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C&e unit 1 powerpoint


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C&e unit 1 powerpoint

  1. 1. By: Tessa Hoffmann, RachelNavarro & Emma Hadley
  2. 2. Types of Government:• Monarchy-ruled by a king or queen• Dictatorship- ruled by one with military force• Theocracy-ruled by religious leaders• Oligarchy-ruled by few• Democracy-ruled by citizens
  3. 3. 2 types of Democracy-Direct-all citizens have a chance to vote for any law/actionRepresentative-citizens elect officials to make decisions ontheir behalfBranches of Government-• Legislative branch-makes laws• Executive branch-enforces laws• Judicial branch-interprets laws
  4. 4. • England has historically been a monarchy• King John 1 signed the Magna Carta which established these current rights: • Accused are guaranteed a trial by jury • Accused are innocent until proven guilty • All citizens are guaranteed justice • All citizens have to follow the same laws and will be punished the same for breaking those laws
  5. 5. Parliament-• Originally the kings advisors• The first time Parliament had more power than the king was during the Glorious Revolution• Used common laws (based on customs and precedents) to make decisions
  6. 6. • This was a time when Europeans began to question traditional ideas about many areas, especially government and how it should be run.Here are some enlightenment philosophers…
  7. 7. Helped pave the way to the American Revolution. He believed…• The purpose of government is to protect natural rights (life,liberty,property…)• In a social contract where citizens agree to give up some freedoms for protection from the government
  8. 8. Baron de Montesquieu- he believed government power should be split into three branchesJean-Jacques Rousseau-he believed all men are created equalVoltaire-he believed in separation of church and state
  9. 9. Early government in the Colonies-• Mayflower Compact: established self-government by written law in Plymouth Colony• House of Burgesses: first form of representative set up in VA colony
  10. 10. The king only allowed the colonies to trade with Englandwhich made England richer and more powerful. This iscalled Mercantilism.
  11. 11. • Late 1750’s to early 1760’s• England and the colonies fought France for a part of American land• This war caused heavy debt so the colonist were taxed by the British crown
  12. 12. • Said colonists couldn’t settle west of the Appalachian mountains• Colonists didn’t like this law
  13. 13. • All printed documents now had to have a stamp• The colonists rebelled and the act was repealed• Lead to the Boston Massacre where 5 colonists were killed
  14. 14. • England passed the Tea Act which taxed tea• Sons of Liberty lead a revolt and dumped all to the tea from British tea ships into the Boston Harbor
  15. 15. • Was a form of punishment for the Boston Tea Party• Formally called the Townsend Acts• Said there would be no trial by jury in the colonies• The Quartering Act forced colonists to house and feed British soldiers• Set a up a blockade on Boston Harbor which put hardships on Boston residents
  16. 16. • Held in Pennsylvania• All colonies were represented except Georgia• Sent King George III the Declaration of Rights and Grievances asking him to repeal the acts, marking the first time the colonies acted together against the crown• King George III responded with the battles of Lexington and Concord, defeating the colonists both times
  17. 17. • Held in Massachusetts• All colonies were represented• Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense calling for independence from England• After lots of debate, delegates decided to send a Declaration to the King
  18. 18. • Thomas Jefferson was the main writer, basing his ideas off of those of the enlightenment philosophers• It listed 27 complaints against England• Led to the American Revolutionary War
  19. 19. Problems facing the United States-• Heavy debt• Federal government had no power to tax so states placed heavy taxes on citizens causing many businesses to fail
  20. 20. • First form of American government• Had a unicameral congress with each state getting one vote• Had no executive or judicial branch
  21. 21. • Each state had only one vote• Had no power to tax• Couldn’t regulate foreign or interstate trade• No executive branch• No judicial branch• Unanimous vote needed to amend the AC’s• 9 out of 13 states was required to pass laws
  22. 22. • An army was created to prevent farmers from losing their land• Government had a hard time stopping it• Led the US to realize that they needed a stronger central government
  23. 23. • Delegates had to choose to amend the AC’s or scrap them and start over• Had to choose to have one large state or set up a federal system where power was divided between a central government and states
  24. 24. Virginia Plan-• Proposed by James Madison• Supported by states with large populations• Called for representation based on population
  25. 25. New Jersey Plan-• Proposed by William Patterson• Supported by states with small population• Called for equal representation
  26. 26. • Set up a bicameral legislature• Senate would have equal representation• House of Representation would have representation based on population• The most important compromise at the Convention
  27. 27. • Slave states wanted to count slaves as a part of the population• Decided that they could count 3 out of every 5 slaves as a part of the population
  28. 28. • Anti-federalists didn’t support ratification because they feared the central government would be too strong• Federalists supported ratification; wrote the Federalist Papers supporting stronger central government; promised to add a Bill of Rights if the Anti-federalists ratified the Constitution
  29. 29. • 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution before it went into effect• Went into effect on June 21, 1788• The Constitution could only be amended by a vote of the states