TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                          PageINTRODUCTION                ...
b) Speaking ……………………………………………………………                           43        c) Reading ……………………………………………………………..              ...
CHAPTER VCommunication and Language Skills Key Elements forBusiness Success …………………………………………………………………                     ...
F. Significance of Verbal Communications in the Business       Environment...................................................
1. Sentence Fragments ………………………………………………..                    109  2. Comma Splice ………………………………………………………..                ...
Assignment ………………………………………………………………………..                            132Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………..       ...
Introduction      This guide has been prepared for prospective or practicing TESOL teachers withlittle or no business back...
However, does not develop in detail any specific topics related to functional ororganizational areas of business, business...
teachers should continue doing TESOL research as a permanent way of learning andimproving on their own abilities to face d...
world that relies on adequate communication. Self- assessment and reflective questionscarried out by teachers and learners...
The following three chapters analyze factors out of the immediate control of theteacher, but having an enormous impact on ...
CHAPTER I                                                               3.0 hours   Course Organizational Activities    In...
Note: The teacher should welcome the students to the course and give clear      introductory encouragement and definitions...
However, in order to stimulate activity and learning, the student will only have twoweeks, after accessing each material, ...
g. Business Organizations.h. Team work in business organizationsi.   Culturej. Virtual Learning                           ...
CHAPTER II                                                                6.0 hoursPreparing the TESOL Business Teacher (a...
   TESOL teaching needs to be regulated and guided on moral and ethical grounds       to ensure honesty and fairness in t...
Because of these cultural and political differences among countries, it isimportant for teachers to be aware of conducts t...
Therefore, by communicating verbally and nonverbally in different ways we shapemessages that impact others in distinct way...
Business textbook; other online resources under the heading of introduction to Businessmight also be helpful.      Tell l...
 Basic concepts of corporate finance, economics, stock market                indicators and banking terminology and inter...
easy. One particular area of business that is fundamental to all business concern ismanagement.   The Business TESOL teach...
7. Entrepreneurship      8. Information Systems      9. International Business      10. Marketing      11. Management     ...
communication and office automatation equipment have open opportunities to linknumerous branches and subsidiaries around t...
broad perspectives and understanding of global interdependence on its              impact on businesses including TESOL.  ...
other. Grammar is the way we build sentences out of words.( Crystal, 2011) The       main requirement to be a good teacher...
D. Diagnostic Test of Basic English skills   1) You should prepare a diagnostic test for each student. An important aspect...
b. Adjective          c. Verb          d. AdverbIn the example above the learner should have select the letter “c” which c...
international sourcing that help reduce production cost and improve the quality of       products and related services. Su...
There are some principles of teaching which may help you do this. (Laubach etal. 1991) present numerous considerations for...
case it often involves on the job training in the LI country in order for non-white collarworkers of L2 background assimil...
Furthermore, the current status of TESOL development, still in the initial stagesat the global level, generates a broad ba...
The new responsibility of perspective TESOL teachers includes not only to teach       TESOL to business people or for busi...
topics typically using more professional jargon, conventions and updated research andsophisticated techniques that are wit...
-   Total Quality Management      -   Leadership      -   Systems Approach      -   Management      -   Business Finance  ...
6. Have learners research and describe which illustrative examples why           accounting is called the language of busi...
Crystal, David.     A Little Book of Language. Yale University Press. New Haven,Connecticut. 2011De Bravo, M. Technical En...
White, Ron ( 2001). Programme Management. In R. Carter& D. Nunan, TeachingEnglish to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th pri...
CHAPTER III                                                                5.0 hoursTeacher’s Knowledge of Pedagogy and Pr...
 The teacher must assess his own strengths and weaknesses,    Diagnose the learners needs,    Know the background and a...
successful. Effective teaching can only take place when teachers really know theirstudents and make continuous efforts to ...
The key defining feature of English for Specific Purposes, of which BusinessEnglish is a branch, is that its teaching and ...
The Laubach Literacy Action Teaching Adults Literacy Resource Book (1994 :) identifiesseveral practical ways for doing ini...
   On the other hand, the teacher may also diagnose the learners’ inferential             comprehension in areas where th...
experience.    Following this procedure, the development of instructional objectives andlesson plans can be develop using ...
   Teachers may use textbook or online guides to serve as reference when    selecting or combining methods.   TESOL Busi...
allow for more teacher guided exercises and individual attention to             individual students.          8) The natur...
    The lexical approach teach units that are alike such as groups of scientific words,     measurement words, or words c...
   Learners’ personal experiences constitute important inputs to the content of          the lesson.         Application...
3. Audiovisuals    4. Drills    5. Discourses    6. Demonstrations    7. Discussions    8. Displays and exhibits    9. Gui...
difficulty staying on task. This information enables the teacher to plan instructionaccordingly.   This part of the proces...
The planning in business TESOL courses is best done as a cooperative activity withlearners. Teachers must keep in mind tha...
their potential American suppliers as well as visiting the area and learning about       the American business culture. Th...
translation dictionary. As this is a business communication with emphasis on speaking,concepts and theoretical definitions...
The closure will be to keep the business executives alert and aware of theirpronunciations. The TESOL teacher will again s...
-   Tourist: I would like to go to the hotel Radisson Grand Plaza.          -   Native: It will be $29.00          -   Tou...
3. Why is it important to consider the learners cultural background and interest        when planning a class?   4. How ca...
Cruickshank, Donald R. Models for the Preparation of America’s Teachers. The PhiDelta Kappa Educational Foundation. Bloomi...
CHAPTER IVGlobal Factors Driving Business TESOL            - 7.0 hoursInstructional Objectives:   -   Discuss the function...
The long history of mankind shows the human need for social interaction as ameans for cooperation to fight against dangers...
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
TESOL for Business Course Book
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TESOL for Business Course Book

  1. 1. TABLE OF CONTENT PageINTRODUCTION 5CHAPTER I:Course Organizational Activities ………………………………………........... 12Assignments ……………………………………………………………………… 14CHAPTER II:Preparing the TESOL Business Teacher (a Micro- Professional Approach).. 16 A. Ethics and the Teaching of TESOL …………………………………….. 16 B. Basic Knowledge of Areas of Study in Business Education ………… 19 C. Knowledge of the Structure of the English Language ………………… 25 D. Diagnostic Test of Basic English skills ………………………………….. 27 E. Knowledge of the Impact of Communications on Business …………… 28 F. Guidelines for Teaching Adults and the Relationship to Business English ……………………………………………………………. 29Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 34Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 36CHAPTER IIITeacher’s Knowledge of Pedagogy and Procedural Aspects ………………… 39 A. Students’ Needs Assessment and Proficiency in Language ………….. 41 a) Listening comprehension ………………………………………… 43 1
  2. 2. b) Speaking …………………………………………………………… 43 c) Reading …………………………………………………………….. 43 d) Writing ……………………………………………………………… 44 B. Criteria for Selecting a Teaching Method ……………………………… 44 1. Lexical Method ……………………………………………………. 47 2. Audio-lingual Method ……………………………………………. 48 3. Communicative Method or Approach …………………………… 48 C. Teaching Techniques and Instructional Aids …………………………… 49 D. Business TESOL Lesson Planning …………………………………….... 50 1. Example of a Business Lesson Plan …………………………….. 52Assignments ……………………………………………………………………….. 56Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………… 57CHAPTER IVGlobal Factors Driving Business TESOL………………………………………. 59 A. The Human Expansion of Economic and Social Interactions ………. 59 B. Multinational Corporations as Drivers of Business TESOL ………….. 60 C. Supranational, Non- Governmental and Government Organizations as Drivers and Actors in the TESOL World ……………………………. 63 D. Other International Users of Business English ………………………… 64Assignments ……………………………………………………………………… 64Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………... 66 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER VCommunication and Language Skills Key Elements forBusiness Success ………………………………………………………………… 67 A. Importance and requirements for good communication ……………… 67 B. Different forms of Viewing Communications …………………………… 68 C. Selecting appropriate forms and medium of communication in business ………………………………………………………………….. 70 D. Purposes of Business Communications ………………………………… 72 E. Developing Effective Communication in Business ……………………… 74 F. The Importance of Business Etiquette ………………………………….. 77Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 79Recommended Readings ………………………………………………………….. 80CHAPTER VICultural Aspects for Effective Business TESOL ……………………………….... 81 A. The Role of Intercultural Communications in Business ………………… 81 B. The Relationships between Culture and Language …………………….. 84 C. Organizational Culture ……………………………………………………… 85 D. Nonverbal Communications as Cultural Elements Related to Business …………………………………………………………. 86 E. Functions of Non- verbal Communications ……………………………….. 87 3
  4. 4. F. Significance of Verbal Communications in the Business Environment........................................................................................ 89 G. The Role of the United States’ Business Culture as related to Business TESOL ………………………………………………………… 91Assignments ……………………………………………………………………… 94Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 95CHAPTER VIITechnological Development and Characteristics of Useful Information............ 98 A. Suggestion for using Fax ………………………………………………….. 100 1. Voice mail …………………………………………………………… 101 2. E-mail ………………………………………………………………… 101 B. Remember the five e-mail commandments ……………………………… 102 C. Characteristics of Quality Information for Business …………………….. 102Assignments ………………………………………………………………………… 103Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 104CHAPTER VIIIElements of Structure and Style for Effective Business Writing …………….. 105 A. Some Elements Required for Appropriate Writing …………………….. 105 B. Some Grammatical Elements to Observe in the use of TESOL Business …………………………………………………………... 106 4
  5. 5. 1. Sentence Fragments ……………………………………………….. 109 2. Comma Splice ……………………………………………………….. 110 3. Fuse Sentence ………………………………………………………. 111C. Function Of Words ………………………………………………………. . 115D. Word order ………………………………………………………………… 115E. Types of Sentences ………………………………………………………. 116 1. Interrogative Sentences ………………………………………….. 117 2. Imperative Sentences ……………………………………………. 118 3. Negative Sentences ……………………………………………… 118 4. Exclamatory Sentences …………………………………………. 118F. Guide to Correct Sentence Structure …………………………………… 118G. Consistent Sentence Structure …………………………………………. 119H. Working with plural nouns ………………………………………………. 120I. Agreement Of Pronoun And Antecedent In Gender ………………….. 121J. Pronouns / Antecedent Agreement in Number ………………………... 122K. Pronouns That Are Always Plural ……………………………………… 123L. Agreement Of The Pronoun With A Compound Antecedent ………… 124M. The Importance of Vocabulary Development ………………………… 125N. The Importance of Diction in Written Communications ……………… 128 a) Conciseness ………………………………………………………. 129 b) Concreteness ……………………………………………………… 129 c) Punctuation ………………………………………………………… 130O. Guide to Correct Spelling ………………………………………………… 130 5
  6. 6. Assignment ……………………………………………………………………….. 132Recommended Readings ……………………………………………………….. 135CHAPTER IXDevelopment of Language Skills for Business Applications …………………. 137 A. Developing Speaking Skills ……………………………………………… 142 B. Writing Skills ……………………………………………………………….. 151 C. Reading Skills for Business ………………………………………………. 158 D. Overcoming Language Problems ………………………………………… 168Assessment ………………………………………………………………………… 170Recommended Readings …………………………………………………………. 172 6
  7. 7. Introduction This guide has been prepared for prospective or practicing TESOL teachers withlittle or no business background and teaching experience, but with a strong desire toteach Business TESOL. It follows the principles of virtual learning. As such it seeks tohave learners take an active participation in their learning by developing online researchto complement the topics presented in each chapter. In preparing the guide, the basic assumption consisted in considering the mainclient for Business TESOL training in the world is the multinational organization. Thepotential learners, however, maybe current and perspective employees of thesemultinational companies, owners and employees of local companies and professionalsdealing with multinationals, government workers and supranational organizations, aswell as business travelers. All these individuals are or will be somehow linked to themultinationals internal or external communications network. That is, they will need tolearn some fundamental things related to communication and language in general, andthe use of English Language for communication in the business context as the morespecific challenge. Since multinational companies are the main force driving the need for BusinessTESOL, this guide recognize multinationals are ultimately shaping the type ofknowledge and abilities that Business TESOL teachers need to master. That is, thisguide provides a framework to understand the global environment of business and amodel to support teachers work in the field of business communications as well as basicbusiness management issues related to the use of English. 7
  8. 8. However, does not develop in detail any specific topics related to functional ororganizational areas of business, business professions or occupations such asaccounting, business law, management and others; neither is this guided oriented toany specific economic activity or industry such as hospitality, banking, shipping etc.Thousands of interesting business topics can be developed for use in TESOL, but mostare best suited for specific guides developed for specific purposes and context-situations directed at specific audiences and using the corresponding methodology andformats. The focus here, therefore, is much broader in scope, it relates to thefundamental language of business upon which all ideas, relations and interaction rest inthe business environment. That is, some elements of internal business communicationsas a tool to increase productivity and external business communication to obtaincheaper economic resources for use in the organization and increasing market shareswith appropriate accountability to the business owners. For perspective TESOL teachers, this document is useful; it provides insights,that help those without any international or national business experience; it is also veryhelpful to those without any teaching experience who find the traditional academic textson pedagogical issues very complicated. The highly specialized vocabulary of theteaching and business professions, more suited for high level academic studies, arereplaced with more concrete and practical terms in this document. We have strived tomake it learner- centered as we hope all teachers will do for their students. Again, ourmain audience is the non- college graduate that is seeking to teach business TESOL. The guide provides TESOL teachers with some insights about the real world ofbusiness education and the demand for these services worldwide. Nevertheless, 8
  9. 9. teachers should continue doing TESOL research as a permanent way of learning andimproving on their own abilities to face different situations in the field. The student-teacher must take the main responsibility for his/her learning with the guide of a helpingand friendly training program. The course focuses on practical problems that teachers may face while teachingTESOL. The emphasis is on learning to do informal and formal assessments, lessonplanning and delivering instruction in line with what the skills that the business worlddemands from workers. Consequently, this work seeks to present materials in ways thatTESOL teachers, around the world, can understand and relate to their local contextwithout the use of highly technical terminology or professional jargon that is typical of inmost texts related to the business field. Most important in this context, therefore, is to provide TESOL business teachersthat don’t have a background in business with some information about the world ofbusiness as it is evolving in the international arena. TESOL business teachers must firstunderstand the grand scene of global business and their role in it, before they can reallyappreciate the value of their commitment and their potential contributions to this calling. Some information and activities, of course, are directed to the future teacherswith the purpose of awakening their interest in making the connections between the useof the English language as a tool for global business expansion and increasing leanersstandards of living around the world. This implies that teachers without businessbackground will picture a business organization and the vital role that English skills playin today’s society. Teachers should also reflect on the many aspects of the business 9
  10. 10. world that relies on adequate communication. Self- assessment and reflective questionscarried out by teachers and learners are cornerstones in this system. The content of the course can also be adapted to classroom environments bymaking the corresponding methodological and contextual adjustments. While privateand public educational institutions are struggling to respond to the market demands forqualified workers that can communicate in English, the study of businesscommunications techniques, has been largely neglected. Knowledge of specialized vocabulary or occupational lingo is of little valuewithout proper grammar, pronunciation, writing and communication skills. L2 learnersneed to have a solid foundation in the basic language skills and communicationtechniques. Business communication techniques and specialized vocabulary in contextmust be taught together in order to achieve effective communication for differentbusiness purposes. The first chapter reminds the teacher of the need to establish goodcommunication and rapport with the learners. There is also a need to provide generalorientations and aspects related to method, interactions and course evaluation. The next two chapters deal with issues related to the teacher’s professionalconduct and basic knowledge of teaching procedures. These are foundational issuesthat all TESOL teachers should know of his/ her benefit. These are more teacheroriented information; generally, this information is not transferred to the learners. It is forthe teacher’s own professional development, use and reflection in professional practice. 10
  11. 11. The following three chapters analyze factors out of the immediate control of theteacher, but having an enormous impact on TESOL such as the role of multinationaland their English communications needs as well as cultural factors related to languageteaching and business customs. The final three chapter deals with the impact oftechnology and characteristic of information to meet the quality requirements of users,the importance of form and style to maintain good business relationships with internaland external business associates and finally the development of language skills toenhance business communications. With this road map as guide and the suggested assignments and readings, theAmerican TESOL Institute offer those interested in teaching Business TESOL in theUnited States and abroad an interesting way not only to get started in a satisfyingenterprise beside current and future business leaders that without doubt shouldappreciate the teachers’ efforts and his/ her language and culture, but also equallyimportant be a valuable person in the struggle to provide new knowledge andtechnologies to the rest of the world. 11
  12. 12. CHAPTER I 3.0 hours Course Organizational Activities Instructional Objectives: - Define the type of teacher- student interaction for the course. - Establish an environment of trust, friendship and cooperation in the classroom. - Explain the importance of team work in business organizations and class environments. - Establish the learner’s and teacher’s responsibilities in the virtual learning process. - Describe the course methodology and evaluation system. Teacher’s Questions to Elicit Interest 1. Why is it important for students and teachers get to know each other? 2. What activity can be designed to help develop friendship and cooperation in the class? 3. What benefits will cooperation produce for classroom participants? 4. How will the student’s grade be determined in this course?Introduce yourself to the students; they might be waiting to know about the person thatwill lead the training and interact with them.  The most important way to begin this constructive relationship is to take the lead by sharing something about your background. 12
  13. 13. Note: The teacher should welcome the students to the course and give clear introductory encouragement and definitions related to concepts such as the differences between General English and Business English as well as some key differences between online teaching and face- to face teaching. The best and easiest way to do this is to have an online link to which the students can see a picture of the teacher and listen to a taped material with this introductory material. The program should have a link for contacts. The students should use this link to contact the teachers for all communications. The student must listen and read all introductory materials for the course and contact the teacher with any question or concern before starting the first content unit. Explain the course methodology, expectations for students and course evaluationsystem. It is critical for students to understand that with online courses there are manybenefits, but also the student’s role is different than in traditional classroom settings.Here the student assumes greater responsibility for his active learning, and the teacherrole is to guide the learning. This methodology implies that the student will have to domany online researches, read materials presented by the instructor and present criticalfeedback as well as demonstrate understanding by making application of Englishcommunication skills to the business context. Present the course outline as part of the taped introductory module that youhave prepared. Explain that there is no fixed schedule for this course. Each studentwill complete the course according to his/ her performance and speed convenience. 13
  14. 14. However, in order to stimulate activity and learning, the student will only have twoweeks, after accessing each material, to complete the respective assignments. Explain the procedures for evaluation and completion of the course. Thisintroductory chapter will not be graded, but it remains a preparatory requirement beforethe student can gain access to any business content unit. All other chapters and unitswill be graded according to the weight established for the respective section inaccordance to its significance as related to the overall goals of the course and thestudent’s performance.Assignments - 2 .0 Points 1. The student must present, in writing, a brief description of his background including knowledge of English and business skills. The student should also indicate his/ her expectations about the course in order to guide the instructor’s assistance. 2. Have each learner research online the meaning of the following concepts and provide a prediction about how he/ she thinks the respective term relates to this course: a. Business TESOL b. Business Communications. c. Business Functional Areas. d. Business Organizational Areas e. English Language Skills f. Learner- centered environment 14
  15. 15. g. Business Organizations.h. Team work in business organizationsi. Culturej. Virtual Learning 15
  16. 16. CHAPTER II 6.0 hoursPreparing the TESOL Business Teacher (a Micro- Professional Approach)Instructional Objectives: - Describe the importance of ethical behavior for TESOL teachers. - Explain the importance of ethics in business education and professions. - Discuss the main characteristics of TESOL Business learners. - Describe the pedagogical and environmental factors to be considered when planning and implementing TESOL Business.Questions to Elicit Students’ Interest 1. What are the most important topics to teach in Business TESOL and how to teach them? 2. Which conducts and behaviors should TESOL teachers observed and how are they related to the business environment. 3. What are the characteristics of the typical Business TESOL student and how to deal with this reality? 4. Which methods are most appropriate for teaching Business TESOL? A. Ethics and the Teaching of TESOLThe relationship of ethics to TESOL can be viewed in two ways; 1) As it related to the TESOL profession and 2) As it relates to business environments. 16
  17. 17.  TESOL teaching needs to be regulated and guided on moral and ethical grounds to ensure honesty and fairness in the profession.  TESOL teachers must elevate the image of the profession anywhere they have been called to practice.  TESOL Business teachers need to understand the characteristic of the type of learners that take these courses and the environmental factors that make this king of teaching special.  TESOL teachers must know the basics related to pedagogical rules, techniques and procedures about of how best to approach their teaching mission. Ethics also call for teachers to know their subject matter in order to be effective in helping learners reach expected goal. Business ethics is fundamentally an attempt to make the moral life specific andpractical. The reason why the norms of business ethics in particular cultures often differfrom those of another culture is that universal guidelines [moral] are simple notappropriate instruments to determine practice or policy or to resolve conflicts that arerelated to specific economic, social or political circumstances of different group ofpeople. (Beauchamp & Bowie 2001) The distinction between moral and ethics is important. Moral rules are ofuniversal application. They are respected in all cultures. However, ethical rules aredifferent according to each culture. Differences in culture, language, dialects orterminology may result in miscommunications and posse significant barriers tointernational business relations. (Dobler, 1990) 17
  18. 18. Because of these cultural and political differences among countries, it isimportant for teachers to be aware of conducts that might be illegal or unethical indifferent parts of the world. Teachers should make an effort to understand each culture.Teachers should also study the code of ethics prepared by different professionalorganization as guide for their behaviors. On the other hand, ethical considerations are also critical to business leaders.Given the sensitive nature of internal and external information in businessorganizations, teachers must help learners understand and observe written ethical rulesand common business practices to avoid conflicts and even legal controversies. Businesses establish ethical rules because they invest a lot of resources andtime in their operations that are subjected to numerous risks. Therefore, they need toprotect that investment from both outsiders and insider’s actions. This observation iseven more important for middle and top managers that have access to sensitivebusiness information. Often, the managers with access to sensitive information represent the mostlikely candidates for TESOL business training in countries where English is not themain language since they manage the type of information that is required for marketingor monitoring and reporting purposes. Ethics plays a crucial role in communication. The nature of businessorganizations with different individuals constantly interacting in various capacities andsituations through different forms language represent opportunities for both positive andnegative developments and emotions. Words and actions carry meanings and values. 18
  19. 19. Therefore, by communicating verbally and nonverbally in different ways we shapemessages that impact others in distinct ways. Ethical communication must include allrelevant information, in every sense, and is not deceptive in any way. (Bovee & Thill,2000) Ethical issues are so important to business that many business and professionalorganizations have established written codes of ethics for guidance in some businesssituations. Ethical concerns are central to many accounting issues that may affect theentire world. For instance, less than a decade ago when Enron, a giant US corporation,failed to convince the public that its ‘audited’ financial statements were reliable, manyother large corporations suffered as consequence of the public’s poor perception aboutexternal auditors and corporate behaviors. (Kimmel. et.al, 2004) As a result, of these unethical practices, the US stock market declined and othermarkets linked to the US financial system around the world also felt the impact. In 2007another financial crisis surfaced in the US with unethical lending practices to thehousing sector as an important contributing factor. This also led to a global financialcrisis and international recession. Misleading business communications, therefore, canlead the world to severe economic crisis. B. Basic Knowledge of Areas of Study in Business Education Although the TESOL business teacher does not need to be an expert in anybusiness profession, having some basic knowledge in the following subject areas canbe helpful. Obtaining a general view of these and other business areas is relativelyeasy. The perspective TESOL business teacher can purchase online any introduction to 19
  20. 20. Business textbook; other online resources under the heading of introduction to Businessmight also be helpful.  Tell learners that TESOL teaching is a very complex, but interesting task. The list of topics and behaviors that a TESOL Business teacher must keep in mind and practice is almost unlimited. Nevertheless, at the micro- level or professional level, focus must be placed on some critical aspects for ensuring success. Here, then, are the main issues of this level:  Basic knowledge about the structure of all businesses from the organizational point of view: human resources, production, marketing, finance, and information. The teacher must understand how each function relates to the other as part of an integral system.  Basic understanding about the structure of managerial functions such as: planning, organizing, controlling, and directing as well as the interrelationship between them in all areas of business organization.  Clear, Concise and Correct English Communications skills with special focus on speaking and writing; especially spelling, mechanics and corrections of wordiness.  Proper forms and structure of writing business correspondence, including e-mails. (Almost all Business Communications Textbooks have chapters on these topics)  Basic knowledge of Accounting (The universal language of business), especially as it related to merchandizing concerns, international trade and financial statements analysis. 20
  21. 21.  Basic concepts of corporate finance, economics, stock market indicators and banking terminology and international trade.  Useful travel and tourism terminology. Common business phrases and protocols of the United States business culture.  Protocols for spoken communication (telephone, teleconferencing etc.)  Learning the vocabulary and jargon is important in all these cases but for the L2 learner, the appropriate word order, meaning and usage according to context together with his non-verbal communication skills in accordance with the targeted LI country is critical.  For English teachers of business courses, it is also important to know how to read and interpret graphs, charts, tables, and other visual materials used in descriptive statistics as well as general notions of sampling techniques from inferential statistics. The use of financial mathematics tables and formulas might also be useful in some cases.  Writing and Reading is very important to business people. Anyone planning to teach Business English should go over the glossary of an introduction to business textbook as well as the glossary to financial accounting textbook and chapter of a business communication textbook. Consulting these three basic types of materials online can also be very helpful. Although the TESOL business teacher does not need to be an expert in anybusiness profession, having some basic knowledge in the following subject areas canbe helpful. Obtaining a general view of these and other business areas is relatively 21
  22. 22. easy. One particular area of business that is fundamental to all business concern ismanagement. The Business TESOL teacher must know the meaning and activities of managementfunctions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. These activities arecarried out to move organizations toward goal accomplishment. (De Bravo, 1999)According to (Wood, 1996) the study of business is an exciting, rewarding field thatinvolves a global landscape that is always changing. She points out five major issuesconsidered to be crucial: ethical/ social responsibility, multicultural diversity, productivity,quality, and global competitiveness. While these issues remain important in recentyears business are also giving great importance to the development of communicationstechnologies and the use of the English language as a vehicle for understanding andgaining new technologies in the global context. And non- profit organizations areanalyzing the advantages and disadvantages of operations carried out by largemultinational companies. On a more specific level related directly to the professional areas of study(Brown & Clow, 1997) mention that the National Business Education Associationstandards for a model of National Business Curriculum established the following areas: 1. Accounting 2. Business law 3. Career Development 4. Communication 5. Computation 6. Economics and Personal Finance 22
  23. 23. 7. Entrepreneurship 8. Information Systems 9. International Business 10. Marketing 11. Management 12. Interrelationship of Business Functions. Awareness that above categories of business courses is important. Specificbusiness courses, for professions, occupations, industries, business types,organizational or managerial segments and general macroeconomic issues such asnational and/ or international events in productive and financial markets with directincidence on these microeconomic units constitute the virtually unlimited scope ofBusiness TESOL. Although all these aspects are important to business management and learnersof business functions, we must select an area to focus training of L2 students forbusiness purposes. Business communications, seems to be the most comprehensive subject; itprovides the opportunity to learn how to express messages effectivly for use in anyother subject and lays the foundation for understanding the social interactions that takesplace in the business world even when the world is becoming much more connected bymeans of information, and communications technologies and the growth of multinationalcompanies and other international institutions using the English language. This expansion of multinational companies and the development of new 23
  24. 24. communication and office automatation equipment have open opportunities to linknumerous branches and subsidiaries around the globe with their main offices, thusstimulating the need for a constant flow of information that must be communicated andshared among units and participants; the English language has increasingly become themost useful tool for communication of the business community worldwide. Businessinformation, however, must be formal and follow some rules of uniformity andacceptable quality for it to be useful to decision makers, particularly for control andaccountabilty to owners and investors. Today’s TESOL teachers must also receive some business training for twoadditional reasons: 1) Increasingly language institutes prefer to deal with people that understand how business work. They need people that can understand the important roles of their clients at home and abroad, including very importantly the students that receive training. The new responsibility of perspective TESOL teachers includes not only to teach TESOL to business people or for business purposes, but also to take into account business factors and behaviors in the planning and delivery of services of the training institutions. 2) The knowledge of macroeconomic factors and the impact on businesses in different countries is becoming increasingly important to understand the world we live in; most private institutions and schools that do the hiring of foreign and local TESOL teachers are seeking individuals with these 24
  25. 25. broad perspectives and understanding of global interdependence on its impact on businesses including TESOL. TESOL institutions and schools, like any other private business are concern withtwo interrelated aspects of their business:  The operational part or quality of the production and delivery of teaching (technical aspects), and  The economic concern related of how best to combine resources for obtaining the maximum benefits in the short and long- term. Both factors are so closely related that TESOL teachers need instructional goals that are economically feasible and technically appropriate for learners. Some teaching, such as most business communication and general accountingtopics, might be general in nature; attempting to satisfy the needs of a wide audiencewith broad range of backgrounds and occupations. Typically the industry specific orfunctional business English courses, develop more narrow and specialized topics oftenusing more technical vocabulary, professional conventions, and updated research andsophisticated techniques that are within the comprehension zone of these audiences.However, in both cases, the teacher that likes to deal with fictional work must make theadjustments to the more informational driven, facts and data-building enterprise ofTESOL business in its different contexts. C. Knowledge of the Structure of the English Language Verbal communication is very important in business. Words are used in standards ways of speaking and writing so that people can understand each 25
  26. 26. other. Grammar is the way we build sentences out of words.( Crystal, 2011) The main requirement to be a good teacher is that he must know is subject; the teacher must never stop learning about what he teaches.(Highet, 1989) The structure of English is the foundational structure of the language, includingBusiness English usages. Most functional writing, like in business, employs words at aliteral level of meaning. The structure of English is based on principles from morphology, a classificationof words according to their function and structural relationships, and syntax,conventional word patterns and relationships. Teacher must understand the distinction in morphological analysis betweenwords that might have changes due to inflections or by means of affix alternations suchas nouns, personal pronouns, adjectives and verbs. Other parts of speech such as:adverbs, prepositions, articles and conjunctions are not subject to changes. They areused in the organization of word sequences, phrases, and sentences. Teachers must also understand that on the other hand, syntax is the structure ofword relationships that convey meaning in categories as such: word order, sentencepattern, function words, inflections, formal contrasts, concord, and stress intonation.(Michaelis, et.al. 1967) The teacher’s knowledge of these grammatical rules and patterns are importantwhen preparing and grading student’s diagnostic test prior to the preparation andimplementation of lessons. 26
  27. 27. D. Diagnostic Test of Basic English skills 1) You should prepare a diagnostic test for each student. An important aspect to measure, giving the structured/ formal nature of the business world, is the student’s knowledge of grammar. This is an important element of standardization to enable all business people to communicate in the “same language”. 2) You may present the questions in a multiply choice format.Your duties are journalizing, posting transactions, and also to prepare financialstatements. Select the letter with the right answer from the choices below: a. Too many phrases/clauses strung together b. Structure not parallel c. Modifying elements misplaced (dangling modifier) d. Incomplete sentence. The student should have selected the letter “b” from the options above.A similar approach could be followed for identifying the parts of speech for the wordin bold in each sentence that you decide to present.The teacher will present several different parts of speech for the student to select thepart of speech that corresponds to the word in bold.Example: The accountant prepared a trial balance. a. Noun 27
  28. 28. b. Adjective c. Verb d. AdverbIn the example above the learner should have select the letter “c” which correspondsto verb as the right part of speech. E. Knowledge of the Impact of Communications on Business Effective Communication for customer satisfaction is critical for business success ina competitive environment. Quality products and services depend on effective listeningto consumer’s needs. Improved internal and external communications can help achievethe goals of any customer-satisfaction program. Customer satisfaction depends oncustomers’ expectations and experience as well as the company’s image in relation tothe products and services offered. (Bergman & Klefsjo, 1994) a) Communication of a quality policy from top management throughout all levels of the organization is an important procedure for all competitive companies. Improving quality means being able to communicate up, down, and across the organization to share whatever information is needed to get the job done. Information systems that allows information, particularly for quality performance measurements in relation to customer needs is crucial.(George & Weimerskirch 2000) b) Globalization, with reduction in transportation cost and trade barriers, is also allowing for global sourcing of raw materials and parts. Increasing understanding of different cultures and uses of common languages also tend to increase 28
  29. 29. international sourcing that help reduce production cost and improve the quality of products and related services. Suppliers typically produce goods and services to satisfy the needs of others. Using language skills to find out the needs of others create values in the forms of useful information for marketing purposes and corporate image. Time is a valuable resource in the business world. Efficient oral and written communications save time and cost to both producers and users of information. F. Guidelines for Teaching Adults and the Relationship to Business EnglishTell the students that the method of teaching business English must take into accountthe general characteristics of adult and near adults.  Teachers can use important adults’ qualities as leverage to propel the teaching learning process. Adults ability to reason, analyze, and systematize is a powerful force in learning environments. It is important to make use of their rational capacities, and abilities to think about language and business. These characteristics are even more important for adults since many have onlythe opportunity to progress through distance learning or online courses in which thelearner becomes an active participant with the teacher playing the role of an advisor andguide. Adults bring their lifelong experiences and often invaluable practical businessexperience to the table. These specific assets must always be put to produce use withthe help of an intelligent teacher in order to put the whole business into perspective. 29
  30. 30. There are some principles of teaching which may help you do this. (Laubach etal. 1991) present numerous considerations for working with adults. Here are someguidelines as applied to TESOL business to keep in mind for planning and teaching: 1. An adult’s mind has developed. That is, he can reason and judge. 2. An adult has a larger speaking vocabulary than a child even as related to business vocabulary. An adult may have working experience and even prior training in business related situations in a LI Language. 3. An adult is independent. That is he usually assumes responsibility for himself. He may also have greater motivation and interest, for personal reasons, in learning business English. 4. An adult usually has developed self-respect and has made a place for himself in his family and community. Generally an adult would respect the teacher and avoid problems of indiscipline. 5. An adult is busy with work and other responsibilities. 6. An adult expect to see tangible results and concrete applications of materials to his work environment. 7. An adult’s experience of failure and success will determine his attitude towards new attempts. 8. An adult has a responsibility to his company, community and country. Explain that Business English often is taught at a company’s premise. Thelearners can be a selected group of high ranked employees or a broader audiencedepending on the company’s purpose for introducing the English course. In the latter 30
  31. 31. case it often involves on the job training in the LI country in order for non-white collarworkers of L2 background assimilate into the LI culture and increase their productivity. In some cases large multinational companies with operations in the United Statesor other L1 may also develop an immersion type program where white-collar workersfrom subsidiaries and branches around the world are brought to a location in the LI fortraining in the English Language. Finally, the business English course could berequested by students or business people in a L2 country; they could be planning animportant business trip to the L1 country or preparing to do advance studies. In all these cases, the teacher will need to know exactly the students’ mainsubjects of interest and tailor the classes specifically to those needs. Students ofBusiness English are learning the language for practical business purposes and for themost part they have other important business activities to attend; they need highproductivity for their time and investment in taking English classes. Often the companypays and the learners are accountable for their output that is a company need. Some TESOL business courses are general in nature in that they can be to thebenefit of anyone, not a specific group of people. For example a course in businesscommunications focusing on US business protocol, intercultural interactions, or resumewriting. On the other hand, most occupational and professional development and/ orindustry sponsored courses related are of the second type. Example a TESOL courseon “Accounting for quality cost and long-term profitability” would be meet more specificneeds of companies. 31
  32. 32. Furthermore, the current status of TESOL development, still in the initial stagesat the global level, generates a broad base for this type of TESOL training even fromindividuals seeking personal and social mobilization in their societies. The morespecialized TESOL business courses seem more convenient for some professionalsalready with some recognition and seeking to obtain more expertise in specific areas,some university students seeking to do advance studies in English or multinationalscompanies with specific needs of local specialist to fit in specail roles in an internationalnetwork for expanding industries where the jargon is important for communicationamong members. This expansion of multinational companies and the development of newcommunication and office automatation equipment have open opportunities to linknumerous branches and subsidiaries around the globe with their main offices, thusstimulating the need for a constant flow of information that must be communicated andshared among units and participants; the English language has increasingly become themost useful tool for communication of the business community worldwide. Businessinformation, however, must be formal and follow some rules of uniformity andacceptable quality for it to be useful to decision makers, particularly for control andaccountabilty to owners and investors. Today’s TESOL teachers must also receive some business training for twoadditional reasons:  First, language institutes prefer to deal with people that understand how business work. They need people that can understand the important roles of their clients at home and abroad, including very importantly the students that receive training. 32
  33. 33. The new responsibility of perspective TESOL teachers includes not only to teach TESOL to business people or for business purposes, but also to take into account business factors and behaviors in the planning and delivery of services of the training institutions. (White, 2001)  Second, the knowledge of macroeconomic factors on the impact on businesses in different countries is becoming increasingly important to understand the world we live in. Most private institutions and schools that do the hiring of foreign and local TESOL teachers are seeking individuals with these broad perspectives and understanding of global interdependence on its impact on businesses including TESOL.TESOL institutions and schools, like any other private business are concern with twointerrelated aspects of their business:  The operational part or quality of the production and delivery of teaching (technical aspects), and  The economic concern related of how best to combine resources for obtaining the maximum benefits in the short and long- term. Both factors are so closely related that TESOL teachers need instructional goals thatare economically feasible and technically appropriate for learners. Some teaching, such as most business communication and general accountingtopics might be general in nature, attempting to satisfy the needs of a wide audiencewith broad range of backgrounds and occupations, while typically the more industryspecific or functional business English courses develop more narrow and specialized 33
  34. 34. topics typically using more professional jargon, conventions and updated research andsophisticated techniques that are within the comprehension zone of these audiences.However, in both cases, the teacher that likes to deal with fictional work must make theadjustments to the more informational driven, facts and data-building enterprise ofTESOL business in its different contexts. Currently, the balance seems to favor TESOL business teachers’ prepartionoriented to general business courses such as basic computers, general accounting andespecially business communications with emphasis on the output skills such asspeaking and writing. In some L2 countries there is a high demand for these type ofservices at private vocabulary and procedures for internal as well as externalcommunication with important clients. Awareness that above four categories of business courses is important. Specificbusiness courses, for professions, occupations, industries, business types,organizational or managerial segments and general macroeconomic issues such asnational and/ or international events in productive and financial markets with directincidence on these microeconomic units constitute the virtually unlimited scope ofBusiness TESOL.Assignments - 12.0 points 1. Define the following terms: - Operational Planning - Strategic Planning - Organizational Functions - Employee Induction 34
  35. 35. - Total Quality Management - Leadership - Systems Approach - Management - Business Finance - Investments - Marketing - Sales - Net Income - Assets - Liabilities - Shareholders - Business Segments - Operations Research2. Have students go online to find a code of Ethics for the TESOL profession.3. Provide a summary of the most relevant parts as it relates to the learners’ expectations about TESOL.4. Have learners make a list of seven things to remember when working with Adults.5. Have the learner assume the role of a human resource officer recruiting employees for a multinational. Explain what skills and behaviors would be required for any position. 35
  36. 36. 6. Have learners research and describe which illustrative examples why accounting is called the language of business? 7. Have the learners list the most important businesses in their community that exports goods or services .and connect that information to the need for teaching TESOL business English? Suggested ReadingsBeauchamp, Tom L. & Bovée, Norman E. Ethical Theories and Business. Sixth Edition.Pearson Education Company. Upper Saddle River, NJ 2001.Bergman, Bo & Klesfsjo, Bengt. Quality: From Customer Needs to CustomerSatisfaction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Lund, Sweden 1994.Bovée, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. Business Communication Today. Six Edition.Pearson Education Prentice Hall. Hupper Saddle River, New Jersey 2000.Brown, Betty J. & Clow, John E. GLENCOE. Introduction to Business. Our Businessand Economic World. Teacher’s Wraparound Edition. McGraw-Hill. Westerville, OH,1997.Carter, Ronald & Nunan, David ( 2001). Introduction. In R. Carter& D. Nunan, TeachingEnglish to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th printing. Cambridge U.K. CambridgeUniversity Press. 36
  37. 37. Crystal, David. A Little Book of Language. Yale University Press. New Haven,Connecticut. 2011De Bravo, M. Technical English for Business. Second Edition. McGraw Hill. Mexico1999.Dobler, Donald W. Burt, David N. & Lee Lamar Jr. Purchasing and MaterialsManagement. Text and cases. Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York, NY 1990George, Stephen & Weimerskirch, Arnold. The Portable MBA Series. Total QualityManagement. Strategies and Technique Proven at Today’s Most SuccessfulCompanies. John Whiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 1994.Highet, Gilbert. The Art of teaching. Vintage Books. New York, NY 1989.Kimmel, Paul D., Weygandt, Jerry & Kieso, Donald. Financial Accounting. Tools forBusiness Decision Making. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ 2004Laubach Literacy Action. Teaching Adults. An ESL Resource Book. New ReadersPress. Syracuse, NY 1996Laubach, Frank C., Kirk, Elizabeth M. & Laubach Robert S. Laubach Way To Reading.Teacher’s Manual for Skill Book 1. New Readers Press. Syracuse, NY 1991Michaelis, John, Grossman, Ruth & Schott, Loyd F. New designs for the ElementarySchool Curriculum. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY 1967. 37
  38. 38. White, Ron ( 2001). Programme Management. In R. Carter& D. Nunan, TeachingEnglish to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th printing. p. 194 -200. Cambridge U.K.Cambridge University Press.Wood, Nancy. College Reading and Study Skills. Fifth Edition. Harcourt Brace &Company. Orlando, FL 1996. 38
  39. 39. CHAPTER III 5.0 hoursTeacher’s Knowledge of Pedagogy and Procedural AspectsInstructional Objectives: - Identify appropriate procedures and sequence for assessing, planning, delivering and evaluating business TESOL instruction. - Demonstrate diagnostic skills that assist teachers in approximating L2 learners’ proficiency levels for lesson planning purposes. - Match Business learners’ needs with appropriate elements of teaching methods. - Discuss the importance of applying knowledge and use of modern technologies in Business TESOL as a work requirement in the global economy.Questions to Elicit Students Interest 1. How do teachers know where to start from in a course? 2. What do teachers need to do before beginning to deliver instruction? 3. Which are some methods that might be helpful when working with L2 business learners? 4. Why are some teachers more effective than others when dealing with business TESOL? Explain to learners that teachers not only need to know their subject matter, butalso equally important to teaching is the knowledge of how to effectively teach. Manyexperts in different subject don’t know how to teach. Teaching in general requires skillsin many areas: 39
  40. 40.  The teacher must assess his own strengths and weaknesses,  Diagnose the learners needs,  Know the background and abilities,  Understand the cultural and physical environment,  Be aware of the potential benefits and dangers of using each technology for assisting teaching,  Understand the pro, and contra of different learning and teaching strategies and methods, lesson planning, delivering instruction and evaluating student’s performance as well as other non- subject specific aspects. Moreover, L2 teaching has its own subject specific as related to the generallypoor supportive context for out of class practice; teacher’s requirement to assimilate andadapt to foreign culture; interference in learning form LI language; materials and textsinapplicable to local realities; students fear of making mistakes that undermine theirdevelopment etc. In addition, TESOL Business teachers after facing all thecomplexities of both general teaching and L2 teaching, must also face the manyaspects related specifically to the business fields such as: business ethics and legalresponsibilities; information quality in communications; business organizations structureand communications network; business etiquette and protocol; professional jargon andvocabulary in context; use and security of office equipment and technology in businessetc. Yet, interestingly enough, all these knowledge and requirements must focus onone central aspect; that is, the need to implement a learner’s center philosophy ofteaching; just as how businesses need to focus their attention on the clients to be 40
  41. 41. successful. Effective teaching can only take place when teachers really know theirstudents and make continuous efforts to satisfy their students’ needs. A. Students’ Needs Assessment and Proficiency in Language  Explain to students that teachers need to learn about students’ through initial assessments because it serves as a baseline from which to plan and judge the progress made. Effective teachers learn as much as they can about their students in order to provide adequate help. These teachers used several methods to obtain information such as students’ previous records, observations, different types of test etc. These forms of assessments must indicate to the teacher what the students already has learned and what the teacher still needs to help the student with. Teachers must assess the learners’ interest, current skills, and aims. This information then guides the structuring of a learning atmosphere and selection of methods most satisfying and effective for the learners.  Like in other forms of TESOL teaching learners assessment of proficency levels and needs must be determined before planning and instruction. However, in TESOL business the needs assessment is crucial since, with the exception of academic settings, the principal reason for these training is to satisfy a corporate or individual’s need as a urgent necessity related to the business world, instead of merely academic preparation for the future. People engaged in business don’t have much time for studying and often want to see cost-effective, transferable uses and results results in short time. 41
  42. 42. The key defining feature of English for Specific Purposes, of which BusinessEnglish is a branch, is that its teaching and materials are founded on the results of“need analysis”. (Dudley-Evans 2001). The most important thing that teachers need toknow is what the learners need to do with English. This information is generally suppliedby the company or individuals paying or sponsoring the course; therefore, it generally isnot a problem at the level of broad goals. Other aspects such as which skills and genres the learners need to master forunderstanding of concepts or performance outcomes fall more under the teachersdecision in the lesson planning activity and may have a lot to do with institutional factorssuch as the flexibility given to the teacher and/ or the support of facilities, materials andmedia equipment that can enhance or limit the viability of some instructional activities.According to many experts learners’ initial assessment is vital to teaching since it helpsto:  Identify the learner’s goals and needs, the abilities the learners already has, and the abilities he or she needs to develop.  Plan instruction and identify teaching methods and materials most appropriate for the learner  Have a baseline that can be used later to measure learner progress and ability to use literacy to meet. Consequently, the teacher will need to obtain information about the studentsbefore instruction begins. Further assessment can be done by having students read andwrite for purpose of teacher’s evaluation. 42
  43. 43. The Laubach Literacy Action Teaching Adults Literacy Resource Book (1994 :) identifiesseveral practical ways for doing initial assessment: a) Listening comprehension  Read to the learner an interesting passage, for example from a business journal that is appropriate for his or her knowledge and experience. Discuss the passage with the learner and ask questions to check understanding. b) Speaking  Have a conversation to get a sense of the learner’s ability to express thoughts and feelings orally. This conversation can be related to any topic. The purpose is only to diagnose the learners’ oral abilities in the English language. c) Reading  Show the learner several business articles. Then ask the learner to select one and try reading it. Afterward, ask the learner to describe what the selection was about.  Ask how he or she felt about the level of difficulty and why. Ask if he or she wants to try any other article.  If the learner seems to have difficulty talking about the reading, ask him or her to read it aloud. Note the kinds of problems the learner has. For example, literal comprehension of facts and details, relationship between ideas; order of events; identify reasons or causes; identify similarities and contracts etc. 43
  44. 44.  On the other hand, the teacher may also diagnose the learners’ inferential comprehension in areas where the learner must combine prior knowledge with passage information in order to show abilities in areas such as: identification of main ideas, drawing conclusions, application of ideas from the passage to situations not mentioned in the passage etc.  Moreover, the teacher can also assess the learner’s fluency. Ability to keep the pace, use of punctuation cues, and expression are important indicators of the learner’s needs in this area. d) Writing  Ask the learner to write a brief summary of the article already read.  Ask the learner to guess all the spelling of any words that seemed difficult to write. Then ask the learner to read the word aloud to you. Evaluate the legibility, spelling, punctuation, grammar, organization, and content of the written material. - For example, an apparently simple thing as the use of the letter “s” for LI individuals can become a very complicated issue for some L2 learners. The “s” is an important element when teaching subject- verb agreement, forming plurals and in the formation of many other words and functions in the English language. (Geffner, 1998) After implementing the assessment strategies, it is important to determine theindividual and class classification according to a system that establish commonbehaviors corresponding to learners different levels of language acquisition. Thissystem is based on the level of abilities that the students bring to the learning 44
  45. 45. experience. Following this procedure, the development of instructional objectives andlesson plans can be develop using appropriate methodologies and approaches to fit theneeds of students and their proficiency levels in each English language skill. Although initial assessments and all other forms of assessments are essentialfor determining the route to follow for teachings and measuring progress, the vehicle ormethod used for this journey is also essential to reaching the expected goals. Withoutappropriate combination of methods that facilitate learning, the experience might bevery frustrating with little or no progress. In addition to measuring English language skills proficiency, asking questionsof students’ background, experience with business situations and interest in the topicsuch as the following can be useful:  What is your major?  What career are you preparing for?  If you have a job, what field is it in?  How long have you been in that field?  What king of business communications have you already been engage in? B. Criteria for Selecting a Teaching MethodEffective teaching depends on many factors. Therefore, the best practice is to select orcombine elements of different methods in practical, sensible ways to fit the needs ofeach context- specific situation. 45
  46. 46.  Teachers may use textbook or online guides to serve as reference when selecting or combining methods. TESOL Business teacher should concentrate on the following main points: 1) The students’ proficiency level in each language skill, especially in the output skills such speaking and writing. 2) Individual and group test will be necessary to determine the most important needs and the strategies and methods most applicable. 3) The teacher can expect that most TESOL business students should be beyond the beginner’s stage of English; between low- intermediate and low- advance should be typical. 4) Very advance students would not require these courses since they would be able to study independently with their advanced metacognitive and language skills. 5) Background experience related to the content area is important. The amount of student’s prior experience and exposure to general business environment and the specific content issues to be analyzed is crucial. 6) For learners already working in a business organization and familiar with certain vocabulary it would be easier to use methods that focus on group exchanges of ideas. 7) Learners without any practical business experience and limited business vocabulary in English, as generally is the context when working with high school students both in LI and L2 situations, would require methods that 46
  47. 47. allow for more teacher guided exercises and individual attention to individual students. 8) The nature of the subject matter is another important factor. Some subjects like accounting, corporate finance, business statistics and others are better taught with the help of much visual aid and practice of step-by step- procedures to show the mastering of skills in the subject. 9) Some subjects like business law and economics are more suitable for methods like case studies and group discussions based on either inductive or deductive reasoning. Another critical aspect to be considered in selecting methods is the goals ormandates established by the institution and the time frame allocated for that purpose. Business teaching sponsored by corporations might require that the teacherprepare a very specific plan with measurable achievements in short periods, andlearners might also be anxious to show practical, rapid results; thus, leading to theselection of methods that emphasize performance skills more than general knowledge. Since many learners worldwide are already working in businesses or studyingbusiness careers at universities and high schools, we can assume with someconfidence that they have already mastered the initial phases of learning generalEnglish. Based on this assumption of students’ profile, in teaching TESOL business, thefollowing methods seem most useful: 1- Lexical Method 47
  48. 48.  The lexical approach teach units that are alike such as groups of scientific words, measurement words, or words commonly used in business that create a schematic world that is very clear to see. These categories include: business people, companies, institutions, money, business events, places of business, time, modes of communications and lexis concern with technology. Core component of the lexical approach is the teaching of words to students in units that are alike such as groups of scientific words, measurement words, or words commonly used in business that create a schematic world that is very clear to see. These categories include: business people, companies, institutions, money, business events, places of business, time, modes of communications and lexis concern with technology.2- Audio-lingual Method  Structural pattern is taught using repetition drills so material is over-learned  Teaching points based on contractive linguistics  Student errors preventive and correct forms reinforced  Grammar thought inductively3- Communicative Method or Approach  Understanding occurs through dynamic student interaction and communication. Use of texts based on real communicative functions and usage.  Strategies for understanding are taught together with language. 48
  49. 49.  Learners’ personal experiences constitute important inputs to the content of the lesson.  Applications of the new language in unplanned conversations produce learning experiences anywhere. C. Teaching Techniques and Instructional Aids The preparation of lesson plans required initial students’ assessment, and selectionof appropriate method to interact with students. But these efforts might be ineffective ifattention is not placed upon the medium, instructional aides and materials that bestsupport each type of lesson. Teachers need to learn how to design strategies using these tools for enhancinglearning. These tools can be linguistic, visual, auditory or kinesthetic, and they can bepresented in print, including diverse technologies and their application to the businessenvironment. Often, these tools are combined to bring better efficiency or effectivenessin applications. The challenge therefore, is not only to know what they are, but also tounderstand to use them in teaching and business environments. Many materials andtechnologies can be used together with instructional techniques that form approaches ormethods for teaching. According to (Cruickshank, 1985) there are numerous techniques that can be helpfulwhen delivering instruction. The following have been selected based on the potential foruse in business situations: 1. Problem solving 2. Reflective teaching 49
  50. 50. 3. Audiovisuals 4. Drills 5. Discourses 6. Demonstrations 7. Discussions 8. Displays and exhibits 9. Guided Reading Having analyzed the students needs, technical methods, materials and resourcesavailable to the teacher, it is now time to turn our focus on the crucial aspect ofdesigning the type of vehicle capable of taking us to learning objectives. That is, lessonplanking in the context of corporate requirements and therefore as requirements forlearners in the business field. D. Business TESOL Lesson PlanningThe planning of specific lessons takes place within the context of the overall goals of theprogram, the age and cognitive development and interest of the learners, the resourcesavailable, and the specific ways in which the lesson can contribute to the developmentof skills. The teacher has to ascertain the extent of the group’s cohesiveness, thereadiness of the group to participate in activities that involve cooperative learning, thelearners who are leaders and those who are followers, and which ones seem to have 50
  51. 51. difficulty staying on task. This information enables the teacher to plan instructionaccordingly. This part of the process also entails making a check of the available instructionalmaterials and techniques. Deciding how instruction will take place requires that theteacher be aware of the alternatives available and of their potential for achieving thedesired learning outcomes. There is no one best forms for a lesson plan, nor is there a consensus on the level ofspecificity that should be included. However, the following of some basic componentsthat should be included in any lesson plan: 1. Purpose 2. Instructional objectives to be achieved. 3. Preliminary readiness activities, interest building, and lesson plan development; specific the work- study activities that will occur during the lesson. 4. Summary and assessment, indicating the closing activities designed for the lesson and the assessment method that will be used in terms of the stated purposes. 5. Instructional materials. 6. What is to be taught? What concepts, skills, and attitudes are to be learned? How can it be determined that they have been learned? 7. How should the teaching and learning be analyzed and evaluated? 51
  52. 52. The planning in business TESOL courses is best done as a cooperative activity withlearners. Teachers must keep in mind that unlike general English learners mostbusiness courses are characterized by adult individuals with some working experienceand ideas of the specific communicative or functional needs expected from the trainingas well as the timeline for achieving specific progress towards the goals. This ispossible even with online courses provided the teacher is capable of being a respectfulguide and willing facilitator. Learner involvement may provide greater authenticity ofsituational and contextual activities and often additional experiences and opportunitiesfor incorporating technological tools the teaching- learning interactions. The following isan example of a business lesson plan developed through the cooperative efforts of aATI teacher- learner interactions. Example of a Business Lesson PlanClass time: 45 minutesObjective : - Teach English to Taiwanese Adult Learners who are Business Executives and in level 4 proficiency. Level 4 Proficiency is described as: students who speak and understand English with acceptable proficiency. Reading and writing skills are low but approaching appropriate age/grade levels. These executives are primarily focused in traveling to the United Stated, specifically Orlando. Their business is to import oranges to mix with other fruits in Taiwan in the process of preparing juices which will be sold to other businesses in Taiwan and other Asian Countries. The business executives are particularly interested in writing emails to 52
  53. 53. their potential American suppliers as well as visiting the area and learning about the American business culture. The student will be visiting the plantations and processing facilities as well socially interacting with the Americans over the course of five days.Introduction: 5 mins.This is a group of 8 Executives who will be travelling to America. Introductions will be aninduction to the American Greeting. Eye to eye contact from the Teacher to each of thestudents will be assured. This will be followed by a smile and a firm handshake withconfidence. Names are exchanged between the two parties as will be prompted by theteacher. Every student will get a change to make introductions in this very familiarAmerican greeting culture.Warm up: 5 minutes:A review of the class activity will be done immediately after introductions are made. Thereview is approximately 5 mins.Overview of Lesson: 25 minsThe lesson will comprise of specific words in English geared towards their businessvocabulary. Some examples of new words presented to meet their needs would be :company, investments, time, money, prices, stocks, products, ship, shipments, port,currency, exchange rate, markets, spot market, future market, container, bank, letter ofcredit, date, arrival, departure, laws, capital, quality, quantity, and contract to name afew. They will learn to pronounce these words and learn their meaning by using a 53
  54. 54. translation dictionary. As this is a business communication with emphasis on speaking,concepts and theoretical definitions of these words will not be necessary to betaught/explained. They will practice/drill using and pronouncing these business wordsand phrases in the first ten minutes of the lesson.The second part of the activity will be to use the words in sentences.(e.g). How muchwill it cost to produce the product? How long will it take to process? Tips on what to doand what not to do when dealing with the American business community will also bepresented. The executives will also become familiar with general American phrases andidioms for the social aspect of their visit.(e.g). Let’s go party! Let’s close the deal. Let’scall it a day. During the lesson they will role play asking questions as a TaiwaneseExecutive and the other role play as the American Executive.Resources:Resources will be mostly using a translation dictionary specifically a Mandarin/Englishdictionary. Printouts will be provided of American idioms and phrases with an emphasison asking business questions to meet their needs during the email exchanges and visitto the US.Lesson Procedure: - Introduction : 5 minutes - Review of lesson plan for students to meet their objectives: 5 minutes - Main Activity: 25 minutes - Closure: 10 minutes 54
  55. 55. The closure will be to keep the business executives alert and aware of theirpronunciations. The TESOL teacher will again stress the important tips in greetingAmericans, eye contact, how to make comments and questions as to not offend whilevisiting the new world. Answer any and if possible all questions the students will haveafter the activity is practiced. Ask executives if they understood the activity and make anassessment of their role play.Assessment of students’ understanding: 1. The learners will be asked to write an email to their American TESOL teacher. Review material will be given to them with phrases from what they practiced in class. The assignment will be for the students to email questions and concerns about the business trip. Emails will be comprised of preliminary research questions about the background of the American Company and also the business of the company. Questions in the email will also include a potential visit see operations on site and final contract negotiations to close the deal. Times schedules will also be included in the emails for a visit. The email will be graded. 2. The teacher will ask the students to practice role playing in order to demonstrate to the entire class what is expected for homework and this will also be used as an assessment for the TESOL teacher. 3. The students will be using this as an example of being a Tourist in the United States. This scene is at the Airport. - Tourist: Excuse me, where can I get a taxi? - Native: Over there. 55
  56. 56. - Tourist: I would like to go to the hotel Radisson Grand Plaza. - Native: It will be $29.00 - Tourist: (now at hotel) I would like to check into the room. I have reservations. - Native: What is your name? - Tourist: Kim song Long - Native: Your Room is #535 - Tourist: Thank you! - Native: Enjoy your stay and Welcome. - The student will also practice new vocabulary with food and drinks for ordering food from hotel.Now that we have dealt with the most important issues from the procedural aspect ofthe art of teaching, let us turn our attention to some aspects of the subject matter ofTESOL Business as related fundamentally to language and the communicative process;that is, the study of Standard English used internationally as the main instrument forbusiness communications.Assignments - 12.0 points 1. Explain why is it more important to have a clear idea of learners need in Business TESOL than in General English? 2. Describe the difference between an organization’s need or occupational goals and the cognitive needs of an individual? 56
  57. 57. 3. Why is it important to consider the learners cultural background and interest when planning a class? 4. How can online sources and other electronic tools play important roles when designing and delivering a business class? 5. How can the lexical method be use to teach grammar points with business vocabulary in context. Give an example of this approach. 6. Prepare a lesson plan for business learners interested in learning about the use of the capital letters in English. Give an example of an online source that you would suggest to search for enhancing the points made in class. 7. Explain how the preparation of a lesson plan can contribute to make teachers must effective in reaching their instructional objectives in relation to the learners occupations? Recommended ReadingsBergman, Bo & Klesfsjo, Bengt. Quality: From Customer Needs to CustomerSatisfaction. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Lund, Sweden 1994.Bovée, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. Business Communication Today. Instructor’sResource Manual Six Edition. Prentice Hall. Hupper Saddle River, New Jersey 2000.Brown, Betty J. & Clow, John E. GLENCOE. Introduction to Business. Our Businessand Economic World. Teacher’s Wraparound Edition. McGraw-Hill. Westerville, OH,1997. 57
  58. 58. Cruickshank, Donald R. Models for the Preparation of America’s Teachers. The PhiDelta Kappa Educational Foundation. Bloomington, Indiana 1985.Crystal, David. A Little Book of Language. Yale University Press. New Haven,Connecticut. 2011Dobler, Donald W. Burt, David N. & Lee Lamar Jr. Purchasing and MaterialsManagement. Text and cases. Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York, NY 1990Evans-Dudley, Tony ( 2001). English for Specific Purposes. In R. Carter& D. Nunan,Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, 12th printing. p. 131-136.Cambridge U.K. Cambridge University Press.Geffner, Andrea B. ESL Guide to American Business English. Barron’s EducationalSeries, Inc. New York, NY 1998.George, Stephen & Weimerskirch, Arnold. The Portable MBA Series. Total QualityManagement. Strategies and Technique Proven at Today’s Most SuccessfulCompanies. John Whiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY 1994.Highet, Gilbert. The Art of teaching. Vintage Books. New York, NY 1989.Michaelis, John, Grossman, Ruth & Schott, Loyd F. New designs for the ElementarySchool Curriculum. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY 1967.The Laubach Literacy Action Teaching Adults Literacy Resource Book (1994:pp.33-34)Travers, Paul D. & Rebore, Ronald W. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1990 58
  59. 59. CHAPTER IVGlobal Factors Driving Business TESOL - 7.0 hoursInstructional Objectives: - Discuss the functions of multinational companies as vital elements in the global system. - Describe the growing importance of quality information for controlling and directing the global system and its corporate units towards specific goals. - Explain the role of business communications in the global economic system. Questions to Elicit Students Interest 1. What is the main goal of multinational corporations? How is this goal related to the teaching of Business English? 2. Why is TESOL Business important in today’s world? 3. What are the main factors that are stimulating the use of English as the main business language in the world? A. The Human Expansion of Economic and Social Interactions.Point out to learners that today, more than ever before, we live in a world that is globallyintegrated. This phenomenon creates the need for more communications. Therefore,TESOL Business should continue to grow in line with the emerging needs of the globalcommunity. 59
  60. 60. The long history of mankind shows the human need for social interaction as ameans for cooperation to fight against dangers while developing ways and instrumentsfor survival. Early families, clans, tribes, kingdoms, cities, and nations developed theirown non-verbal, spoken, and eventually written codes for understanding in differentregions or cultural settings. Language developed to help increase economic productionand ensure property rights. Every historical period has been distinguished by the use of common ways ofcommunication to facilitate the exchange of goods and services. Each period alsodeveloped specific forms of social organization and technology. The English language,multinational organizations (for profit and non- profit) and the developments intransportation and telecommunications technologies expresses the vital elements of thecurrent global business environment. B. Multinational Corporations as Drivers of Business TESOLExplain to students that:  A corporation is a legal entity, distinct and separate from the individuals who create and operate it. Public corporations trade their stocks in public markets. Private corporations keep their stocks in a small, closed group of investors. Public corporations have the distinct advantage and ability to raise large amounts of capital through the sales of stocks to meet growing needs. (Warren, Reeve & Feese, 1999)  Corporations operate through systems with elements of both organizational and managerial functions. The principal organizational functions are: human 60

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