PM : Request for Information


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PM : Request for Information

  1. 1. R F I ‘ s R e q u e s t f o r I n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Terms of the Contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Team Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where did it all go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on RFI’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>References & Formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response & Reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFI : Examples </li></ul>
  3. 3. Abbreviations & Terms <ul><li>O : Owner + Owner’s Representative </li></ul><ul><li>A : Architect + Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>C : Contractor + Sub-Contractors + Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Work : Construction & Services by C </li></ul><ul><li>M&M : Means and Methods </li></ul><ul><li>CD : Contract Documents </li></ul>
  4. 4. CD : Contract Documents <ul><li>Contract Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Contracting Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracting Forms : Agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A-Series : Owner - Contractor (i.e. A101 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B-Series : Owner - Architect (i.e. B141 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance & Payment Bonds & Certificates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions of the Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A201 : General Conditions of the Contract for Construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplemental Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisions, Clarifications, & Modifications </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. CD : Contract Drawings <ul><li>Used by C to facilitate construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a complete set of instructions on how to construct a building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Express the design concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept = an abstract or generic idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a specific or finite solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects the finished design of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptual in nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If design drawings were sufficiently “complete”, there would not be a need for the general contractor </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CD : Contract Dwgs Drawings approximately , but not exactly, represent what is required for the project
  7. 7. CD : Specifications Non-Proprietary : could be any of these…
  8. 8. Submittals
  9. 9. Benefits : Conceptual Documents <ul><li>Promotes Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the C to obtain the best price or delivery schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single source = more expensive (illegal – public projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows for latest technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product improves after design but before construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : radiology equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of M&M w/the actual provider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A are generalists, not experts in construction techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade contractor is the “expert” of their trade </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Responsibility : A201 <ul><li>A : Interpreter of the CD’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent w/the intent of what would be reasonably inferred from the CD’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD’s are not meant to be exhaustive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions related to aesthetics are final </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C : Planning & Implementation of Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for procuring & placing the Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervise & direct the Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning activities : transparent </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Responsibility : C ontractor <ul><li>C prepares detailed “Construction Documents” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submittals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shop Dwgs, Product Data, Samples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination Dwgs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field measurements & verification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate sketches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C determines M&M </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement : bidding and purchasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing : how Work will be divided into trades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Construction Scheduling (& Updates) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures : how products & systems will be coordinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mock-ups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Work : design concept as expressed in CD ’s </li></ul>
  12. 12. Where did it all go wrong? <ul><li>Courts (1950’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sue someone you were not contracted w/them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architects : served w/papers & involved in lawsuits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architects reaction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Inspection” changed to “Observation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Supervision” changed to “being generally familiar” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professional Liability Insurance (1960’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable goal to claim damages </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Where did it all go wrong? <ul><li>Computerized documents - CAD (1970’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of consistency & accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear crisp & precise = shop drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ’s Bottom Line (1980’s-present) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Conditions: takes time and $$$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure by O to reduce this cost item (non-tangible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase C profit? Reduce overhead (staff) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate source for coordination? A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building Modeling - BIM (Current) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims better coordination among disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More & better information to be leverage </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. P O P Q U I Z <ul><li>Q : The “ I ” in RFI stands for the following….. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I nformation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I nterpretation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A or B </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Information ” is used on AIA Document G716. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Interpretation ” is used by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 013100 - Project Mgmt & Coord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSI Form 13.2A. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A201 - General Conditions of the Contract </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. RFI’s : References <ul><li>A201 General Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… Architect will interpret & decide matters concerning performance under and the requirements of, the Contract Documents…” (4.2.11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Architect’s response…made in writing…with reasonable promptness .” (4.2.11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If no agreement is made concerning the time…delay shall not be recognized…until 15 days after written request is made…” (4.2.11) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Interpretations and decision…will be consistent with the intent of and reasonably inferable from the Contract Documents…” (4.2.12) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. RFI’s : References <ul><li>Specs : 013100 Project Mgmt & Coordination </li></ul>
  17. 17. RFI’s : References
  18. 18. RFI’s : References
  19. 19. P O P Q U I Z <ul><li>Q : During construction, an RFI is prepared by X and sent to Y , who is X and Y ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X : Contractor, Y : Architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X : Architect, Y : Contractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X : Architect, Y : Owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X : Owner, Y : Architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X : Owner, Y : Contractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X : Contractor, Y : Owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul></ul><ul><li>G716 provides a standard form for an owner, architect and contractor to request further information from each other during construction. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Formats : AIA Form G716 Project Info Section number Drawing number References & Attachments Suggested solution(s) Space for Response Disclaimer
  21. 21. Formats : CSI Form 13-2A Project Info Section number Drawing number References & Attachments Suggested solution(s) Space for Response Disclaimer
  22. 22. Formats : C ’s In-house Versions Project Info Section number Drawing number References & Attachments Suggested solution? Disclaimer?
  23. 23. RFI : Response <ul><li>Categories of A ’s Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics : A ’s exclusive authority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A rejects of non-conforming work, O accepts it anyway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave responsibility to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Means & Methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutrality vs. Self-preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EUA Liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project team members = ALL equal </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. RFI : Response <ul><li>Const Admin : Time is Money </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Unlike wine, bad news does not get better with age.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A good solution today is better than a perfect solution tomorrow.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>24-Hour Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an answer or report progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No communication = no activity </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. RFI Usage <ul><li>Proper Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an orderly, reliable, and documented mechanism to field and resolve legitimate contractor questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improper Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C ’s attempt to transfer responsibility of coordination of their subcontractors to A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues not affecting cost/time : project meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avalanche of paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Misused to provide Contractor additional time (liquidated damages) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets stage for future CO’s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Questionable RFI? <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the best understanding of product configuration and means and methods of construction techniques? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul><ul><li>Contractor + Subcontractor </li></ul><ul><li>Material Supplier/Vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Architect + Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Owner + Owner’s Rep </li></ul>
  27. 27. Questionable RFI’s <ul><li>- setting the stage for a future change order (especially on projects with liquidated damages) </li></ul><ul><li>- wording that tends to point blame </li></ul><ul><li>- asking for information that can readily be found in the contract documents </li></ul><ul><li>- asking for a material quantity </li></ul><ul><li>- asking for a rough opening dimension ( conceptually equal but nominally different products like windows) </li></ul><ul><li>- being used as a substitution request </li></ul><ul><li>- coming from a subcontractor (rather than the general) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Questionable RFI’s <ul><li>- asking about sequencing and/or means & methods </li></ul><ul><li>- being used when a simple phone call would do </li></ul><ul><li>- does not include pertinent information (uncoordinated numbering conventions)  </li></ul><ul><li>- asking the architect for additional details/solutions that should actually be suggested by the contractor for our &quot;review and comment&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- designed to require the architect to provide some or all of the contractor's field coordination services </li></ul><ul><li>- requesting the architect to detail and coordinate proprietary products (contractors responsibility in absence of sole source specification) </li></ul><ul><li>- requesting a solution to work already completed (contractor proceeds prior to RFI and hopes your response matches work-in-place) </li></ul>
  29. 29. RFI Reduction : Design Phase <ul><li>Project Kick-Off Mtg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss “philosophy” of CD’s conceptual nature w/ O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage contingencies be part of project schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the following concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Betterment : added value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unjust enrichment : restored to same position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard of Care : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perfection not possible, then Imperfection is the standard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings & Specs are NOT a product and no warranty is provided </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No industry standard for a “complete” set of CD’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectively quantify what is an inherently subjective process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>QC Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer review + Checklists </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. RFI Reduction : Const Phase <ul><li>Pre-Construction Mtg (Softball) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss “philosophy” of CD’s conceptual nature w/ C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your desire for the C ’s success on the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify responsibilities as outline in A201 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require C provide all deliverables (Hardball) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for the Work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require C provide all RFI information (Hardball) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C ’s suggested solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ’s supplemental drawings </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>RFI : Examples </li></ul>
  32. 32. Example : F ire E xt. C abinets <ul><li>Life Safety Plans (G100’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A indicates FEC locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A determines spacing & quantity per code (75’-0”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A coordinates the locations w/rated & CMU walls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architectural diagram (A020) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A identifies mounting hgt & projection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies acceptable models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partially recessed, finish, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Example : F ire E xt. C abinets <ul><li>RFI from C : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Please provide detail for cabinet framing into wall ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What should the A do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer it with additional info : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downloaded CAD detail from manufacturer’s website </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert into a drafting view & issue a CB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result? Possible CO : alleged additional scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t answer it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result? Possible CO : non-responsive, schedule impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer it with the following declaration : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Install per manufacturer’s recommended instructions so that it meets the design intent of the contract documents .” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. RFI's Examples <ul><li>RFI : We have awarded the bid to Otis, please confirm that we can reduce the elevator shaft to 7'-8 3/4&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Contractor shall coordinate dimensions with elevator supplier. </li></ul><ul><li>RFI : Fire/smoke dampers have been approved as 120 volt. The security system subcontractor has requested permission to change these dampers to 24 volt. Will this change be acceptable? </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Engineer response: 120 volt or 24 volt is acceptable. Subcontractors shall coordinate per contract. </li></ul><ul><li>RFI :  &quot;Drawing No. LS-120, verify the 16' - 6 5/8&quot; and the 18' - 11 3/8&quot; dimension locating the W27X84 beam with the escalator vendor.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Contractor shall verify and coordinate the dimension with related trades and vendors. </li></ul>
  35. 35. RFI's Examples <ul><li>RFI : &quot;Embeds for the roof screen wall support column bases were set per unapproved shop drawings in the interest of schedule. Please provide a detail for attaching the column base plates with drilled epoxy inserts.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Contractor shall engage engineer to design a correction to this placement mistake and propose an alternate sketch for the engineer of record to review. </li></ul><ul><li>RFI : &quot;Please approve, in concept, an alternate door and frame manufacturer. Specific detailed shop drawings and specs will follow after this approval.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Contractor shall submit a substitution request form per the specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>RFI : &quot;The plans call for a rated gypsum ceiling at areas with the steel beam and metal deck floor system.  Is this rated ceiling for the beams only or does the metal deck/concrete floor system need protection as well?  If the metal deck/concrete floor system does not require additional fire protection, then a cost savings could be reviewed to install fire protection at the beams and columns only.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: The rated ceilings will be constructed per plans and specifications. </li></ul>
  36. 36. RFI's Examples <ul><li>RFI : &quot;Building 'B' had Type 1A windows added to the West elevation in CB#08 in BP02.  These windows are shown in CB#08 as 8'-0&quot; tall.  CB#11 was issued combining BP02 and BP03.  Window 1A was changed in CB#11 with notation.  Can you clarify why this window was changed and where this change was noted in the CB process.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Revised CB#08 supplemental drawings were issued to the contractor on 10/20/06 addressing the change to the west windows. </li></ul><ul><li>RFI : &quot; Masonry subcontractor is behind schedule.  EIFS subcontractor wishes to proceed on schedule rather than wait for mason. Is this okay?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Contractor is responsible for coordinating and sequencing subcontractor's work in the best interest of the project . </li></ul><ul><li>RFI : &quot; To avoid undue winter costs, we prefer to backfill the foundation prior to installation of first floor framing. Please provide temporary shoring detail.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Possible response: Contractor is responsible for means, methods, techniques, sequencing and procedures. Contractor shall retain design professional services to provide details . </li></ul>
  37. 37. SUMMARY <ul><li>WHAT is an RFI ... and what basic information should be included in the format? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid misunderstandings , it is important that the contract administrator (the architect) answer questions from the job site through proper communication channels in writing, and within a specified time frame.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requests for information are generally handled by an RFI form, which usually is provided by the general contractor and submitted to the construction administrator (the architect). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHY do we use RFI's? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors & Omissions : integral part of the Standard of Care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every practitioner makes E&O’s and AIA documents anticipate this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>... the architect's instruments of service will always require some measure of interpretation and clarification when they are used for construction…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOW many RFI's are appropriate?... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and what can we use instead of an RFI? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. SUMMARY <ul><li>WHAT info should be on an RFI form? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost Impact: (yes/no; dollar amount). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Impact: (yes/no; number of days)... or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;the contractor shall not proceed with this work if it results in a change in contract sum or time unless first approved by the owner&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHERE do we identify and outline the RFI process? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>013100 - Project management and Coordination, AIA B151: 2.6.16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIA B151: 2.6.16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretations and decisions of the Architect shall be consistent with the intent of and reasonably inferable of the Contract Documents and shall be in writing or the form of drawings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOW to properly respond to an RFI... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and should we not respond to questionable RFI's? </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>Questions??? </li></ul><ul><li>Comments??? </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns??? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions??? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Project : Baby Analogy <ul><li>O : Adoptive parent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finances the project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A : Obstetrician </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceives (inseminates) the concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C : B irth mother </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans (nurtures) the work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The project (baby) grows and develops per the environment (womb) that the C provides, </li></ul><ul><li>A provides C with the instructions for the development to be healthy & nurturing, </li></ul><ul><li>A cannot control the environment (womb), only the C can, </li></ul><ul><li>Problems can occur during the pregnancy caused by any participant or unknown forces, </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone hopes for a on-time & on-budget (healthy) project (baby) </li></ul>