Teaching pronunciation


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Teaching pronunciation

  1. 1. Teaching Pronunciation The field of modern language teaching has developed two general approaches to the teaching of pronunciation:
  2. 2. The Intuitive-Imitative Approach <ul><li>The student listens to and imitates the rhythms and sounds of the target language </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Analytic-Linguistic Approach <ul><li>Uses the phonetic alphabet, descriptions on how to articulate words, charts and other aids to supplement listening, imitation and production </li></ul><ul><li>It explicitly informs the learner and focuses attention on the sounds and rhythms of the target language </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is used to complement rather than to replace the intuitive-imitative approach </li></ul>
  4. 4. How To Teach Pronunciation <ul><li>The communicative approach originated in the 1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suggests that using language to communicate should be central in all classroom language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligible pronunciation is necessary for communication to take place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How then do we teach pronunciation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers and developers of materials found that an emphasis on rhythm, word stress, sentence stress and intonation is the best way to organize a short-term pronunciation course for nonnative speakers </li></ul><ul><li>It is imperative for the instructor to have knowledge of the English sound system and to be familiar with a variety of teaching techniques which uses communicative activities </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Students Learn <ul><li>Several factors such as the learners’ ages, exposure to the target language, amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction, and their attitude and motivation to achieve intelligible speech patterns influences how students learn </li></ul><ul><li>Native language transfer also plays a role in learning proper pronunciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the goal is not to make learners sound like native speakers, even if that were feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is instead to enable learners to communicate and to avoid oral communication problems </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Strategies <ul><li>What strategies can teachers use to help students learn correct pronunciation communicatively? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the pronunciation of unintelligible speakers of English become intelligible? </li></ul><ul><li>Here is a list of some methods that places emphasis on getting the sounds right at the word level: </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methods <ul><li>Listen and imitate </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic training </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pair drills </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue twisters </li></ul><ul><li>Reading aloud/recitation focusing on stress, timing and intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Recording learners’ production of speeches, conversations and role plays </li></ul>
  8. 8. New Directions in Teaching Pronunciation <ul><li>According to Gilbert (1994), there are three guiding principles that can assist teachers in moving beyond traditional teaching practices, these include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using methods other than mechanical drills or rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasizing the musical aspects of pronunciation more than sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teaching real speech patterns and giving students practice in efficient guessing of what discourse signals imply </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. New Directions in Teaching Pronunciation <ul><li>This includes adapting authentic material taken from the fields of drama, psychology and speech pathology </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of fluency-building activities and accuracy-oriented exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This will appeal to visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic modes of learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructional technology will continue to play an important role in language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally agreed upon that a balance of methods of teaching pronunciation is optimal </li></ul>
  10. 10. Works Cited <ul><li>Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>Marianne Celce-Murcia, Donna M. Brinton, Janet M. Goodwin. Teaching Pronunciation. Cambridge University Press 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert J.B Intonation: A navigation guide for the listeners .(1994) </li></ul>