Chapter 11


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Chapter 11

  1. 1. Physical Fitness
  2. 2. Physical Fitness <ul><li>Most people can derive important health benefits by exercising regularly and becoming more physically active. </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, lack of regular physical activity contributes to thousands of American deaths, primarily from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Physically fit people have the strength, endurance, and flexibility to perform daily living activities that require physical movement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Body in Motion: Musculoskeletal System <ul><li>Physical movement involves the functioning of the muscular and skeletal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles provide shape, support, and movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle contains hundreds of muscle cells called muscle fibers . </li></ul><ul><li>When muscle fibers contract, they shorten, causing movement. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Musculoskeletal System (continued) <ul><li>Tendons connect muscles to bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Joints are where bones come together. </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments hold bones together at the joints. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Heart and lung function is interrelated. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart pumps blood to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenated blood returns to the heart where it is pumped to rest of body. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen leaves blood and enters cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste products such as carbon dioxide leave cells and enter blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood carries waste products to kidneys and back to the heart. </li></ul>The Body in Motion: Cardiorespiratory System
  6. 6. Physical Activity and Exercise <ul><li>Physical activity is movement that occurs when muscles contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise is physical activity that is usually planned and performed to improve or maintain physical condition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, biceps curls develop upper arm strength. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Health Benefits of Exercise <ul><li>Reduces risk of chronic diseases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease, certain cancers, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves and maintains muscle strength and joint function. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of premature death. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Health Benefits of Exercise (continued) <ul><li>Reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters improvement in mood and sense of well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Can improve quality of sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates release of endorphins. </li></ul><ul><li>May relieve stress. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness <ul><li>Intense physical activity requires more oxygen to support the work of skeletal muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with high degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, or endurance, can perform intense physical activity longer without becoming fatigued. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiorespiratory fitness can be developed through aerobic activities (e.g., running, swimming, rope skipping). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Muscular Strength and Endurance <ul><li>Muscular strength —ability of muscles to apply maximum force against an object that is resisting that force </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance —ability to contract muscles repeatedly without becoming fatigued easily </li></ul>
  12. 12. Muscular Strength <ul><li>Training effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase muscular strength, muscles need to be overloaded by moving heavy objects repeatedly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase weight of objects over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy—muscle fibers enlarge </li></ul><ul><li>Atrophy—muscle fibers lose size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Use it or lose it.” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Muscular Strength: Strength Training <ul><li>Weight, repetitions, and sets are important. </li></ul><ul><li>For best results, workout three times per week. </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric exercise — applying force against a fixed object (e.g., pushing against an immovable door frame) </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic exercise — applying force against a movable but constant source of resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using barbells, push-ups, or weight machines. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Muscular Endurance: Flexibility <ul><li>Flexibility is the ability to extend muscles and joints within normal range of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching develops flexibility, and allows people to perform certain activities with ease, such as bending, gliding, or twisting. </li></ul><ul><li>Static stretching —slowly and fully extending muscles and joints within natural range of motion (hold for 15 seconds). </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic stretching (stretching with bouncing) is not recommended. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Body Composition <ul><li>Some fat is essential to good health. </li></ul><ul><li>Spot exercising does not reduce fat in the exercised region. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular exercise builds and maintains muscle mass; muscle cells burn more calories than fat cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising can increase metabolic rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging in moderate to vigorous–intensity aerobic activity for about 60 minutes, nearly every day, while not exceeding daily calorie needs, “burns” body fat. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Athletic Performance: Sports-Related Components of Fitness <ul><li>Speed — rate of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Power — ability to concentrate force </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination — ability to perform a series of movements in a continuous manner </li></ul><ul><li>Agility — ability to make quick precise movements </li></ul><ul><li>Balance — ability to maintain poised upright body position </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time — time needed to adjust body position to a changing environment </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ergogenic Aids <ul><li>There are a variety of products that supposedly enhance physical development or performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary supplements, drugs, and mechanical devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some are beneficial and/or harmless. </li></ul><ul><li>Others are dangerous or illegal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolic steroids </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Anabolic Steroids <ul><li>Synthetic and natural substances chemically related to testosterone and have muscle-building properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Often illegally obtained and abused by athletes who want to enhance muscle development and physical performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Give individuals unfair competitive advantage over other athletes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Anabolic Steroids (continued) <ul><li>Adverse side effects in men include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Premature balding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe acne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testicle shrinkage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased blood pressure and increased risk of developing heart and kidney disease, certain cancers, and liver tumors </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Anabolic Steroids (continued) <ul><li>Adverse side effects in women include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe acne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased body hair, including facial hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalp hair loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menstrual irregularities </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Factors That Influence Benefits of Exercise <ul><li>Type of exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic activities increase cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercising at least three times a week produces more rapid overall fitness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiorespiratory benefits of exercise increase as the length of physical activity/exercise increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of physical exertion used during exercise increases its benefit. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. An Aerobic Workout Session <ul><li>Warm up — low intensity activity for 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch — 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in aerobic activity for 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Cool down with less intense activity for 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch — 5 minutes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Exercise Danger Signs <ul><li>Stop and consult a physician if you experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular heartbeat, sensation that heart is pounding in throat, or fluttering sensation in chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain or pressure in the chest, throat, or arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden loss of coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold sweating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fainting </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Preventing and Managing Common Exercise Injuries <ul><li>Strains and Sprains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear clinical definitions exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strain generally refers to damage that a muscle or tendon sustains when overextended rapidly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sprain usually refers to a damaged ligament. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Sprains tend to be more severe than strains. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Managing Exercise Injuries <ul><li>RICE — effective for treating strains and sprains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R est </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ompression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E levation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consult a physician if injured area does not improve in 2 days or pain worsens. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Temperature-Related Injuries <ul><li>Heat-Related Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration (lack of body water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia (higher than normal body temperature) can lead to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat cramps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat exhaustion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heatstroke </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Preventing Temperature-Related Injuries <ul><li>To prevent dehydration and hyperthermia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid physical exertion outdoors during hottest time of the day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drink enough fluids to replace that which is lost through sweat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear light-colored, loose-fitting clothing when exercising in warm conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Preventing Temperature-Related Injuries (continued) <ul><ul><li>Consider reducing the intensity and duration of activity when weather is hot and humid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid alcoholic beverages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine does not produce major urinary losses of water. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Temperature-Related Injuries (continued) <ul><li>Frostbite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice crystals form in the deeper tissues of skin when exposed to extreme cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes damage to tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothermia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body’s core temperature drops below 95 °F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shivering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor judgment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disorientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Preventing Temperature-Related Injuries (continued) <ul><li>Preventing Hypothermia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When in cold temperatures, wear: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Layers of warm dry clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hat that can be pulled down over ears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gloves or mittens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick socks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Developing a Personal Fitness Program <ul><li>Determine your needs, interests, and limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>Set general fitness goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose activities that you enjoy. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates fitness session into your routine. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Across the Life Span <ul><li>Physical activities adopted in childhood are likely to be practiced for a lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy, physically fit women can generally continue engaging in mild- to moderate- intensity exercise during pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant women who perform strenuous regular exercise can increase their risk of having low-birth-weight babies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant women should discuss exercise plans with their physicians. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Most Americans become less active as they age. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is important for people to continue exercising. </li></ul><ul><li>Light regular physical activity can help: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce risk of heart disease, colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain or improve joint flexibility and muscle strength and endurance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve mood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ability to live independently. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Physical activities can also be social functions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dancing, mall walking, and fitness classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise classes can improve balance and muscular strength, reducing the likelihood of falls. </li></ul>