Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Health: The Foundation for Life
  2. 2. What Is Health? <ul><li>“…a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” WHO, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>“…a resource for everyday life…a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities” </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa Charter for Health Promotions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Health? (continued) <ul><li>According to behavioral scientist Godfrey Hochbaum, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Health is what helps me be what I want to be…do what I want to do…[and] live the way I would like to live.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Health and Wellness Concepts <ul><li>Good health enables independent functioning in a constantly changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Wellness is a sense that a person is functioning at his or her best level. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Health and Wellness Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Health and wellness are holistic, that is, involving all aspects of a person, not simply the physical, psychological, and social dimensions, but also including the intellectual, spiritual, and environmental dimensions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Components of Health <ul><li>Physical Health </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Health </li></ul><ul><li>Social Health </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Health </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Health </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Health </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Nation’s Health: Ten Major Causes of Death in the United States, 2006 <ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic lung diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Accidents/unintentional injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia/influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Septicemia </li></ul>
  8. 9. Life Expectancy <ul><li>Defined as the average number of years that an individual of a particular age can expect to live. </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy of Americans has increased from less than 50 years in 1900 to 77 as of 2004. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Health Promotion: Healthy People 2010 <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the healthy life span of Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the health status of American minorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Make preventive health services accessible to all Americans. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Health Promotion: Healthy People 2010 (continued) <ul><li>Overall Goal </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the years and quality of healthy life by eliminating differences in health among population groups </li></ul>
  11. 12. Minority Health Status <ul><li>The major minority groups in the United States are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanic or Latino People </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islanders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Hispanic or Latino People <ul><li>Heart disease, cancer, and accidental injuries are leading causes of death. </li></ul><ul><li>When compared to white Americans, members of this minority group are more likely to die from accidents, diabetes, and chronic liver disease, and less likely to die from Alzheimer’s disease, kidney disease, and suicide. </li></ul>
  13. 14. African Americans <ul><li>The leading causes of death are similar to non-Hispanic whites, but death rates are higher for most of the causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to white Americans, African American women are more likely to die of breast and cervical cancer, and African American men are more likely to die of prostate cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension is more common among African Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death for African Americans who are 34 to 44 years of age. </li></ul>
  14. 15. African Americans (continued) <ul><li>African Americans are more likely to die as a result of homicide than whites. </li></ul><ul><li>Black women are more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth. </li></ul><ul><li>Black infants are more likely to die than white infants. </li></ul><ul><li>African American women are more likely to be obese than white women. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Asian and Pacific Islanders <ul><li>Compared with other groups of Americans, Asian American women have the highest life expectancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese women, however, are more likely to develop cervical cancer than white women. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent immigrants from Asia and the Pacific Islands are more likely to have hepatitis and tuberculosis than people who have lived in the United States for longer periods. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Native Americans <ul><li>Compared to whites, Native Americans generally have more health problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American infants are more likely to die during their first year of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans are more likely to smoke cigarettes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of diabetes is two and a half times higher than the rate among whites. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Native Americans (continued) <ul><li>Native Americans suffer higher rates of depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans are more likely to die in alcohol-related accidents, homicides, and suicides. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Changing Health-Related Behaviors <ul><li>Taking action to achieve and maintain good health is influenced by an individual’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived degree of vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived value of the behavioral change </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Stages of Behavioral Change <ul><ul><ul><li>Precontemplation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Strategies for Successful Behavioral Change <ul><li>Stimulus control </li></ul><ul><li>Counterconditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul>
  21. 22. Analyzing Health-Related Information <ul><li>If a health claim sounds too good to be true, it probably is not true. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a model (e.g., analysis model) for analyzing health-related information in articles, ads, infomercials, Web sites, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek answers to your health-related questions from trained medical experts, government-sponsored Web sites, and nationally recognized health association and not-for-profit foundations. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Analysis Model: Questions to Ask <ul><li>1. Which statements are verifiable facts and which are unverified statements or claims? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the credentials of the person who wrote the article/advertisement? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What might be the author’s motives or biases? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Which information is relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Is the source reliable? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Does the article/advertisement attack credibility of conventional scientists or medical authorities? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Assessing Information on the Internet Using Analysis Model <ul><li>What is the source of the information? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the source a commercial site? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the site sponsored by a nationally known health or medical organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the site staffed by health or medical experts who are affiliated with medical research institutions or universities? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the site include up-to-date references? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Conventional Medicine (Scientific Medicine) <ul><li>Relies on modern scientific principles, modern technologies, and scientifically proved methods to prevent, diagnose, and treat health problems </li></ul>
  25. 26. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) <ul><li>An unconventional system of preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases that emphasizes spirituality, self-healing, and harmonious interaction with the environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An unconventional treatment is complementary when it is used with conventional care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An alternative therapy replaces conventional medical treatment. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Common Alternative Medical Practices <ul><li>Acupuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Ayurvedic medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Chiropractic medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Homeopathy </li></ul><ul><li>Naturopathy or natural medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic massage or zone therapy </li></ul>
  27. 28. Concerns About Alternative Therapies <ul><li>Patient may delay seeking conventional treatments. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific evidence to support safety and effectiveness is often lacking. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit may be the result of placebo effect. </li></ul><ul><li>“Natural” does not mean safe. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Across the Life Span <ul><li>In the United States in 2002, about 7 infants in 1,000 died during their first year of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional injuries are the major health threat to children between 1 and 14 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide are major causes of death for people aged 15 to 24. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicle crashes account for ¾ of preventable deaths among Americans ages 15 to 24 years. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections continue to be major health problems for adolescents. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, HIV infection was the ninth leading cause of death for people between 15 and 24 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly individuals often need help for daily living activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Among the elderly, deaths due to falls and motor vehicle crashes are increasing. </li></ul>