Intro textiles

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Intro textiles

  1. 1. IMPORTANCE OF TEXTILES  TEXTILES ARE USED TO PROTECT OUR BODY FROM ENVIRONMENT i.e. COLD, HOTNESS, WIND, RAIN  ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES TEXTILES IN MAY WAYS. AT THE SAME TIME, TEXTILE PRODUCTION INFLUENCES THE ENVIRONMENT SIGNIFICANTLY```
  2. 2. TEXTILES Textile is a sheet of fibrous material which possesses some outstanding properties such as warmth, moisture absorption, handle, softeness, silkiness, strength, serviceability and good appearance (aesthetic look)
  3. 3. FIBRES A Fibre is one which is plyable continuous or discontinuous having a very high ratio between length and width 1:1,00,000 YARNS Yarn is a twisted arrangement of fibre assembly which has received final attenuation STAPLE Staple is a parallel assembly of fibres
  4. 4. FILAMENT Filament is a continuous fibre having a length of several thousand metres. STAPLE FIBRE Staple fibre is a discontinuous fibre e.g.cotton, wool NATURAL FIBRE A fibre which is available from nature CELLULOSIC FIBRE Cellulosic fibre is one which is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen i.e glucose molecules (e.g.)cotton,viscose & polynosic
  5. 5. PROTEIN FIBRE A fibre composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen molecules i.e. protein polymer MINERAL FIBRE A fibre produced from earth e.g. asbestos & metal threads VEGETALE FIBRE Fibres are produced from vegetable origin e.g. cotton, linen, jute, ramie
  6. 6. ANIMAL FIBRES Fibres which are produced from animals such as sheep e.g. wool, silk,camel hair MAN-MADE FIBRES Man-made fibres are produced from fibre forming polymers which are converted into fibres after several chemical treatments and spun by wet, dry and melt spinning techniques.
  7. 7. REGENERATED FIRBES Regenerated fibres are the fibres which are produced from the fibre forming substances available from nature after purification and spinning e.g. viscose, polynosic rayon SYNTHETIC FIBRES Synthetic fibres are the fibres which are produced from petro chemicals such as ethylene, acetylene, propylene, benzene, ammonia and xylene
  8. 8. SYNTHESIS It is a process in which several molecules of different elements are combined i.e. it is a process of combination. POLYMERISATION Polymerisation is a process in which several molecules of same monomer or different monomers are combined to form a giant size molecule having a very high molecular weight.
  9. 9. ADDITION POLYMER A product produced out of polymerisation is called polymer. Addition polymer is the polymer produced from the same monomer i.e. polyethylele, polypropylene CONDENSATION POLYMER A polymer produced from two different monomers with the elimination of water or any other component e.g. polyester, nylon ELASTOMERIC FIBRE A fibre which posses very high elongation i.e.500% to 700% e.g. polyurethene, polyethene (spandex)
  10. 10. YARNS • Yarn is the twisted assembly of fibres • Hosiery (knitting) yarn: Hosiery yarn is a soft twisted yarn used for making the knitted fabrics • Less twist in the yarn gives softness and less snarling
  11. 11. WEFT YARN Weft yarn is a yarn used in the cross wise direction of the fabric in the manufacture of woven fabric. It possesses slightly higher twist than hosiery yarn i.e. 15% to 20% more than knitting yarn WARP YARN Warp yarn is a yarn used in longitudinal direction of the fabric which possesses very good strength. This yarn is given about 30% more twist than hosiery yarn
  12. 12. HIGH TWIST YARN High twist yarn is yarn used for making special type of fabrics (voile fabrics). This yarn contains about 70% to 80% more twist than hosiery yarn. CARDED YARN Carded yarn is a yarn which is produced without any removal of short fibre COMBED YARN Combed yarn is a yarn which is produced after the removal of short fibres i.e. less than 12.7mm length
  13. 13. BLENDED YARN Blended yarn is one which is produced by means of combing two different fibres from two different sources Polyester / Cotton yarn Polyester / Cotton yarn Polyester / Cotton yarn Polyester / Cotton yarn FANCY YARNS Fancy yarn is one which contains some special effects such as slub, nep, flame and knops in the yarn i.e. to make the fabrics attractive
  14. 14. PROCESS SPINNING Spinning is converted into yarn WEAVING Weaving is a process of interlacing yarn in the manufacture of fabrics KINTTING Knitting is a process of looping the yarn into fabrics NON-WOVEN Non-woven is a process in which the fabric is produced by means of bonding techniques
  15. 15. PROCESS PROCESSING Processing means the grey fabric is converted into a finished fabric by means of scoring , bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing GREY FABRIC Grey fabric is the fabric produced from loom i.e. loom state fabric FINISHED FARBIC Finished fabric is one which is dyed and printed. This is ready for garment making
  16. 16. YARN MAKING PROCESS GINNING It is a process of separating fibres from Kapas (i.e.paruthi) QUALITY Quality means degree of perfection MIXING It is a process of combining two or more cotton varieties BLENDING It is a process of combining fibres from two or more resources e.g. polyester / cotton
  17. 17. YARN MAKING PROCESS BLOWROOM It is a sequence of opening and cleaning machines connected one after the other to clean the cotton fibres CARDING It is also a process of cleaning in which the fibres are opened, cleaned, drafted, separated, individualized and finally made into a rope form assembly of fibres called sliver COMBING Combing is a process of short fibre removal DRAWING Drawing is a process of improving the evenness i.e.uniformity
  18. 18. YARN MAKING PROCESS ROVING(SIMPLEX) It is a process of size reduction i..e reduction process RING SPINNING It is a process of making yarn using a machine called ring spinning AUTO CONEWINDING It is a finishing process where the yarn is wound on a cone package to improve the efficiency of subsequent processes in the manufacture of fabrics REELING Reeling is a process in which the yarn is wound for a length of 1680 yards or more to produce fabrics in the handloom sector
  19. 19. YARN MAKING PROCESS DOUBLING Doubling is a process of combining two or more yarns together by twist RING DOUBLING A ring doubling is used to double the yarn TWO-FOR-ONE TWISTER In this machine, one revolution of spindle gives two twists in the yarn
  20. 20. YARN MAKING PROCESS BUNDLING & BALING Bundling is a process of making a yarn bundle having a weight of 2.27 kg or 4.4 kg. A machine used for this purpose is called Bundling Machine or Bundling Press DOUBLING Doubling is a process of combining two or more yarns together by twist RING DOUBLING A ring doubling is used to double the yarn TWO-FOR-ONE TWISTER In this machine, one revolution of spindle gives two twists in the yarn
  21. 21. YARN MAKING PROCESS BUNDLING & BALING Bundling is a process of making a yarn bundle having a weight of 2.27 kg or 4.4 kg. A machine used for this purpose is called Bundling Machine or Bundling Press BALING Baling is a processing in which a bale is made from yarn bundles. The bale weight is 90 kg. A machine used for this purpose is called Baling Press.
  22. 22. FABRIC MAKING PROCESS WOVEN FABRIC WARPING It is a process in which a sheet of yarn is made from 500 to 600 ends and wound on the beam for a length of about 15000 -30000 metres. PIRN WINDING It is a machine which is used to wind the weft yarn on a pirn. SIZING Sizing is a process in which the warp sheet is coated with adhesive solution (i.e. starch)
  23. 23. FABRIC MAKING PROCESS DRAWING, REEDING & DANTING It is a process in which the yarn is drawn through motion wire, heald wire and reed wire WEAVING Weaving is a process in which the warp and weft interlaced by a machine called loom stop yarn are HANDLOOM Handloom is the loom operated by hand & legs POWERLOOM It is operated by electronic motor SHUTTLELOOM A shuttle loom is one which produces fabric using a shuttle.
  24. 24. FABRIC MAKING PROCESS AUTOMATIC LOOM It is a loom in which the pirn in the shuttle is changed automatically by a separate mechanism. SHUTTLELESS LOOM In this type of loom, the weft yarn is carried without any shuttle by a projectile or rapier or airjet or waterjet
  25. 25. CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF FABRICS SINGEING It is a process of removing the protruding fibres from the surface of the fabric DESIZING Desizing is a process in which the sizing mateiral is removed from the warp yarn of the fabric by means of dilute acids or enzymes SCOURING Scouring is a process in which all the impurities are removed from the fabric other than natural colouring matter BLEACHING Bleaching is a process making the fabric white using hypho chlorite solution or hydrogen peroxide or sodium chlorite
  26. 26. CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF FABRICS DYEING Dyeing is a process in which the fabric is treated with dye solution to make the fabric into colour fabric PRINTING Printing is a process in which different designs are introduced on the surface of the fabric FINISHING It is the last process in the fabric to achieve the desired effect by chemical and mechanical treatments GSM – Gram per square metre of the fabric FABRIC COVER FACTOR The extent to which the warp yarn & weft yarn are closely laid in the fabric. It is indicated by a number 16 to 28. HIGHER THE NUMBER, CLOSER THE TEXTURE AND VICE VERSA

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