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Normas de emisiones de gases

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Normas de emisiones de gases

  1. 1. Emisiones • Regulaciones • Contaminantes • Situación en el Mundo • Situación en México • Tecnologías Actuales y Futuras
  2. 2. Emisiones de Vehículos con motor a Diesel Principales Regulaciones • Europea • Japonesa • Americana
  3. 3. Regulaciones de Emisiones Elementos Básicos a Regular • Fuentes de Emisiones • Emisión de Gases y Partículas • Humo • Condiciones de Prueba • Procedimientos de Medición • Combustible • Factores de deterioro • Contaminantes a Regular • Fechas de Efectividad
  4. 4. Emisiones de Vehículos con motor a Diesel Certificación Comparación del procedimiento de Prueba Torque (%) Engine Speed Idle Rated 95% 80% 60% 40% 20% 40% 5% 20% 40% 60% 80% Torque (%) Engine Speed Idle Peak Torque Rated 100% 75% 50% 10% 25% Torque (%) Engine Speed Idle Peak Torque Rated Europea Prueba 13 Modos Japonesa Prueba 13 modos Americana Prueba Transitoria
  5. 5. Etapas de las Regulaciones E-88 E-91 EURO II EURO III J-74 J-77 J-79 J-83 J-89 J-94 J-98EPA74 EPA79 EPA85 EPA88 EPA90 EPA91 EPA94 EPA98 Americana Japonesa Europea EURO I 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 J-05 2010 EPA04 EPA07 EURO IV EURO V
  6. 6. Contaminantes de la combustión del Diesel Cx Hy Sz + O2 + N2 CO2 + H2O + N2 + O2 + NOx + HC + CO + SOx+ C Diesel Aire Principales Componentes Componentes en baja concentración Óxidos de Nitrógeno Hidrocarburos Monóxido de Carbono Ozono Óxidos de Azufre Humo Negro o Humo Blanco
  7. 7. Valores de Contaminantes Regulados NOx NOx+ NMHC HC PM CO EPA98 4 1.3 0.1 15.5 2 EURO III 3.7 0.49 0.08 1.6 EPA04 2.5 0.1 15.5 2 EURO IV 2.6 0.34 0.015 1.1 EPA07 1.18 1 0.14 0.01 15.5 2 EURO V 1.5 0.34 0.015 1.1 Todos los valores en "g/bhp-hr" 1 La EPA establece que 50% de la producción debe cumplir con el estandar de 2.4 NOx+NMHC y 50% restante debe cumplir con el estandar de 0.20. Con esto se estima el estandar mostrado de 1.18 2 El estandar EPA establece este valor en donde se incluye los valores de CO para motores a Gasolina y Diesel, sin embargo los valores reales de los motores diesel se encuentran en el rango de 0.4 a 1.4 g/bhp-hr
  8. 8. Regulaciones Adoptadas en el mundo Vehículos de Carga con motor Diesel 1995 2000 USA Europea Grupo Sin regular EPA 94 Euro 1/2 1 NOx>6.5 g/bhphr, PM>0.25 g/bhphr EPA 98 Euro 3 NOx=3.5-6.5 g/bhphr, PM=0.1-0.25 g/bhphr EPA 02 Euro 4 NOx=2.0-3.4 g/bhphr, PM=0.06-0.1 g/bhphr EPA 07 Euro 5 NOx=1.0-1.9 g/bhphr, PM=0.05 g/bhpr EPA 12? Euro 6? NOx<1.0 g/bhphr, PM<0.05 g/bhphr 2010 2005 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5
  9. 9. Situación en México Vehículos de Carga con motor Diesel E P A E U R O 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Diesel Sulfur 500 ppm 15 ppm EPA94 EPA98 EPA98 EPA04 EURO III EURO IV EPA04EPA07 Solo sí existe diesel de 15 ppm 1) NOM-044-ECOL-1993 3) Febrero 14,2005 Propuesta 4) Marzo 17, 2005 Nueva Propuesta2) Febrero 11, 2003 Acuerdo
  10. 10. Tecnologías Utilizadas EPA98 y EURO III • Evolución de la tecnología utilizada durante 1994 Mejoras en el manejo de Aire – Incremento de Presión del Turbo – 4 válvulas por pistón Mejoras en el manejo de la inyección de combustible y la combustión – Controles Electrónicos – Inyección Centrada
  11. 11. Tecnologías Utilizadas EPA04 )( • Manejo de Aire EGR (Recirculación de Gases de Escape) VGT (Turbo de Geometría Variable) • Manejo de combustible y combustión Incremento de presiones de inyección Sistemas mas robustos
  12. 12. Tecnologías Utilizadas EURO IV • Tecnología Actual EURO III Regulación de Emisiones por medio de Post- Tratamiento Engine Urea ECM Aire Urea Catalizador Filtro Particulas

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