Egypt Egypt's geography, their strong government foundation and their interaction with other cultures and empires, allowed Ancient Egypt to grow and prosper.
Geography was an important factor that affected the Egyptian Empire from the Old Kingdom into the New Kingdom. This geographical location helped Egyptians to form, and prosper.
<ul><li>The Egyptian empire was first formed along the river valley; form the highlands of east-central Africa to the Mediterranean sea. The empire also extended 4,100 miles Northward along the river. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile River brought yearly flooding, that helped to make the soil very fertile (area later called Fertile Crescent).. Fertile land provided settlements to flourish, and agricultural advancement.. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt divided into two portions. One portion of Egypt was known as Upper Egypt, the other, Lower Egypt. There boundary ended where there was granite cliffs, and boulders, which turned the river into dangerous cataract. (rapid moving river) </li></ul>GEOGRAPHY A map of Ancient Egypt
Continuation of Egyptian Geography <ul><li>The Nile river also provided a mode of transportation for transport between Upper and Lower Egypt. The prevailing wind, helped to move ships North, and encouraged trade between Upper and Lower Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt was also surrounded by deserts ( Eastern and Western) which acted as natural barriers against invaders, or unwanted visitors. </li></ul>Lower and upper Egypt are separated by the Nile River. One the west side of the river, there is the western Desert, and in the east, there is the Eastern desert .
<ul><li>Before 3100 B.C., Egypt was ruled by two different kingdoms- Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Menes (first ruler of the first dynasty), the king of Upper Egypt, united both kingdoms around 3100 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The old kingdom set a trend for Egypt’s prosperous empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptian Empire lasted between 2660 to 2180 B.C; between the third and sixth dynasty. Due to lack of record keeping, not much is known about the first, second, or third dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>During this kingdom, Egyptians perfected on the pyramids to make it smoother. In addition, arts and craftsmen perfected on their art form to create exquisite art. </li></ul>OLD KINGDOM A pyramid built in the Old Kingdom. These crowns represent the Unity of upper and lower Egypt.
Continuation of Old Kingdom <ul><li>In the fourth dynasty, there was proof of military activity in Nubia. </li></ul><ul><li>During the fourth and the beginning of the fifth dynasties, the Old Kingdom experienced a golden age, spurred by architecture (including pyramids) </li></ul><ul><li>By the seventh or eight dynasty, the empire slowed down, and came to an end. This end was due to a lack of power of the pharaohs. In addition, there was a famine due to over flooding of the Nile River in Egypt. As a result of these factors, the Egyptian Empire collapsed. This ending of the empire was later proceeded by the first intermediate period, the period of turmoil and chaos. </li></ul>
<ul><li>This time period of the kingdom was from (2080-1640 B.C.). </li></ul><ul><li>During this time period, Pharaohs were able to restore peace and end turmoil in Egypt. A canal was dug from the Nile to the Red Sea, promoting trade, and improving transportation. There was trade among Egyptians and foreigners. The beginning of a the writing system began during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians was accustomed to self-government or local government, since the First Intermediate Period; period of turmoil where Egyptians broke into many city-states. </li></ul><ul><li>New acres were created as farmland by draining the swamps of Lower Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom ended when Egyptians were invaded by Asian Nomads, also known as the Chariot riders. Chariot riders, Hyksos, later ruled Egypt from 1640- 1570 B.C. (also known as secondary intermediate). </li></ul>MIDDLE KINGDOM A chariot rider who invaded Egypt.
<ul><li>This Kingdom was between 1570 and 1075 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians were equipped with bronze weapons, and chariots. They were preparing in preparation for another attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut was the first ruler of the New kingdom. She encouraged trade. Her stepson, Thutmost III, on the other hand, was more warlike. </li></ul><ul><li>The New Kingdom was also known as The Age of Builders. They created pyramids, palaces, temples, and tombs. </li></ul>NEW KINGDOM Map E3: Egypt's border in the New Kingdom . Fig. 8 Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el-Barhi
Continuation of New Kingdom <ul><li>Egyptians conquered parts of Syria, and Palestine, which formed conflicted with Hittites (whom also wished to conquer these lands). A battle was created, there was a stalemate, therefore, they signed a peace treaty. In this treaty, both sides promised to help the other, in times of need (an alliance was formed). </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt's last kingdom crumbled due to invasion by “the people of the sea”. Egypt broke apart into various neighboring regions. During these invasions, Egypt was able to influence other regions through cultural diffusion. </li></ul>In this picture there are two Hittite warriors.
Bibliography (MLA Format) <ul><li>The Ancient Egyptian Site. 2 July, 2008. November18, 2008. < http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html > </li></ul><ul><li>Carr, Karen. "Middle Kingdom Egypt" Kidipede - History for Kids. November 21, 2008. November 21,2008 <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/history/middlekingdom.htm.> </li></ul><ul><li>Hooker, Richard. “The New Kingdom 1550-1070 B.C.” 6-6-1999. November 19,2008. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/EGYPT/NEW.HTM </li></ul><ul><li>PICTURES </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/chariot18.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.pleaseconvinceme.com/uploads/Hittites.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://z.about.com/d/archaeology/1/0/A/n/step_pyramid.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibits/egypt/images/nilemap.gif </li></ul><ul><li>http://library.thinkquest.org/J002046F/old.gif </li></ul>
THESIS The Egyptian leaders created a strong government. The strong, stable foundation allowed cities to prosper numerously, as well as the attention given to art.
<ul><li>5000 B.C. or perhaps even earlier, Egyptians lived in farming villages. Each village had its own rituals, gods, and chieftain. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 2660 to 2180 B.C., Lower and Upper Egypt were united into one, thus beginning the Old Kingdom. The Old Kingdom set the pattern for Egypt’s great civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy, a type of government in which a ruler is a divine figure, ruled Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the king was different from those in Mesopotamia. The Egyptian kings were considered as god, almost as splendid the and powerful as the gods of the heavens. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptian gods- kings became known as pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs were the center of Egypt’s government (and religion). </li></ul><ul><li>The people believed that the pharaoh bore responsibility for the kingdom’s well- being, the Nile to flood and the crops to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the pharaoh who caused the sun to rise with land. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids were built as a resting place for the pharaoh and his queens. The belief of ka continued throughout the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Building the pyramids showed that the dynasties had developed the strength to support government organization to carry them out. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Viziers were responsible for the registration of people and property for tax purposes. These people recorded transactions dealing mostly full responsibility for the kingdom’s well- being. Viziers were able to succeed the king as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The government structure included: viziers, army commanders, chief treasurers, the minister of public works, and tax collectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation was paid for mostly through labor and goods. People were drafted to serve in the army if necessary and were forced into labor to pay labor tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws in Egypt were based on the crimes being committed. Some punishments were lenient like caning or as severe as dismemberment and executions. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Memphis </li></ul><ul><li>- Memphis was the capitol of Egypt. It was in between Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaoh Menes wanted to unite these to governments therefore locating the capitol in the middle. However, Memphis only lived during the Old Kingdom. The king Menes had made this place his residence. After his death, Memphis did not fall but became of another importance. It became the center of Lower and Middle Egypt. This important city was used for politics. Tutankhamen, an Egyptian pharaoh took up residence in Memphis and not in Thebes, where his predecessors had. </li></ul>http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3277/2571021583_f80286f8b7.jpg?v=0
<ul><li>Maadi </li></ul><ul><li>- Maadi is not only the name of an ancient Egyptian settlement, but is also used to define a specific culture of the 4th millennium BC, though by the middle of that period it had already been abandoned. It is closely associated with Buto, the other Lower Egyptian stronghold of early civilization which may predate Maadi, and might certainly have existed concurrently with Maadi. </li></ul><ul><li>- The site of Maadi is located on a narrow ridge in the mouth of the Wadi al-Tih. Though on the surface, it appears to have the typical characteristics of a Northern Egyptian Predynastic farming village, evidence unearthed in this location suggests otherwise. Certainly agriculture was a primary economic factor in this settlement, but there was also an emphasis on trade, metallurgy and foreign contacts that was unknown in other northern sites. </li></ul><ul><li>- Between about 3600 and 3000 BC, a number of innovations took place at Maadi that brought Egypt into the realm of the international world. Trade dominated this settlement more than any other contemporary sites, and it had few rivals in Egypt even during later periods. Its location within the Wadi al-Tih, the main historic route to the copper mines of the Sinai, together with the presence of housing obviously of a foreign type and pottery, domesticated donkeys, elaborate storage facilities and a well developed copper industry all evidence the importance of it role as a trade center. </li></ul>http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/cities.htm
Important People <ul><li>Scribes had to know how to read and write. The writing system were hieroglyphics. The Egyptian state was administered by scribes. These people were able to preserve Egypt’s history, beliefs and ideas on ancient Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests played a major role in Egypt’s society. The Egyptians believed the gods lived in the temples. Only the priest was allowed to enter the sacred area of the temple and approach the statue representing the god or goddess. The people could pray at the gate or in the court to the Pharaoh. The priests role was to care for the needs of the god and goddess. However, these people do not care to help the people’s morals nor to educate them in religion. </li></ul>http://www.livius.org/a/1/egypt/herculaneum_fr_isis_priests3.JPG http://web.ukonline.co.uk/gavin.egypt/images/scribe6.jpg
<ul><li>Pharaohs were divine and god- like mortal. The pharaoh was believed to be a god, not a representation. Egyptians the center of the Egyptian world. The religion and government revolved around a single, assumed that their king bore full responsibility for the kingdom’s well- being. It was the pharaoh who caused the sun to rise, the Nile to flood, and the crop’s to grow. It was known that promoting truth and justice was an obligation of the pharaoh. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menes- Menes was the first pharaoh of the 1 st Dynasty. (3100-2850 B.C) The king unified Lower and Upper Egypt. He also founded the city of Crocodopolis and the city of Memphis. Memphis became the capitol and there he built the first temple to Ptah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut- A women, Hatshepsut became the pharaoh of Egypt. He father Thothmose I died therefore his son, Thothmose II took over. However, he was only half royal blood. According the Egyptian rule, to become full illegible to become a pharaoh, the person has to marry a royal blood; a sister, half sister. Hatshepsut was his half sister. They ruled for a number of years until Thothmose II reached his manhood and she had claimed herself as pharaoh. In Egypt, women had the right to own land and inherit from family members however, a women had never proclaimed herself as the pharaoh of Egypt. </li></ul></ul>
Art/ Architecture <ul><li>Pyramids were huge projects built in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>These monuments were tombs made for the pharaoh and his queens. </li></ul><ul><li>Laborers, slaves, men began working on these projects very early. The king wanted the pyramid to be done so that when he died, he may rest peacefully inside his tomb. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed that their king ruled even after his death. They called his eternal spirit, ka. This continued in the government of Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Kings expected to reign forever thus feeling the need to have a place to rest. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Pyramid of Giza – the limestone was quarried 400 miles upriver. Each stone was cut perfectly, at least 2 ½ tons each. Then, more than two million were stacked on top of one another rising to a height of 481 feet. </li></ul>http://www.talariaenterprises.com/6400_6599/6565a.jpg
<ul><li>Egyptian artists did not focus on shadow or light in their art work. Their drawings were in straight, horizontal lines. The paintings usually reflected on the people’s permanent life. Strenuous labor, fleeting images were not often drawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Before making a final drawing, the artists made grids; guidelines. These lines allowed them to draw the people, objects in the correct proportion. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors were important in art as any other ornament to a painting. Egyptian artists used pure colors. The colors were symbolic, for example, blue and green meant water and vegetation; the Nile. Yellow and gold represented the sun and the son god. Red and red- orange was the desert, power, blood and vitality. </li></ul><ul><li>However, these artists were not permitted to be…unique. Egyptian artists actually worked in groups. Not individuals and conformity were encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>When an artist works on a project, he or she does not draw what they see literally. Instead, they portray the symbol behind the divine figures. For example, the pharaoh would not only be drawn as a person, a man. He will be painted as a god. He will be painted as the divine figure that all Egyptians know a pharaoh to be. </li></ul>
MLA Citation <ul><li>"Ancient Egypt Online ." Attic Designs . 17 Nov 2008 <http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/ancient-egypt-government.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Laite , Holly . "Menes Pharaoh of Dynasty 1 ." 2000. 18 Nov 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/history/people/menes.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Parsons, Marie . "Tour Egypt ." http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/government.htm. 17 Nov 2008 <http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/government.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Seawright, Caroline . "Hatshepsut, Female Pharaoh of Egypt." 6 November 2000. 25 Nov 2008 <http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/hatshepsut.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.beyondknown.com/en/photo/pyramids.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.metmuseum.org/explore/newegypt/htm/a_index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.guardiantravel.com/saqqara.jpg </li></ul>
Interaction with different empires influenced Egypt’s culture, religion and technological advancements. Daily Life in Egypt
Egyptian Religion Fig. II Isis- A protector Goddess, and divine mom and wife) and her son Horus- God of Light Fig. I A Pharaoh during the New Kingdom <ul><li>Ancient Egyptian lifestyle was based very much on religion </li></ul><ul><li>The Government was a theocracy, meaning it was based on religious theories </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian’s believed that their kings were gods on Earth and they eventually became known as pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egypt was polytheistic, meaning they believed in many gods (over 2,000 actually) </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most important gods and goddesses were: </li></ul><ul><li>~Ra- He was the sun god, and the father of all gods </li></ul><ul><li>~Horus – He was the god of light and the son of Isis </li></ul><ul><li>~ Isis- She was the most important goddess and a divine mother and wife. She was also one of the four protector goddesses </li></ul>
<ul><li>They believed strongly in the Afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that someone who spent their life committing sins would have a heart heavier then a feather and on judgment day, their heart would be eaten by the Devourer of Souls </li></ul><ul><li>On the contrary, one who had a heart that was lighter then a feather, would be sent to the “Other World” for eternal life </li></ul>Fig. IV Bastet- the Cat-Goddess <ul><li>They believed that if mummified when dead, their souls would be kept alive and they’d safely find their way to the Other World </li></ul><ul><li>They built temples and sacrificed animals for the important gods </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that cats were sacred: they made cat statues to keep away evil and they mummified cats </li></ul><ul><li>Bastet (Bast) was a cat- goddess who they believes was the patron of cats, women and protection </li></ul>Egyptian Religion Continued Fig. III Weighing a heart against a feather on the day of Judgment
Science and Technology <ul><li>Writing: </li></ul><ul><li>developed hieroglyphics which started out as pictures that stood for ideas but gradually it changed to pictures that to stood for sounds, too </li></ul><ul><li>wrote on clay and stone and later on papyrus (a plant that when split, wet, and then dried, acts like paper) </li></ul><ul><li>Math: </li></ul><ul><li>developed a written number system </li></ul><ul><li>developed a sort of geometry which was used after flooding to get all the property back to the right people </li></ul><ul><li>They used math to help them to develop their extraordinary architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Advancements: </li></ul><ul><li>- used minor surgery </li></ul><ul><li>- knew how to treat broken bones </li></ul><ul><li>- they could check the pulse </li></ul><ul><li>- knew how to treat fevers </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the calendar: </li></ul><ul><li>- originally made so the Egyptians could plan for the planting season </li></ul><ul><li>- they observed the star Sirius rise every 365 days and they based their calendar on this </li></ul><ul><li>- the Egyptians broke up the 365 days into twelve months , each with thirty days (and five extra for holidays) </li></ul>OLD KINGDOM Fig. V Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics Fig. VI Ancient Egyptian calendar
<ul><li>MIDDLE KINGDOM </li></ul><ul><li>A canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea </li></ul><ul><li>this increased trade and transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Farming Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>- dikes, which are banks that can control water, were constructed improving irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>NEW KINGDOM </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural improvements </li></ul><ul><li>- build very large, incredible, temples and tombs </li></ul><ul><li>Farming Technology </li></ul><ul><li>-Shaduf: this was new farming technology that helped spread water to places that needed fertilizing therefore allowing the flooding to be used more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>War Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>- bronze weapons </li></ul><ul><li>- two wheeled chariots </li></ul><ul><li>- large strong armies </li></ul>Science and Technology continued Fig VII An Egyptian using a shaduf to bring water to the dry land
Culture and Customs <ul><li>Believed in After Life very strongly </li></ul><ul><li>One important custom of Egypt was Mummification which was a 70 day process that would preserve a person’s soul for after life </li></ul><ul><li>- Performers of this ritual were highly trained priests called embalmers </li></ul><ul><li>- Anubis is the god of surgeons and embalmers would where a mask of Anubis because that meant he was guiding them as they worked </li></ul><ul><li>- The priest would remove all of the organ from the deceased, dry them out with spices and salt and place them in canopic jars which had spells written on them </li></ul>- Like the organs, the body was also dried out with spices and salt to keep from rotting - The body was then wrapped in linen and a death mask was places on his head (the death masks of pharaohs some times would be solid gold) - the wrapped body would be placed in a coffin along with his most prized possessions that he could use in his afterlife Fig. VIII Mummy of the Chief Treasurer Ukhhotep (detail), Dynasty 12 (ca. 1991–1786 B.C.)
<ul><li>Social Classes- </li></ul><ul><li> King, Queen and the royal family </li></ul><ul><li> Wealthy land owners, government officials, priests, army commanders </li></ul><ul><li> Merchants and artisans </li></ul><ul><li> Peasants, farmers, unskilled laborers </li></ul><ul><li> Slaves (later periods) </li></ul>Culture and Customs Continued <ul><li>Women's’ Rights- </li></ul><ul><li>- In Egypt, women were not perceived to be as inferior as in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>- women could hold property and they could file for divorce or seek marriage </li></ul><ul><li>The role of animals in Egyptian culture- </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed that the Gods created the animals and so they treated them with respect </li></ul><ul><li>Some, like cattle, were very useful because they gave them both food and aid in the fields </li></ul><ul><li>Horses, once they imported to Egypt, were a status symbol. They would be used honorably in battle or owned by the VERY wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Many animals would even be mummified </li></ul><ul><li>This done was either because it would please the animal gods or sometimes because an Egyptian was close to his pets and wanted them to live on with him in the afterlife </li></ul>
<ul><li>Even in ancient times make-up was still a big part of culture- </li></ul><ul><li>- Dark eye-liner was fashionable and also softened the suns glare </li></ul><ul><li>- Red ocher and oil was used to make lipstick </li></ul><ul><li>- They used flowers and oil to rub on their skin, to keep them sweet smelling and to protect their skin from the dry air </li></ul><ul><li>- They melted wax in the heat to change their hairdo’s </li></ul>Culture and Customs Continued <ul><li>Clothing was mostly made of linen or cotton since the weather was warm in the summer and still mild in the winter </li></ul><ul><li>Women wore simple dresses and men wore kilt-like outfits which grew in length as time progressed </li></ul><ul><li>They did have some musical instruments like harps and flutes which they played at parties and religious events along with singing </li></ul>Fig. IX This shows what the men wore and how it progressed over time (left to right) Fig. X An Egyptian cosmetics box (1550-1250 B.C.)
Egypt's interaction with differnet Empires <ul><li>Trade: </li></ul><ul><li>- The Nile River had a huge impact on Egypt’s interaction with other Empires by serving as a reliable source of transportation and therefore making trade flourish </li></ul><ul><li>- The Nile helped Egypt to trade with other empires to get resources they lacked </li></ul><ul><li>They had sea trade routes that went to Cyprus, Crete, Greece, Syro-Palestine, Punt, Nubia, and more </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamian Influence: </li></ul><ul><li>By 3200 B.C. Egypt was in contact with Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt seems to have borrowed many ideas off Mesopotamia through cultural diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Most significantly, Egypt borrowed Mesopotamia’s writing system (pictures representing sounds or ideas) which had a VERY large influence on all aspects of Egyptian life from there on forward </li></ul><ul><li>They borrowed Mesopotamian technology like the cylinder seal, stone mace-head, architectural designs, and aspects of art </li></ul>Fig. XI Map of Mesopotamia
interaction with differnet Empires Continued <ul><li>The Indian influences- </li></ul><ul><li>Trade increased between Egypt and the Indus during the Middle Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton was imported from the Indus Valley which had an impact on Egyptian clothing and how it was made </li></ul><ul><li>Mummies, a large part of Egyptian culture and religion, have been found wrapped in cotton muslin which was imported from India </li></ul><ul><li>Iran and Afghanistan- </li></ul><ul><li>- brought make-up (the oils and eye paints talked about earlier) over to Egypt. These cosmetics were very much a part of Egyptian culture </li></ul><ul><li>From Byblos (on the Lebanese coast) and Africa, Egypt traded for wood </li></ul><ul><li>- This was crucial for Egyptian life because the wood was used for houses furniture and most importantly, for navy ships which helped to protect Egypt from invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Palestine and Syria in 1400 B.C. brings cedar, more oils, unguents, horses </li></ul>Fig. XII Dark Egyptian eye paints such as this were brought to Egypt from Iran and Afghanistan
interaction with differnet Empires Continued <ul><li>Nubian influence- </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt invaded Nubia in the middle 1400’s B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>From Nubia, Egyptians returned with ivory, gold and copper mines which Egyptians used for their impressive architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with Nubia also brought cattle and slaves to Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>This interaction with Nubia also gave Egypt land routes to Kush and Punt which were great for trading and therefore cultural diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Nubia was located between the Mediterranean Sea and Egypt, to the north, the Red Sea, to the east, and Africa, to the south. This linkage helped Egypt to interact and trade with a much larger area (therefore increasing diffusion of ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>For hundreds of years after Egypt invaded Nubia, the two were always somewhat connected causing ideas and aspects of daily life to constantly flow back and forth </li></ul>Fig. XIII Map of Nubia
MLA WORKS CITED Beck, Roger B. , Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger , Phillip C. Naylor , and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell, 2001. Carr, Karen . "Egyptian Religion ." Kidipede . 7 May 2007 . 16 Nov 2008 <http://historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/religion/index.htm>. Deepavali , Subh . "India and Egypt ." Hindu Wisdom . 28 October 2008. 18 November 2008 <http://www.hinduwisdom.info/India_and_Egypt.htm>. Dollinger , André . "Aspects of Life in Ancient Egypt ." Pharaonic Egypt . 2000. 17 Nov 2008 <http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/index.html>. "Life in Ancient Egypt ." Carnegie Museum of Natural History . 16 Nov 2008 <http://www.carnegiemnh.org/exhibits/egypt/index.htm>. Light, Melanie . "The Role of Animals of Ancient Egypt." History Hunters International 2006 161. 21 Nov 2008 <http://historyhuntersinternational.org/index.php?page=161>. “ The Religion of Ancient Egypt.” EMuseum @ Minnesota State University. 2007. 15 Nov. 2008. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/religion/religion.html>.
Conclusion Egypt’s geography, their solid foundation and their interaction with other cultures contributed to their prosperity in the Old, Middle and New Kingdom. However, around 530 B.C., Ancient Egypt fell to the Persians.