Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Classification

464 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Classification

  1. 1. Classification
  2. 2. <ul><li>British Board of Film Classification produces guidelines (bbfc.co.uk), self-regulatory it is made up of film industry reps who can impose certificates on films. </li></ul>02
  3. 3. Recommendations <ul><li>BBFC can be overruled by local authorities, Westminster council banned screenings of Crash which played elsewhere with an 18 certificate? </li></ul><ul><li>BBFC has a ‘gentleman’s understanding’ with the Government, obviously decisions are altered depending on the party in power </li></ul><ul><li>Classification has an element of ‘gate keeping’ about it </li></ul>
  4. 4. Considerations for Classification <ul><li>Legal: material may break the law; obscenity, equality, incitement, child protection </li></ul><ul><li>Protective: material that may cause harm, although who decides who needs protecting and from what? </li></ul><ul><li>Societal: material is reviewed with broader public opinion, particularly with regard to language </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1912 Social changes Censorship changes 1920s 1930s 1940s British Board of Film Censors established Prohibits 'indecorous, ambiguous and irreverent titles', 'unnecessary exhibition of under-clothing' etc. 1932- introduction of 'U', 'A' and 'H' symbols Pre-war: Victorian values Inter-war years: General strike, Depression and decline of the empire
  6. 6. 1950s Social changes Censorship changes 1960s 1970s 1951- 'X' category introduced The Wild One (1954) Release delayed for 13 years for 'spectacle of unbridled hooliganism' 1960- Lady Chatterley's Lover trial Post-war prosperity & birth of the teenager! Baby-boomers come of age; sexual and social liberation The dream sours: economic downturn and social unrest 1970- 'X' raised to 18 1974- 33.9% of films cut
  7. 7. <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Home video takes off </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Video nasties’- DPP list </li></ul><ul><li>Video Recordings Act 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Name changed to British Board of Film Classification </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A’ becomes ‘PG’, ‘AA’ changes to ‘15’ and ‘X’ becomes ‘18’. ‘R18’ introduced for films to be shown in private members clubs or sold in licensed premises </li></ul><ul><li>‘ 12’ rating added in 1989 ( Batman ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1990s to present </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile crime and video violence </li></ul><ul><li>CJPO Act 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>1998- Andreas Whittam Smith becomes President and steers Board towards greater openness and transparency (published guidelines) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation led to relaxation of sex restrictions at ‘15’ and ‘18’. Portrayal of real sex was allowed at ‘18’ provided it was ‘exceptionally justified by context’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ 12A’ replaces ‘12’ for film- parental responsibility </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classifications Today <ul><li>U: suitable for all </li></ul><ul><li>PG: Parental Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>12 and 12A: responsibility lies with adult </li></ul><ul><li>15: suitable for 15 years and over </li></ul><ul><li>18: suitable only for adults </li></ul><ul><li>R18: only in specialised cinemas or sex shops </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of 12A was to show BBFC have become stricter with children’s viewing, however R18 legalises pornography. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classification – does it work? <ul><li>Did you watch 18’s even though you may not be that age? </li></ul><ul><li>Does classification work for home viewing? (DVD, YouTube, TV, Online, OnDemand TV) </li></ul><ul><li>Should adults have the responsibility of monitoring children’s viewing? Can they be trusted? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mechanics of classification <ul><li>Films are submitted by distributors and classified for a fee </li></ul><ul><li>They are viewed by two examiners, who write a report recommending a classification </li></ul><ul><li>Others are involved if decision is not forthcoming or likely to be controversial </li></ul><ul><li>There is no automatic right of appeal for film decisions ( Honest , 2000, End of the Affair , 1999, This is England , 2007) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Challenges <ul><li>Pro-censorship reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of unclassified works (e.g. piracy, grey imports etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>New formats that bypass the system (e.g. downloads, mobile applications etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy is seen as one solution </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>http://www.BiggerPictureResearch.net </li></ul>

×