Losses (Current Annual Real Losses or CARL) Real Losses = Water Losses - Apparent Losses: 0.000 WATER LOSSES: 0.000 NON-REVENUE WATER NON-REVENUE WATER: 0.000 = Water Losses + Unbilled Metered + Unbilled Unmetered SYSTEM DATA Length of mains: Number of active AND inactive service connections: Service connection density: Select... Average length of customer service line: Average operating pressure: COST DATA Total annual cost of operating water system: $/Year Customer retail unit cost (applied to Apparent Losses): Variable production cost (applied to Real Losses): $/ WATER AUDIT DATA VALIDITY SCORE: PRIORITY AREAS FOR ATTENTION: Are customer meters typically located at the curbstop or property line? AWWA Free Water Audit Software: Reporting Worksheet Default option selected for Unbilled unmetered - a grading of 5 is applied but not displayed << Please enter system details and contact information on the Instructions tab >> Based on the information provided, audit accuracy can be improved by addressing the following components: <----------- Enter grading in column 'E' and 'J' ----------> Default option selected for unauthorized consumption - a grading of 5 is applied but not displayed ? ? ? ? ? ? Click to access definition ? ? ? ? ? ? Please enter data in the white cells below. Where available, metered values should be used; if metered values are unavailable please estimate a value. Indicate your confidence in the accuracy of the input data by grading each component (1-10) using the drop-down list to the left of the input cell. Hover the mouse over the cell to obtain a description of the grades ? ? ? ? ? ? (length of service line, beyond the property boundary, that is the responsibility of the utility) Use buttons to select percentage of water supplied OR ?Click here: for help using option buttons below ? ? ? ? + + Click to add a comment WAS v5.0 + + + + + + American Water Works Association. Copyright © 2014, All Rights Reserved. ? ? ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + Use Customer Retail Unit Cost to value real losses ? BETA TEST v1 Water Audit Report for: Reporting Year: System Attributes: Apparent Losses: + Real Losses: = Water Losses: Unavoidable Annual Real Losses (UARL): Annual cost of Apparent Losses: Annual cost of Real Losses: Valued at Variable Production Cost Performance Indicators: Non-revenue water as percent by volume of Water Supplied: Non-revenue water as percent by cost of operating system: Real Losses valued at Variable Production Cost Apparent Losses per service connection per day: Real Losses per service connection per day: Real Losses per length of main per day*: Real Losses per service connection per day per meter (head) pressure: From Above, Real Losses = Current Annual Real Losses (CARL): * This performance indicator applies for systems with a low service connection density of less than 32 service connections/mile of pipeline Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) [CARL/UARL]: Return to Reporting Worksheet to change this assumpiton AWWA Free Water Audit Software: System Attributes and Performance Indicators ********** REPORTING UNITS MUST BE SELECTED ON THE INSTRUCTIONS WORKSHEET BEFORE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS CAN BE DISPLAYED ********** ? ? American Water Works Association. Copyright © 2014, All Rights Reserved. WAS v5.0 Financial: Operational Efficiency: BETA TEST v1 AWWA Audit Software v1 AWWA Audit Software v4 AWWA Compiler for large audit sets WRF Real Loss Component Analysis Model ~7,000 downloads to date of AWWA Audit Software v5 AWWA Audit Software v5 M36 2nd Ed. M36 3rd Ed. M36 4th Ed.
  37. 37. AWWA Free Water Audit Software Water Audit Report for: Reporting Year: All volumes to be entered as: MILLION GALLONS (US) PER YEAR Master Meter Error Adjustments WATER SUPPLIED Pcnt: Value: Volume from own sources: 5 1,000.000 MG/Yr 1 MG/Yr Water imported: MG/Yr MG/Yr Water exported: 1 100.000 MG/Yr 9 MG/Yr Enter negative % or value for under-registration WATER SUPPLIED: 825.000 MG/Yr Enter positive % or value for over-registration . AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION Billed metered: 8 700.000 MG/Yr Billed unmetered: 9 50.000 MG/Yr Unbilled metered: MG/Yr Pcnt: Value: Unbilled unmetered: 9 10.313 MG/Yr 1.25% MG/Yr24061 AUTHORIZED CONSUMPTION: 760.313 MG/Yr WATER LOSSES (Water Supplied - Authorized Consumption) 64.688 MG/Yr Apparent Losses Pcnt: Value: Unauthorized consumption: 10 3.000 MG/Yr 0.25% MG/Yr Customer metering inaccuracies: 5 7.071 MG/Yr 1.00% MG/Yr Systematic data handling errors: 4 5.000 MG/Yr 0.25% MG/Yr Apparent Losses: 15.071 MG/Yr Real Losses (Current Annual Real Losses or CARL) Real Losses = Water Losses - Apparent Losses: 49.617 MG/Yr WATER LOSSES: 64.688 MG/Yr NON-REVENUE WATER NON-REVENUE WATER: 75.000 MG/Yr = Water Losses + Unbilled Metered + Unbilled Unmetered SYSTEM DATA Length of mains: 7 100.0 miles Number of active AND inactive service connections: 6 1,000 Service connection density: 10 conn./mile main Yes Average length of customer service line: ft Average operating pressure: 6 60.0 psi COST DATA Total annual cost of operating water system: 5 $1,000,000 $/Year Customer retail unit cost (applied to Apparent Losses): 7 $3.50 Variable production cost (applied to Real Losses): 7 $3,000.00 $/Million gallons $/1000 gallons (US) 100.000 <----------- Enter grading in column 'E' and 'J' ----------> Unauthorized consumption volume entered is greater than the recommended default value 5.000 100.000 3.000 25.000 Average length of customer service line has been set to zero and a data grading score of 10 has been applied Are customer meters typically located at the curbstop or property line? AWWA Free Water Audit Software: Reporting Worksheet Default option selected for Unbilled unmetered - a grading of 5 is applied but not displayed 1.000 2013 1/2013 - 12/2013 Northern San Leandro Combined Water Sewer Storm Utility District (0007900) ? ? ? ? ? ? Click to access definition ? ? ? ? ? ? Please enter data in the white cells below. Where available, metered values should be used; if metered values are unavailable please estimate a value. Indicate your confidence in the accuracy of the input data by grading each component (n/a or 1-10) using the drop-down list to the left of the input cell. Hover the mouse over the cell to obtain a description of the grades ? ? ? ? ? ? (length of service line, beyond the property boundary, that is the responsibility of the utility) Use buttons to select percentage of water supplied OR value ?Click here: for help using option buttons below ? ? ? ? + + Click to add a comment WAS v5.0 + + + + + + American Water Works Association. Copyright © 2014, All Rights Reserved. ? ? ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + Use Customer Retail Unit Cost to value real losses ? To select the correct data grading for each input, determine the highest grade where the utility meets or exceeds all criteriafor that grade and all grades below it. Defaults provided Free awwa.org/waterlosscontrol Industry Standard (M36) ~10 Volume Inputs ~7 System Data Inputs
  38. 38. IWA/AWWA Standard Water Balance Real Losses Apparent Losses Unbilled Authorized Consumption Billed Authorized Consumption Non- Revenue Water Revenue Water Leakage & Overflows at Storage Billed Unmetered Consumption Billed Metered Consumption Billed Water Exported Leakage on Service Lines Leakage on Mains Systematic Data Handling Errors Customer Metering Inaccuracies Unauthorized Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption Unbilled Metered Consumption Water Imported Own Sources Total System Input ( allow for known errors ) Water Losses Authorized Consumption Water Exported Water Supplied
  39. 39. Authorized Consumption Water Losses Real Losses Apparent Losses Unbilled Authorized Consumption Billed Authorized Consumption Non- Revenue Water Revenue Water Leakage & Overflows at Storage Billed Unmetered Consumption Billed Metered Consumption Billed Water Exported Leakage on Service Lines Leakage on Mains Systematic Data Handling Errors Customer Metering Inaccuracies Unauthorized Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption Unbilled Metered Consumption Water Imported Own Sources Total System Input ( allow for known errors ) Water Exported Water Supplied  Physical loss - leakage  Cost impacts at ‘wholesale’ rate  Tools for control include leakage and pressure management  Non-physical / revenue loss - slow meters, billing issues and theft  Cost impacts at ‘retail’ rate.  Tools for control include data management, quality control policies/practices, & meter testing & repair  Fire Dept Usage  Operational Flushing  Tools for control include efficient flushing practices and awareness campaigns Management of NRW
  40. 40. Audience Poll According to the AWWA M36 Water Audit Method, an acceptable level of Unaccounted For Water is: A. 15% B. 10% C. 5% D. 0%
  41. 41. According to the AWWA Water Audit Method, an acceptable level of Unaccounted For Water is: A.15% B.10% C.5% D.0% Audience Poll
  42. 42. 42 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 MGD Water Loss as a Percentage of Supply is not an Indicator of Performance Water Supplied (MGD) Authorized Consumption (MGD) Water Loss (MGD) Development Boom Great Recession, Rate Increases, Conservation New Normal
  43. 43. 43 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% 22% 24% 26% 28% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 MGD Water Loss as a Percentage of Supply is not an Indicator of Performance Water Supplied (MGD) Authorized Consumption (MGD) Water Loss (MGD) Water Loss (Percent of Supply)
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. 45 Unaccounted For Water Unaccounted For Water Percentage
  46. 46. 46 2003  Inconsistent use and interpretation  Unreliable indicator of performance  Fails to segregate loss into its components for effective management
  47. 47. 3-V’s Validity Value Volume MG per Year Gal/connection/day Leakage Index $ per Year Economic Loss Index Water Audit Data Validity Score 95% Confidence Limits Key Data Input Grades
  48. 48. 10,097 2,824 Total Non-Revenue Water Volume (MG) Level 1 Billed Consumption NRW Data Validity Score: 75 out of 100 $2,341,420 per year
  49. 49. Volume Value Real Loss Apparent Loss Unbilled Consumption - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 NRW Components - By Volume (MG) - Level 2 Real Loss Apparent Loss Unbilled Consumption $- $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 $800,000 $1,000,000 $1,200,000 $1,400,000 $1,600,000 $1,800,000 NRW Components - By Value Level 2
  50. 50. Volume Value Unbilled Unmetered Unbilled Metered Meter Inaccuracy Theft Data Handling Unreported Leakage Background Leakage Reported Leakage 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Real Loss Apparent Loss Unbilled Consumption NRW Components - By Volume (MG) Level 3 Unbilled Unmetered Unbilled Metered Meter Inaccuracy Theft Data Handling Unreported Leakage Background Leakage Reported Leakage $0 $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 $800,000 $1,000,000 $1,200,000 $1,400,000 $1,600,000 $1,800,000 Real Loss Apparent Loss Unbilled Consumption NRW Components - By Value Level 3
  51. 51. Volume Value Current 2,824 Economic Target 1,146 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 NRW Volume (MG/year) Current $2,341,42 0 Economic Target $839,130 $0 $500,000 $1,000,000 $1,500,000 $2,000,000 $2,500,000 NRW Value ($/year) 1.7 BG 1.5 M$
  52. 52. Four Pillars of Managing Apparent Loss Unavoidable Apparent Losses Theft Data Transfer / Archive Errors Data Billing Errors Existing Apparent Losses Economic Level As each component receives more or less attention, the losses will increase or decrease Customer Meter Accuracy Source: AWWA Water Loss Control Committee
  53. 53. Cost of Revenue Protection LOSSES (MG) UnavoidableApparent Loss COST Economic Level of Loss Where the total cost is at a minimum Validated Target Setting
  54. 54. Four Pillars of Managing Leakage Unavoidable Real Losses Speed & Quality of Repairs Pressure Management Maintenance Rehab Repair Existing Real Losses Economic Level As each component receives more or less attention, the losses will increase or decrease Active Leakage Control Source: AWWA Water Loss Control Committee
  55. 55. Cost of Leakage Control LOSSES (MG) BackgroundLeakage andReportedBreaks COST Economic Level of Loss Where the total cost is at a minimum Validated Target Setting
  56. 56. Cost of Intervention NRW (Volume) COST($M) Cost of NRW Total NRW Cost Reactive Intervention is Over-Spending Example: fixing only leaks that surface, replacing meters only when they stop Economic Optimum NRW & Intervention Economic target from benefit-cost design (M36) Aggressive Intervention is Over-Spending Example: replacement of pipes and meters before their optimal useful life New Supply New $M The GAP
  57. 57. 1. Create a water balance: separate Non-Revenue Water into Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. 2. Test the validity: Data Validity Score & Metrics screening, gremlin hunting 3. Analyze the components of Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. Use volumes & values. 4. Prioritize the components to make a plan of attack. Basic Concepts
  58. 58. 1. Create a water balance: separate Non-Revenue Water into Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. 2. Test the validity: Data Validity Score & Metrics screening, gremlin hunting 3. Analyze the components of Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. Use volumes & values. 4. Prioritize the components to make a plan of attack. Basic Concepts
  59. 59. AWWA Free Water Audit Software Functions of the AWWA Software: • Complete a water balance • Document data validity grades • Calculate performance indicators • Identify areas for improvement
  60. 60. AWWA Free Water Audit Software VOLUMESDATA VALIDITY GRADES DEFINITIONSCOMMENTS for each input into the audit software…
  61. 61. Data Validity Grades • qualitative but specific • 1 through 10 • capture utility practices
  62. 62. Filling out the Software 1. Gather data and supporting documents 2. Review data for each input: complete? consistent? accurate? 3. Enter the input. 4. Comment on source of data, quality of data, etc. 5. Select a data validity grade for each input
  63. 63. Performance Indicators
  64. 64. Results Dashboard
  65. 65. 1. Create a water balance: separate Non-Revenue Water into Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. 2. Test the validity: Data Validity Score & Metrics screening, gremlin hunting 3. Analyze the components of Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. Use volumes & values. 4. Prioritize the components to make a plan of attack. Basic Concepts
  66. 66. 1. Assemble supporting documents 2. Develop the data inputs 3. Check the metrics Must-have docs Good-to-get docs Build it from supporting docs Look for gremlins Inside typical ranges Metrics versus practices Sanity check Validation of Inputs – A Simple Approach
  67. 67. 67 Small Water System Technical Assistance – Finished Water Meter Flow Verification (FWM) 39 7 19 2 11 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 FWM Global Statistics Summary total # meters Pass Fail Inconclusive total # meters not tested 18% PASS 49% FAIL 33% UNTESTABLE Finished Water Meter Flow Verification Pass Fail Inconclusive or Untestable
  68. 68. Gremlin Hunting
  69. 69. Gremlin Hunting 8” Propeller Meter Check Valve Well Pump Accuracy results from MFR test bench: 99.5% Accuracy results from in- situ test: 142.2% Courtesy MESCO
  70. 70. Production flow data should be reviewed every business day for data gaps Gaps occur due to: Unplanned interruption: lightning strike, power failure Planned interruption: instrumentation calibration Gaps in water flow data should be quantified and added back to the daily total (Source: AWWA M36 Publication, 4th 8/15/2012, hrs High Service Pumping Rate, mgd actual flow High Service Pumping Rate, mgd raw recorded data Hig Pumpin adju 0:00 8.69 8.69 1:00 8.65 8.65 2:00 8.32 8.32 3:00 8.11 8.11 4:00 7.94 0 5:00 8.02 0 6:00 8.44 0 7:00 8.98 0 8:00 9.34 0 9:00 9.25 0 10:00 9.17 0 11:00 9.12 9.12 12:00 9.27 9.27 13:00 9.22 9.22 14:00 9.08 9.08 15:00 8.99 8.99 16:00 9.14 9.14 17:00 9.18 9.18 18:00 9.25 9.25 19:00 9.22 9.22 20:00 8.82 8.82 21:00 8.78 8.78 22:00 8.75 8.75 23:00 8.71 8.71 0:00 8.68 8.68 Total 212.43 151.29 2 Average 8.85 6.30 Difference 2.55 Example of Water Pumping Data Gaps and Adjus
  71. 71. “Checking the Meter” Flow Testing vs. Calibration • Flow (Accuracy) Testing confirms the accuracy of the primary device – the element that measures the flow of water • Signal Calibration confirms the functions of the secondary device – which is a data transfer device, typically a differential pressure cell, chart recorder, or similar device • Many water utilities regularly calibrate their secondary devices, but do not regularly verify the primary device by regular flow accuracy testing. Thus, inaccuracies can be carried through to reports Bank of Differential Pressure Cells connected to flowmeters (Courtesy of Louisville Water Company) Orifice Plate Flowmeter components (Source: AWWA M36 Publication, 4th Ed.)
  72. 72. Step 3 – Check the Metrics Metrics versus Practices Inside the range – are they high, mid, or low? How does that compare to the water loss management practices? Apparent Losses: 208.225 MG/Yr + Real Losses: 736.495 MG/Yr = Water Losses: 944.720 MG/Yr Unavoidable Annual Real Losses (UARL): 83.69 MG/Yr Annual cost of Apparent Losses: $821,449 Annual cost of Real Losses: $139,934 Valued at Variable Production Cost Non-revenue water as percent by volume of Water Supplied: 26.0% Non-revenue water as percent by cost of operating system: 10.4% Real Losses valued at Variable Production Cost Apparent Losses per service connection per day: 46.78 gallons/connection/day Real Losses per service connection per day: 165.45 gallons/connection/day Real Losses per length of main per day*: N/A Real Losses per service connection per day per psi pressure: 2.55 gallons/connection/day/psi From Above, Real Losses = Current Annual Real Losses (CARL): 736.49 million gallons/year 8.80 systems with a low service connection density of less than 32 service connections/mile of pipeline *** YOUR WATER AUDIT DATA VALIDITY SCORE IS: 62 out of 100 *** Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) [CARL/UARL]: Return to Reporting Worksheet to change this assumpiton ? ? Typical Ranges*** YOUR WATER AUDIT DATA VALIDITY SCORE IS: 51 out of 100 *** 20 – 200 4 – 40 400 – 4000 2 – 10
  73. 73. 1. Create a water balance: separate Non-Revenue Water into Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. 2. Test the validity: Data Validity Score & Metrics screening, gremlin hunting 3. Analyze the components of Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. Use volumes & values. 4. Prioritize the components to make a plan of attack. Basic Concepts
  74. 74. Unreported ReportedBackground
  75. 75. =
  76. 76. Customer Meter Accuracy Testing • Routine or periodic meter accuracy testing will quantify the accuracy level of the meter population • Meter testing can be performed by testing companies or in-house by utilities with a test bench or portable test equipment  Only skilled personnel should do testing; meter testing is a precision activity  Make sure procedures are followed – always test at the low flowrate first • Set clear meter testing goals, such as:  Test for high bill complaints  Meters serving high water using customers  Test a sample of meters retired from service  Test high through-put meters (longevity)  Test samples of newly purchased meters  Suspect meters Utility Test Bench for testing water meters of size less than 3-inch
  77. 77. Sample Testing for Small Meters
  78. 78. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 MeterAccuracy(%) 250,000 500,000 750,000 1,000,000 1,250,000 Total Flow Through Meter
  79. 79. =  
  80. 80. Graphic Courtesy WRF From a formula. Need to provide the ICF. From your repair records. • Pressure Management • Pressure Management • Pressure Management
  81. 81. The Life of a Leak: Awareness, Location & Repair Times This is the basis for Leakage Component Analysis
  82. 82. Basic Data Needed for Component Analysis 1. Break type: reported or unreported 2. Main or service 3. Location 4. Line size 5. Date/time the break became known 6. Date/time the break was fixed 7. Storage tank volume (total) 8. Average age of pipe network (approx.) 9. Data from your AWWA water audit Failure Data Other Data
  83. 83. Real Loss Component Analysis Results System Component Background Leakage Reported Failures Unreported Failures (Hidden Losses) Total (MG) (MG) (MG) (MG) Reservoirs 3 - - 3 Mains and Appurtenances 77 574 - 651 Service Connections 144 11 - 154 Total Annual Real Loss 224 584 - 808 1,612 804 REAL LOSS COMPONENT ANALYSIS RESULTS Real Losses as Calculated by Water Audit Hidden Losses/Unreported Leakage Currently Running Undetected
  84. 84. Graphic Courtesy WRF Which Tools to Choose? Unreported ReportedBackground • Pressure Management • Pressure Management • Pressure Management
  85. 85. Graphic Courtesy WRF Which Tools to Choose? Unreported ReportedBackground
  86. 86. Graphic Courtesy WRF Which Tools to Choose? Unreported ReportedBackground • Pressure Management • Pressure Management • Pressure Management
  87. 87. 1. Create a water balance: separate Non-Revenue Water into Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. 2. Test the validity: Data Validity Score & Metrics screening, gremlin hunting 3. Analyze the components of Unbilled Consumption, Apparent Loss and Real Loss. Use volumes & values. 4. Prioritize the components to make a plan of attack. Basic Concepts
  88. 88. The Toolbox (Basic) Helps to Address Level of Cost 1 - Validation of supply & consumption volumes Low Data Validity Score, Gremlins Low-Mid 2 - Estimating and tracking unmetered use Validity, Unmetered Use None-Low 3 - Installing meters on unmetered connections Unmetered Use Mid 4 - Billing system audit Systematic Data Handling Errors Low-Mid 5 - Meter testing & replacement Customer metering inaccuracy Mid-High 6 - Unidirectional flushing program Unbilled unmetered Low 7 - Acoustic leak survey Unreported leakage Mid 8 - Improve speed/quality of repairs Unreported, Reported leakage Low 9 - Locate & eliminate pressure transients (surges, hammers) All 3 types of leakage Low-Mid 10 - Reduce peak and overall pressure All 3 types of leakage Mid-High
  89. 89. Water Audit Report for: EXAMPLE - Tallapoosa (1430002) Reporting Year: System Attributes: Apparent Losses: 3.787 MG/Yr + Real Losses: 47.362 MG/Yr = Water Losses: 51.149 MG/Yr Unavoidable Annual Real Losses (UARL): See limits in definition MG/Yr Annual cost of Apparent Losses: $18,860 Annual cost of Real Losses: $123,614 Valued at Variable Production Cost Performance Indicators: Non-revenue water as percent by volume of Water Supplied: 26.5% Non-revenue water as percent by cost of operating system: 16.5% Real Losses valued at Variable Production Cost Apparent Losses per service connection per day: 6.05 gallons/connection/day Real Losses per service connection per day: 75.66 gallons/connection/day Real Losses per length of main per day*: N/A Real Losses per service connection per day per psi pressure: 0.95 gallons/connection/day/psi From Above, Real Losses = Current Annual Real Losses (CARL): 47.36 million gallons/year * This performance indicator applies for systems with a low service connection density of less than 32 service connections/mile of pipeline *** YOUR WATER AUDIT DATA VALIDITY SCORE IS: 69 out of 100 *** Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) [CARL/UARL]: 2014 1/2014 - 12/2014 Return to Reporting Worksheet to change this assumption ? ? Financial: Operational Efficiency: Unreported Reported Background
  90. 90. The Toolbox (Basic) Helps to Address Level of Cost 1 - Validation of supply & consumption volumes Low Data Validity Score, Gremlins Low-Mid 2 - Estimating and tracking unmetered use Validity, Unmetered Use 3 - Installing meters on unmetered connections Unmetered Use Mid 4 - Billing system audit Systematic Data Handling Errors Low-Mid 5 - Meter testing & replacement Customer metering inaccuracy Mid-High 6 - Unidirectional flushing program Unbilled unmetered Low 7 - Acoustic leak survey Unreported leakage Mid 8 - Improve speed/quality of repairs Unreported, Reported leakage Low 9 - Locate & eliminate pressure transients (surges, hammers) All 3 types of leakage Low-Mid 10 - Reduce peak and overall pressure All 3 types of leakage Mid-High
  91. 91. Unreported ReportedBackground Water Audit Report for: #2 - City of Cave Spring (GA 150000) Reporting Year: System Attributes: Apparent Losses: 4.041 MG/Yr + Real Losses: 29.998 MG/Yr = Water Losses: 34.039 MG/Yr Unavoidable Annual Real Losses (UARL): 28.55 MG/Yr Annual cost of Apparent Losses: $30,992 Annual cost of Real Losses: $6,476 Valued at Variable Production Cost Performance Indicators: Non-revenue water as percent by volume of Water Supplied: 23.8% Non-revenue water as percent by cost of operating system: 4.8% Real Losses valued at Variable Production Cost Apparent Losses per service connection per day: 6.91 gallons/connection/day Real Losses per service connection per day: N/A gallons/connection/day Real Losses per length of main per day*: 944.67 gallons/mile/day Real Losses per service connection per day per psi pressure: N/A gallons/connection/day/psi From Above, Real Losses = Current Annual Real Losses (CARL): 30.00 million gallons/year 1.05 * This performance indicator applies for systems with a low service connection density of less than 32 service connections/mile of pipeline Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) [CARL/UARL]: 2014 1/2014 - 12/2014 Return to Reporting Worksheet to change this assumption *** YOUR WATER AUDIT DATA VALIDITY SCORE IS: 52 out of 100 *** ? ? Financial: Operational Efficiency:

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