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CASA UASSC Meeting May 2016- Presentation by Industry Chair, Terry Martin

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This is the presentation given by Dr Terry Martin at the CASA UASSC in May 2016. He is the current Industry Chair. Note that the original presentation contains extensive animation. In order to maintain the animation effect, the presentation has been split into individual slides however this now makes it more than 270 slides. This may be offputting to some!

Please note that the contents are the view of Dr Martin and are not necessarily endorsed by CASA.

The presentation covers 5 key areas:

Part 1: (Slides 1-65) Covers some innovative UAV applications such as NASA UTM, and Google Loon, before discussing the impact of automation on the jobs market, internationally and Nationally. The key point is that disruption and automation mean that many jobs are at risks, and Australia could be vulnerable if it continues on its current path

Part 2 (Slides 67-82) then provides an overview of the recently amended RPAS regulatory framework

Part 3 (Slides 83- 171 ) then works through whats broken in the current RPAS UASSC before describing the efforts of Europe and the US, the implications of Australian having no UAV Roadmap, the need for a pragmatic appreciation of our national capacity, particularly when it comes to the expertise necessary to making assessments about risk, safety and equipage requirements.

Part 4 (172 - 243 ) Selected elements of Detect and Avoid and Command and Non Payload Communications are outlined

Part 5 (244- 286) proposed steps we could take to identify our priorities, identify the operational and technical shortcomings that are hindering UAV integration and work with Industry more effectively to achieve that end state. This includes the restructure plans for the UASSC Working Groups.

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CASA UASSC Meeting May 2016- Presentation by Industry Chair, Terry Martin

  1. 1. ar caa UAV PROGRESS IN AUSTRALIA ITS TIME FOR CHANGE TERRY MARTIN
  2. 2. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Presentation Overview 1. Background Background
  3. 3. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Presentation Overview 1. Background • UAVs are goodness & some examples • Links to Innovation, Automation and Jobs market in Australia • Role of Regulation in a Healthy Innovation Ecosystem • Status Update on Regulatory Environment Background
  4. 4. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Presentation Overview 1. Background 2. Key Problems • No Publically Available Plan • Available Workforce • Uncertain Scope ofWork • What needs to be done • National Priorities • Skill and Substantiation:Avoiding Schedule Slippage … Key Problems
  5. 5. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Presentation Overview 1. Background 2. Key Problems 3. Future Directions Future Directions
  6. 6. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Presentation Overview 1. Background 2. Key Problems 3. Future Directions • What’s Feasible with our workforce, • Motivating & recruiting Industry Help • Restructuring & Streamlining Working Groups • Targeting Effort • Identifying & Prioritising what’s necessary • 80:20 Rule: Freeing up CASA staff from tactical day to day.. • CoordinatedTrials that support CASA strategic intent Future Directions
  7. 7. BACKGROUND UAVsareGoodness
  8. 8. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA UAV Traffic Management (UTM) Overview
  9. 9. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA UAV Traffic Management (UTM) Overview Principal Investigator: Parimal Kopardekar ”a cloud-based system that will help manage traffic at low altitudes and avoid collisions of UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight”
  10. 10. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA UAV Traffic Management (UTM) Overview VIDEO Played LINK : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83Y14qglTCY
  11. 11. Build 1: Completed • Establishment of Airspace Reservation • Focus on drone traffic management over unpopulated land/water • Minimal GA traffic, Aimed at agriculture, firefighting & infrastructure Build 2: Oct 2016 • Drones flying BLOS, • Drone tracking, low density ops • Sparsely populated areas
  12. 12. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA UTM Traffic Management • NASA Strategy is Crawl, Walk, Run. • UTM starting in low Risk Environment • To be conducted at Stead Airport in Reno, Nevada • 2500 to 10, 000 Operations per month • Community Recognition of Jobs creation possibilities Trial Goals • Examine “system” ability to respond to Contingencies • Vehicle, GCS • UTM System • Fused UTM and ATM System • UTM is cloud based: Examining QoS • Miniature ADSB System • Obstacles: LegacyVs New Age companies • Raft of Separation Issues: Non Cooperative Participants, GPS Anomalies Block 2 Trials
  13. 13. Build 3: Jan 2018 • Drone ControlVia INTERNET • Communication • Drone to Drone • Drone to ATC • Safe Separation • BLOS • Flight over Moderate Population • Package Delivery Build 4: March 2019 • Flight over Urban Areas • High Density DroneTraffic • Autonomous D to D communication • Large Scale Contingency MGT
  14. 14. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA UAS Traffic Management • Vehicle toVehicle communications • Universal Drone Registration database • Open identification systems • Tamper proof flight recorders • Up to date 3D Mapping-Obstacles • Dynamic weather information Ongoing UTM Research
  15. 15. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA Looking for Partners to Help Make UTM a Reality Source: http://www.unmannedsystemsaustralia.com.au/latestnews/?p=1220
  16. 16. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA Looking for Partners to Help Make UTM a Reality Source: http://www.unmannedsystemsaustralia.com.au/latestnews/?p=1220
  17. 17. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA Looking for Partners to Help Make UTM a Reality Source: http://www.unmannedsystemsaustralia.com.au/latestnews/?p=1220
  18. 18. Prepared by :Terrence Martin NASA Looking for Partners to Help Make UTM a Reality Source: http://www.unmannedsystemsaustralia.com.au/latestnews/?p=1220 How Self Healing will these networks be? How will QoS be determined and delivered>
  19. 19. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption Google & Facebook: Next Gen Content Distribution http://www.youtube.com/user/ProjectLoon Recent payloads delivering 22MB/sec to ground antenna & 5 MB to handset “muscle behind the balloon effort is comparable to other Google X projects like Glass or self-driving cars”.
  20. 20. Prepared by :Terrence Martin DISRUPTIONS • Google & Facebook battling to control information distribution & social media to 5BN people who don’t have “proper” internet access • Both companies have a significant interest in expediting the delivery • Googles Android captured 79% of world wide market • More people = greater revenue. • Some scepticism about motivation: providing service to Africa doesn’t make cost sense • Definite Social benefits: medical/farming advice, weather • Project Loon: High altitude (Stratospheric) balloons tested in NZ, California and Brazil. Google & Facebook http://www.techtimes.com/articles/15684/20140917/google-wants-to-test-drones-that-deliver-internet-access-in-new-mexico.htm
  21. 21. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption • Balloons at the mercy of weather, harder to control, and durability concerns • Are safer if they fall to earth • Cost significantly less. Google & Facebook: Next-Gen Content Distribution GoogleTitan
  22. 22. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption • Balloons at the mercy of weather, harder to control, and durability concerns • Are safer if they fall to earth • Cost significantly less. • Google & Facebook investigating using high altitude, long endurance solar UAVs. • Google trumped Facebook in purchasingTitan Aerospace ($60M). • Developing 2 dragon-fly shaped UAVs. • Smaller variant has wingspan larger than Boeing 767 Google & Facebook: Next-Gen Content Distribution GoogleTitan
  23. 23. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption • Balloons at the mercy of weather, harder to control, and durability concerns • Are safer if they fall to earth • Cost significantly less. • Google & Facebook investigating using high altitude, long endurance solar UAVs. • Google trumped Facebook in purchasingTitan Aerospace ($60M). • Developing 2 dragon-fly shaped UAVs. • Smaller variant has wingspan larger than Boeing 767 Google & Facebook: Next-Gen Content Distribution GoogleTitan Facebook Aquila http://www.theguardian.com/ • Facebook purchased Ascenta ($20M)
  24. 24. Multiple Ad-Hoc Networks Multi-hop wireless network: each network node acts as a wireless terminal as well as a router Cost effective positioning of assets according to requirements: • nodes have the flexibility to manouver to meet dynamic demand. Key R&D focus areas include: • Mobility Models: plays a significant role in network performance • Trajectory planning & prediction • Collision Detection and avoidance: multiple trajectories • Routing protocols that discover & adjust to network topology
  25. 25. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Multiple Ad-Hoc Networks Swarms
  26. 26. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Multiple Adhoc Networks Swarms VIDEO PLAYED at LINK: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQIMGV5vtd4
  27. 27. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption Swarms 1. J. Arquilla, D. Ronfeldt, RAND: “Swarming & the future Conflict”. 1. J. Arquilla, D. Ronfeldt, RAND: “Swarming & the future Conflict”.
  28. 28. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Swarms Military Applications
  29. 29. BACKGROUND Innovation,Automation& Jobs
  30. 30. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Motivation Google Cars are super Cautious SOURCE: http://theoatmeal.com/blog/google_self_driving_car SOURCE: http://www.google.com/images GEEK HUMOUR ENDLESS DOWHILE LOOP
  31. 31. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Motivation Google Cars Sensors
  32. 32. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Motivation Google Cars Sensors VLP-64 LIDAR on Google Car Flow Down Benefit: VLP-16 –LiDAR Puck: • 16-channel real-time • $7,999 • 600 grams. • Range: 300m
  33. 33. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Motivation Google Cars Sensors Radar System • Information fused with LIDAR • 24GHz • 300 metres Range • Positioned on Bumper at front and red sides Used for: • Detecting oncoming vehicles parameters • Self parking • blind spot detection • Pre-cash avoidance
  34. 34. ”It’s not competition which counts, but competition from the new commodity, new technology, new source of supply, new type of organisation - competition which commands a decisive cost or quality advantage and which strikes not at the profit margins and outputs of the existing firms but at their very foundations”: Joseph Schumpeter
  35. 35. ”It’s not competition which counts, but competition from the new commodity, new technology, new source of supply, new type of organisation - competition which commands a decisive cost or quality advantage and which strikes not at the profit margins and outputs of the existing firms but at their very foundations”: Joseph Schumpeter
  36. 36. Source: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-robots-are-coming-to-take-your-job/ ”It’s not competition which counts, but competition from the new commodity, new technology, new source of supply, new type of organisation - competition which commands a decisive cost or quality advantage and which strikes not at the profit margins and outputs of the existing firms but at their very foundations”: Joseph Schumpeter NYT Best Seller: • Increased impact of automation
  37. 37. Source: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-robots-are-coming-to-take-your-job/ ”It’s not competition which counts, but competition from the new commodity, new technology, new source of supply, new type of organisation - competition which commands a decisive cost or quality advantage and which strikes not at the profit margins and outputs of the existing firms but at their very foundations”: Joseph Schumpeter NYT Best Seller: • Increased impact of automation Moving from ”Smokestack & Manufacturing Economies” to ”Consumption, Services and HighValue Technologies”
  38. 38. The GOOD
  39. 39. The BADThe GOOD
  40. 40. The BADThe GOOD There will be WINNERS & LOSERS
  41. 41. The BADThe GOOD Companies & Cities & Nations There will be WINNERS & LOSERS
  42. 42. The BADThe GOOD Companies & Cities & Nations There will be WINNERS & LOSERS How is Australia positioned?
  43. 43. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Osborne & Frey, Citigroup Studies by : Carl Frey & Michael Osborne, then Citigroup • Advances in AI, Robotics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Computational Statistics are placing more jobs at Risk of being Automated. High risk for • United States- 47% of workers • China - 77% of workers • India - 69% of workers • Automation may change the trend of offshoring to low cost regions • Less low end manufacturing, more innovative technology development • Emerging Markets need to diversify to move up the value chain High Risk of Jobs being Replaced by Automation
  44. 44. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Computerisation & Jobs Market Next Decades Source: Frey, Carl Benedikt and Michael Osborne. September 17, 2013. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? University of Oxford
  45. 45. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Computerisation & Jobs Market Next Decades Management Engineering/ Science Education, Law, Arts, Media Healthcare Source: Frey, Carl Benedikt and Michael Osborne. September 17, 2013. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? University of Oxford LOW RISK
  46. 46. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Computerisation & Jobs Market Next Decades Management Engineering/ Science Education, Law, Arts, Media Healthcare Installation, Maintenance Source: Frey, Carl Benedikt and Michael Osborne. September 17, 2013. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? University of Oxford LOW RISK MEDIUM RISK
  47. 47. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Computerisation & Jobs Market Next Decades Management Engineering/ Science Education, Law, Arts, Media Healthcare Service Sales Office and admin. support Installation, Maintenance Source: Frey, Carl Benedikt and Michael Osborne. September 17, 2013. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? University of Oxford LOW RISK MEDIUM RISK HIGH RISK
  48. 48. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Computerisation & Jobs Market Next Decades Management Engineering/ Science Education, Law, Arts, Media Healthcare Service Sales Office and admin. support Transportation Installation, Maintenance Source: Frey, Carl Benedikt and Michael Osborne. September 17, 2013. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation? University of Oxford LOW RISK MEDIUM RISK HIGH RISK
  49. 49. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption, Automation and Innovation Percentage of Jobs at High Risk of Automation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
  50. 50. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption, Automation and Innovation Percentage of Jobs at High Risk of Automation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Least at Risk • Technically Dynamic, Knowledge Centres • Diversified & skill intensive workforces • Professional Services • Creative Industries
  51. 51. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Disruption, Automation and Innovation Percentage of Jobs at High Risk of Automation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Least at Risk • Technically Dynamic, Knowledge Centres • Diversified & skill intensive workforces • Professional Services • Creative Industries Most at Risk • Manufacturing, Energy • Banking • Gaming, Low Level white & Blue collar
  52. 52. City State % Jobs at Risk Kurri Kurri NSW 58.6 Murray Bridge SA 57.3 Cessnock NSW 57.1 Melton VIC 56.8 Muswellbrook NSW 56.4 Warwick QLD 56.4 Port Pirie SA 55.3% Griffith QLD 55.3 Colac VIC 54.9 Moe-Newborough VIC 54.7 SOURCE: Bernard Salt, KPMG Disruption, Automation and Innovation Percentage of Jobs at High Risk of Automation: Australia
  53. 53. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Innovations Ageing Corporations Source: http://www.smh.com.au/business/the-economy/corporate- australias-real-problem-ancient-companies-20151125-gl7wu2.html “Innovation, by it's very nature, involves taking risks. “I'm not sure an anchor tenant that is a 105- year old company is going to attract start-ups and venture capital to create a tech hub”, Scott Farquar, Co-Founder Atlassian
  54. 54. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Ageing Corporations United States 89% 11% US Market Capitilisation by Company Age 2005 Over 85 Years Old Microsoft
  55. 55. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Ageing Corporations United States 89% 11% US Market Capitilisation by Company Age 2005 Over 85 Years Old Microsoft 18% 14% 11% 8%8% 41% US Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Apple Google Microsoft Amazon Facebook Over 50 Years Old
  56. 56. Prepared by :Terrence Martin 11% 7% 6% 76% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2005 Westpac Westfield Telstra Aging Corporations Australia
  57. 57. Prepared by :Terrence Martin 11% 7% 6% 76% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2005 Westpac Westfield Telstra Aging Corporations Australia 8% 92% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Telstra Over 85 Years Old
  58. 58. Prepared by :Terrence Martin 11% 7% 6% 76% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2005 Westpac Westfield Telstra Aging Corporations Australia 8% 92% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Telstra Over 85 Years Old Dominated by Banks Supermarket & Commodities
  59. 59. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Which Businesses Creates Jobs? Kauffman foundation • “Existing firms actually lose a million more jobs, per year, then they create.” • Over last 25 years, almost all private sector jobs are created by businesses less than 5 years old • Between 1988 & 2011, companies more than 5 years old, DESTROYED more jobs than they create
  60. 60. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Which Businesses Creates Jobs? Kauffman foundation • “Existing firms actually lose a million more jobs, per year, then they create.” • Over last 25 years, almost all private sector jobs are created by businesses less than 5 years old • Between 1988 & 2011, companies more than 5 years old, DESTROYED more jobs than they create US Bureau of Economic Research • “The younger companies are, the more jobs they create, regardless of size”
  61. 61. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Which Businesses Creates Jobs? Kauffman foundation • “Existing firms actually lose a million more jobs, per year, then they create.” • Over last 25 years, almost all private sector jobs are created by businesses less than 5 years old • Between 1988 & 2011, companies more than 5 years old, DESTROYED more jobs than they create US Bureau of Economic Research • “The younger companies are, the more jobs they create, regardless of size” Washington Post • “Once large enough, firms start hunting overseas for cheaper labour options”, • “Small companies produce 16 time more patents per worker than large firms”, and this is typically associated with an infusion of jobs creation, • Level of jobs creation linked to level of R&D, and collaboration
  62. 62. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Ageing Corporations Comparison 89% 11% US Market Capitilisation by Company Age 2005 Over 85 Years Old Microsoft 11% 7% 6% 76% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2005 Westpac Westfield Telstra Over 80 Years Old 8% 92% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Telstra Over 85 Years Old 18% 14% 11% 8%8% 41% US Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Apple Google Microsoft Amazon Facebook Over 41 Years Old
  63. 63. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Ageing Corporations Comparison 89% 11% US Market Capitilisation by Company Age 2005 Over 85 Years Old Microsoft 11% 7% 6% 76% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2005 Westpac Westfield Telstra Over 80 Years Old 8% 92% AUS Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Telstra Over 85 Years Old 18% 14% 11% 8%8% 41% US Market Capitalisation by Company Age 2015 Apple Google Microsoft Amazon Facebook Over 41 Years Old Corporate Australia is • “Ancient” with slow moving inertia • "deeply risk-averse" and "dominated by rent-seeking oligopolists“, which is increasingly troubles our policy makers., Fairfax Media's Jessica Irvine Old, large corporations become increasingly risk averse over their life spans. They rise to the challenge of innovative competitors by putting larger barriers in place rather than innovating themselves. Look at the behaviour of the coal industry, supermarkets and the taxi industry all trying to get the government to make it more difficult for new entrants”
  64. 64. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Our Banking & Real Estate Sector Australia's banking sector has a high reliance on overseas funding. • Underpins the funding for our real estate market Our 1 trillion foreign debt • twice the size of our income from exports, dividends and royalties • This ratio more than any other country except Greece & US • Oz is spending 5.6% of its foreign income meeting interest payments, more than any other advanced country aside from Spain and at similar levels to Mexico • Credit ratings agency considering loweringAustralia's rating from AAA • Concern that if global financial market lose confidence in Australia, it will be difficult for government and banks to refinance Debt The Australian Newspaper 12 May 2016
  65. 65. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Supporting Innovation Ingredients of supportive business ecosystem for innovation & job creation[1]: • A pro-entrepreneurship culture • Guidance from experienced entrepreneurs • A supportive Regulatory Environment • A collaborative Business Culture • Visible Successes & Role Models • RiskTolerance • Available Capital • Technical Skills Key Ingredients for Innovation & Start-ups [1] Startup AUS Crossroads 2015: http://startupaus.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Crossroads-2015.pdf
  66. 66. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Summary So Far • Concerning signs that Australian Economy is skewed with Aging Companies, • Government push for Innovation • UAVs offering up great potential, …. maybe even some jobs • Key to Innovation is the right conditions, INCLUDING a supportive Regulatory BODY • Supportive DOES NOT MEAN bypassing safety
  67. 67. BACKGROUND RegulatoryStatusUpdate
  68. 68. Prepared by :Terrence Martin The Australian Framework RPAS Regulation Updates • CASR Part 101: Commenced 1 July 2002 • CASA reviewing & modernising CASR Part 101 • Phase 1: • Amendments to CASR Part 101 to be in Force Sep 2016 • Incorporates new framework derived from EASA • Suite of Advisory Circulars under development • Developing Manual of Standards
  69. 69. Prepared by :Terrence Martin The Australian Framework Australia: “Close Following” Certified Specific Open Restricted Specific Small RPAS Very small RPAS Toys European Approach Australian Draft Framework Regulated Specific Open Standard Restricted Specific Limited Small RPAS Very small RPAS EASA CONOPS: safe, proportional and operation-centric approach.
  70. 70. Prepared by :Terrence Martin The Australian Framework RPAS Regulation Updates • CASR Part 101: Commenced 1 July 2002 • CASA reviewing & modernising CASR Part 101 • Phase 1: • Amendments to CASR Part 101 to be in Force Sep 2016 • Incorporates hooks for new framework derived from EASA • Suite of Advisory Circulars under development • Developing Manual of Standards • Phase 2: complete re-write of RPAS regulation  CASR Part 102
  71. 71. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Regulated Specific Open Small RPAS Very small RPAS Element of Initial Airworthiness CPA like Oversight of Integrity. NAA led Industry Appointed Oversight No Integrity Oversight Operational Restrictions CASA Airworthiness Framework Operational Airworthiness
  72. 72. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Regulated Specific Open Small RPAS Very small RPAS Element of Initial Airworthiness CPA like Oversight of Integrity. NAA led Industry Appointed Oversight No Integrity Oversight Operational Restrictions Proportionate &SAFE: Operational Restrictions commensurate with technical integrity & operational environment CASA Airworthiness Framework Operational Airworthiness
  73. 73. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Regulated Specific Open Small RPAS Very small RPAS Element of Initial Airworthiness CPA like Oversight of Integrity. NAA led Industry Appointed Oversight No Integrity Oversight Operational Restrictions Enter the US Element Derivative of US sUAS NPRM CASA Airworthiness Framework Operational Airworthiness
  74. 74. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Regulated Specific Open Small RPAS Very small RPAS Element of Initial Airworthiness CPA like Oversight of Integrity. NAA led Industry Appointed Oversight No Integrity Oversight Operational Restrictions Enter the US Element Derivative of US sUAS NPRM Open = Small SegregatedVLOS Container CASA Airworthiness Framework Operational Airworthiness
  75. 75. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Regulated Specific Open Small RPAS Very small RPAS Element of Initial Airworthiness No Integrity Oversight Operational Restrictions  Line of Sight operations only  DAYVFR  Below 400 ft AGL  limited levels of autonomy permissible but must be able to override • MTOM ≤ 25kg • V < 87 KCAS • Qualified Operator • Not over people • MTOM ≤ 2kg  V < 30 KCAS  Frangible Materials  Operations over people allowed CASA Airworthiness Framework Operational Airworthiness
  76. 76. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific
  77. 77. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific
  78. 78. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome Airworthiness Expectations based on CPA Regulations e.g.TC/CoA The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific
  79. 79. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific
  80. 80. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific Work to be done • What Equipment • What Restrictions • What Procedures • WhatTraining • How is RISK Assessed?
  81. 81. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific
  82. 82. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CONOPS Consideration Standard Restricted Specific Limited Over population etc Controlled Airspace BVLOS IFR Conditions Above 400 feet AGL Within 3 NM of Aerodrome The Australian Framework Work Outstanding Regulated Specific Operational Flexibility Platform Technical Integrity Equipage Operator Competence
  83. 83. KEYPROBLEMS
  84. 84. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problems • Accelerated Regulatory Development needs a Cultural Change • Lack of Roadmap • More People with the right skills • Uncertainty/Disagreement around Scope ofWork Summary of Issues
  85. 85. KEYPROBLEMS ChangingtheCulture “If you always do what you always did, you always get what you always got”,….or Definition of insanity…….you know the rest!
  86. 86. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problems CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  87. 87. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problems CASA Sub-Committee Plenary No Consultation, Too Many Surprises NoTransparent Vision or Plan
  88. 88. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problems CASA Sub-Committee Plenary No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan
  89. 89. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary Communication andTrust.
  90. 90. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Fragmented Availability Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary UASSC Observers/Workers Industry has DAY JOBS Communication andTrust.
  91. 91. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Volunteer Workforce Fragmented Availability Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary UASSC Observers/Workers Industry has DAY JOBS Communication andTrust.
  92. 92. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Volunteer Workforce Fragmented Availability Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan Limited, unreliable Industry Contribution Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary UASSC Observers/Workers Industry has DAY JOBS Communication andTrust.
  93. 93. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Volunteer Workforce Fragmented Availability Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan Limited, unreliable Industry Contribution Reduced Overall Workforce Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary UASSC Observers/Workers Industry has DAY JOBS Communication andTrust.
  94. 94. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises Volunteer Workforce Fragmented Availability Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Industry Disengagement NoTransparent Vision or Plan Limited, unreliable Industry Contribution Reduced Overall Workforce Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary UASSC Observers/Workers Industry has DAY JOBS Communication andTrust.
  95. 95. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Industry Disengagement Reduced Overall Workforce Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  96. 96. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce Industry Disengagement Reduced Overall Workforce Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  97. 97. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Industry Disengagement Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  98. 98. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Industry Disengagement CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  99. 99. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Industry Disengagement CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  100. 100. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Industry Disengagement CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  101. 101. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Industry Disengagement CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Key Problem CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  102. 102. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  103. 103. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Reduced Consultation Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  104. 104. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Reduced Consultation Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Negative Reinforcement Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  105. 105. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Reduced Consultation Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Industry Disengagement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  106. 106. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Reduced Consultation Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Limited, unreliable Industry Contribution CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Industry Disengagement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  107. 107. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Reduced Consultation Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Limited, unreliable Industry Contribution CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Industry Disengagement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary
  108. 108. Prepared by :Terrence Martin No Consultation, Too Many Surprises CASA: Limited Workforce CASA: Management & Public Expectations Reduced Consultation Fragmented &/or Delayed Feedback Limited, unreliable Industry Contribution CASA: Time Poor Deadlines Reduced Overall Workforce Loadshed, shortcuts, Bypass High Latency Doc Development Industry Disengagement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Key Complaints CASA Sub-Committee Plenary TRUST COMMUNICATION SHORT-TERM ACTIONS A LONGTERM PLAN
  109. 109. KEYPROBLEMS ThelackofaRoadmap
  110. 110. KEYPROBLEMS ThelackofaRoadmap “AVision without a plan is just a dream” A plan without people….again a dream!
  111. 111. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problem The Lack of a Roadmap • Industry want to start BVLOS, …..Soon • Current rate of progress not satisfactory if we want to maximise benefits for country • Potential Investors lose confidence: take their money elsewhere • Regulatory INACTION has a real price for our nation • First Moving Nations gain a competitive edge: • Setup right Environment for Innovation The Crossroads
  112. 112. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problem The Lack of a Roadmap: The Crossroads The Crossroads
  113. 113. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problem The Lack of a Roadmap: The Crossroads The Crossroads CASA Resources are finite  Insufficient to examine all the elements that go into integrating UAS into NAS
  114. 114. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problem The Lack of a Roadmap: The Crossroads The Crossroads CASA Resources are finite  Insufficient to examine all the elements that go into integrating UAS into NAS Adopted Close Follower Approach BUT beholden to European timeframes
  115. 115. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problem The Lack of a Roadmap: The Crossroads The Crossroads CASA Resources are finite  Insufficient to examine all the elements that go into integrating UAS into NAS Adopted Close Follower Approach BUT beholden to European timeframes US and Europe both have publically available Roadmaps & Plan. Australia does not!
  116. 116. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Key Problem The Lack of a Roadmap: The Crossroads The Crossroads CASA Resources are finite  Insufficient to examine all the elements that go into integrating UAS into NAS Adopted Close Follower Approach BUT beholden to European timeframes What elements will be Australianised? • Australian specific safety implications, • Economic priorities, • Technical areas of uncertainty R&D we must perform • Gaps in national capacity US and Europe both have publically available Roadmaps & Plan. Australia does not!
  117. 117. KEYPROBLEMS Uncertainty about ScopeofWork
  118. 118. BVLOS
  119. 119. BVLOS SEGREGATION is a tenuous Strategy for BVLOS NOTAMS ……Really ???
  120. 120. BVLOS SEGREGATION is a tenuous Strategy for BVLOS NOTAMS ……Really ???
  121. 121. BVLOS SEGREGATION is a tenuous Strategy for BVLOS NOTAMS ……Really ??? ATM and Airspace Integration Operational contingency procedures and systems Data communication links incl. spectrum issues Detect & Avoid systems Methodology for Determining Risk
  122. 122. BVLOS SEGREGATION is a tenuous Strategy for BVLOS NOTAMS ……Really ??? Oh …. And Integrity Requirements for flight over people
  123. 123. BVLOS SEGREGATION is a tenuous Strategy for BVLOS NOTAMS ……Really ???
  124. 124. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Close Following Certified Specific Open Restricted Specific Small RPAS Very small RPAS Toys European Approach Australian Draft Framework Regulated Specific Open Standard Restricted Specific Limited Small RPAS Very small RPAS EASA CONOPS: safe, proportional and operation-centric approach.
  125. 125. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Roadmap identifies all the issues necessary to integrate RPAS into the NAS and established a step by step process. Includes 3 Annexes: • Annex A- Regulatory Approach: • Identifies improvements to existing regulatory framework • Annex B- Strategic Research Plan • Identifies technology enablers and necessary R&D • Annex C- Study on Societal Impact The European Exemplar Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Action Items Priorities &Timelines A vision without a plan is just a dream, …
  126. 126. Prepared by :Terrence Martin EC 1 Justify & Validate RPAS Safety Objective EC 2 Secure C2, Datalinks & Bandwidth EC 3 RPAS Integration into ATM, DAA and SA EC 4 Security EC 5 Safe Automation & Predictable Behaviours EC 6 Automated Take Off & Landing, Surface Operations European Roadmap: Annex B Understanding the Scope of Work
  127. 127. EC 1 Justify &Validate RPAS Safety Objective EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3
  128. 128. EC 1.1 Validation Current ATM suitability EC 1 Justify &Validate RPAS Safety Objective EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3 EC 1.1 Validation Current ATM suitability EC 1.2 LongTerm Validation Future ATM compatibility
  129. 129. EC 1.1 Validation Current ATM suitability EC 1 Justify &Validate RPAS Safety Objective EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3 EC 1.1 Validation Current ATM suitability EC 1.2 LongTerm Validation Future ATM compatibility Minimum Safety Objectives In CTAOver People OCTA Separation Collision Avoidance Comms Trials & Demos
  130. 130. EC 1 Justify &Validate RPAS Safety Objective EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3 EC 1.2 LongTerm ATM Compatibility EC 1.1 Validation Current ATM suitability
  131. 131. EC 1 Justify &Validate RPAS Safety Objective EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3 EC 1.2 LongTerm ATM Compatibility EC 1.1 Validation Current ATM suitability Conflict Management Traffic Avoidance Collision Avoidance Communication Navigation ADS-B Ops in CTA & OCTA
  132. 132. EC 2 Secure C2, Datalinks & Bandwidth EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3
  133. 133. EC 2 Secure C2, Datalinks & Bandwidth EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3 EC 2.2 RLOS & BRLOS Infrastructure EC 2.1 Secure C2 Systems & Links EC 2.3 Radio Bandwidth Management
  134. 134. EC 2 Secure C2, Datalinks & Bandwidth EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 3 EC 2.2 RLOS & BRLOS Infrastructure EC 2.1 Secure C2 Systems & Links Satellite BRLOS Aerial Relay BRLOS Ground Network Range Extension Data Rates, Frequency bandwidths Redundancy On-board Equipment Requirements Antennas EC 2.3 Radio Bandwidth Management Spectrum Availability DAA Impact & QoS Standardisation
  135. 135. EC 3 RPAS Integration into ATM, DAA & Situational Awareness EC 2 EC 4 EC 5 EC 6EC 2 EC 3.1 ATM Interfaces for NextGen, SESAR, OneSky EC 3.1 ATM Interfaces & Ops where Aircraft are Cooperative 4-D Mission Trajectory ADS-B GNSS Datalinks EC 3.3 Airborne DAA DAA, C2, Avionics Integration DAA Performance in OCTA DAA for Small UAVs TLS for Immature DAA Solutions EC 3.4 Ground DAA EC 3.5 GCS HMI EC 3.6 Obstacles EC 3.7 Weather EC 3.8 UAV Detectability EC 3.9 Pilot & Observer Respons. EC 3.10 Other Hazards
  136. 136. And on, and on , and on……
  137. 137. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Europe: Copying their Homework Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Task List Priorities,Timelines, People Operational & Technology gaps: 1. Integration into ATM and Airspace environments 2. Surface operations incl. take-off and landing 3. Operational contingency procedures and systems 4. Data communication links incl. spectrum issues 5. Detect & Avoid systems and operational procedures 6. Security issues 7. Verification and Validation Methods
  138. 138. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work United States Identified R&D Areas/Gaps Airspace Operations • Develop Integrated Separation Concepts • Develop Airspace Integration Safety Cases • Develop SAA Sensors & Fusion Requires • Develop Separation Algorithms • AssessAvailability/Quality of Surveillance Data • Safe and EfficientTerminal Airspace & Surface Operations Unmanned Aircraft • State Awareness and RealTime Mission Management • Airframe Certification • Precise Location & Navigation • UAS Avionics & Control Systems Certification Communications • Impact of UAS Ops on NextGen comms systems • Availability of UAS Control frequency Spectrum • Develop &Validate UAS Control System Performance Requirement • Ensure security of safety critical comms with civil UAS • Design & Develop UAS Control Datalink for allocated frequency spectrum bands Human Systems Integration • DisplayTraffic/airspace information • Effective Human Automation Interaction • Pilot Centric GCS • Definition Roles and Responsibilities • Predictability & Contingency Mgt • System Level Issues • Support for Future Capability of UAS
  139. 139. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Europe: Technology and Operational Gaps Operational & Technology gaps: 1. Integration into ATM and Airspace environments 2. Surface operations incl. take-off and landing 3. Operational contingency procedures and systems 4. Data communication links incl. spectrum issues 5. Detect & Avoid systems and operational procedures 6. Security issues 7. Verification and Validation Methods
  140. 140. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Europe: Technology and Operational Gaps 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration GAPS LINKED TO ACTION & MILESTONES Operational & Technology gaps: 1. Integration into ATM and Airspace environments 2. Surface operations incl. take-off and landing 3. Operational contingency procedures and systems 4. Data communication links incl. spectrum issues 5. Detect & Avoid systems and operational procedures 6. Security issues 7. Verification and Validation Methods
  141. 141. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Europe: Technology and Operational Gaps 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration GAPS LINKED TO ACTION & MILESTONES Operational & Technology gaps: 1. Integration into ATM and Airspace environments 2. Surface operations incl. take-off and landing 3. Operational contingency procedures and systems 4. Data communication links incl. spectrum issues 5. Detect & Avoid systems and operational procedures 6. Security issues 7. Verification and Validation Methods Timelines & Difficulty Identified
  142. 142. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Europe: Technology and Operational Gaps 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration GAPS LINKED TO ACTION & MILESTONES Operational & Technology gaps: 1. Integration into ATM and Airspace environments 2. Surface operations incl. take-off and landing 3. Operational contingency procedures and systems 4. Data communication links incl. spectrum issues 5. Detect & Avoid systems and operational procedures 6. Security issues 7. Verification and Validation Methods Timelines & Difficulty Identified Re-OccurringThemes • Detect & Avoid • CNPC • ATM • Human Factors • Risk & Safety Management • Training
  143. 143. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work The European Exemplar: Milestones, Priorities & Timelines 5.VFR 4. IFR 3. BVLOS 2. EVLOS 1.VLOS Priorities: Identifies 5 types of Operations: 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2023 2028 TimelinesMilestones Initial Integration Evolution
  144. 144. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work European Strategic R& D
  145. 145. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work European Roadmap: Breakdown for each Activity
  146. 146. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work European Roadmap: Breakdown for each Activity RelatedTechnology Gaps: BVLOS DAA • EC Gap 3.3 Airborne DAA • EC Gap 3.4 Ground DAA • EC 3.8 Ground & Obstacle Avoidance • EC Gap 3.7Weather Detection • EC Gap 3.8 Detectability Solutions • EC Gap 3.10 Other Hazards Activity Related technology Gaps Context & Objectives Descriptions
  147. 147. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work European Roadmap: Breakdown for each Activity RelatedTechnology Gaps: BVLOS DAA • EC Gap 3.3 Airborne DAA • EC Gap 3.4 Ground DAA • EC 3.8 Ground & Obstacle Avoidance • EC Gap 3.7Weather Detection • EC Gap 3.8 Detectability Solutions • EC Gap 3.10 Other Hazards Dependencies • DAA System Compatibility • Barometric System • TCAS/ACAS • ATM System Other Hazards Activity Related technology Gaps Context & Objectives Descriptions SESAR Implications Deliverables Key Dependencies Planning:WBS & Schedule
  148. 148. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work European Roadmap: Breakdown for each Activity RelatedTechnology Gaps: BVLOS DAA • EC Gap 3.3 Airborne DAA • EC Gap 3.4 Ground DAA • EC 3.8 Ground & Obstacle Avoidance • EC Gap 3.7Weather Detection • EC Gap 3.8 Detectability Solutions • EC Gap 3.10 Other Hazards Dependencies • DAA System Compatibility • Barometric System • TCAS/ACAS • ATM System Other Hazards Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non- Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic, ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing Activity Related technology Gaps Context & Objectives Descriptions SESAR Implications Deliverables Key Dependencies Planning:WBS & Schedule Required Expertise Planning: Risk & opportunities
  149. 149. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Activity 14: • Establishing AvailableTechnologies • Supporting Industry Development •Supporting & Prioritising Development whichALSO helps: • the Regulatory Body accelerate regulation • Supports the Collective Good rather than Individual Business Interests Demonstrating Best Practice
  150. 150. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Uncertainty about Scope of Work Activity 14: • Establishing AvailableTechnologies • Supporting Industry Development •Supporting & Prioritising Development whichALSO helps: • the Regulatory Body accelerate regulation • Supports the Collective Good rather than Individual Business Interests Demonstrating Best Practice This will be relevant when I talk about trials
  151. 151. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe?
  152. 152. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe? • Do we understand implications of their priorities & timelines?
  153. 153. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe? • Do we understand implications of their priorities & timelines? • Is “Close Following” a conscious decision or really a “Wait & See” Strategy • If we don’t want to “close-follow”, how will the gaps be addressed  • What is being done to establish answers? • Who will pay the price? Operational & Technology gaps: 1. Integration into ATM and Airspace environments 2. Surface operations incl. take-off and landing 3. Operational contingency procedures and systems 4. Data communication links incl. spectrum issues 5. Detect & Avoid systems and operational procedures 6. Security issues 7. Verification and Validation Methods
  154. 154. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe? • Do we understand implications of their priorities & timelines? • Which parts are relevant to Australia, which parts are not?
  155. 155. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe? • Do we understand implications of their priorities & timelines? • Which parts are relevant to Australia, which parts are not? • What are our National UAV Priorities?
  156. 156. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe? • Do we understand implications of their priorities & timelines? • Which parts are relevant to Australia, which parts are not? • What are our National UAV Priorities? • Agriculture, Mining, Emergency Services,…
  157. 157. Key Questions • Do our operational priorities differ from US/Europe? • Do we understand implications of their priorities & timelines? • Which parts are relevant to Australia, which parts are not? • What are our National UAV Priorities? • Agriculture, Mining, Emergency Services,… • EVLOS, BVLOS, IFR/VFR 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 7. CNPC • 9. Airspace & Airport Access • 11 Contingency • BVLOS • 6. DAA • 8. CNPC • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • Human Factors: • 13 BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration
  158. 158. Key Questions
  159. 159. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM)
  160. 160. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC
  161. 161. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control
  162. 162. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control Required Expertise: ATM & Operations • ATC & ATM Specialists • Flight Planning • Knowledge of ATM SurveillanceAssets • Knowledge of ATC Procedures & Services • Knowledge of NextGen, SESAR, OneSky • Operators • RPA End Users: Pilot & Payload • Small & Large • CPA Pilots • NewTechnologies: Airware, LATAS, UTM
  163. 163. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) • Address particular gaps Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control Required Expertise: ATM & Operations • ATC & ATM Specialists • Flight Planning • Knowledge of ATM SurveillanceAssets • Knowledge of ATC Procedures & Services • Knowledge of NextGen, SESAR, OneSky • Operators • RPA End Users: Pilot & Payload • Small & Large • CPA Pilots • NewTechnologies: Airware, LATAS, UTM
  164. 164. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) • Address particular gaps • Operational Procedure Generation Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control Required Expertise: ATM & Operations • ATC & ATM Specialists • Flight Planning • Knowledge of ATM SurveillanceAssets • Knowledge of ATC Procedures & Services • Knowledge of NextGen, SESAR, OneSky • Operators • RPA End Users: Pilot & Payload • Small & Large • CPA Pilots • NewTechnologies: Airware, LATAS, UTM
  165. 165. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) • Address particular gaps • Operational Procedure Generation • ATM Integration • Technology Specification Development • Technical Solution Development Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control Required Expertise: ATM & Operations • ATC & ATM Specialists • Flight Planning • Knowledge of ATM SurveillanceAssets • Knowledge of ATC Procedures & Services • Knowledge of NextGen, SESAR, OneSky • Operators • RPA End Users: Pilot & Payload • Small & Large • CPA Pilots • NewTechnologies: Airware, LATAS, UTM
  166. 166. Key Questions • Where do we have the skills to: • Make decisions on what is relevant (C2, DAA, ATM) • Address particular gaps • Operational Procedure Generation • ATM Integration • Technology Specification Development • Technical Solution Development • Assess Risk & Develop Mitigation when Solutions not present Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control Required Expertise: ATM & Operations • ATC & ATM Specialists • Flight Planning • Knowledge of ATM SurveillanceAssets • Knowledge of ATC Procedures & Services • Knowledge of NextGen, SESAR, OneSky • Operators • RPA End Users: Pilot & Payload • Small & Large • CPA Pilots • NewTechnologies: Airware, LATAS, UTM
  167. 167. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Skills to Deal with Scope of Work If we bypass what the US/Europeans are doing, • was the decision underpinned by knowledge and expertise or ignorance, business agendas or simply plucked? • What are the safety implications? • Are there disengaged people in the room that know better? • Are there engaged people who don’t? Safety New Tech & Security DAA & CNPC Current ATM Procs Risk to People Separation Standards Different Flight Profiles Safety DAA & CNPC Current ATM Procs Separation Standards
  168. 168. Key Questions • Can we improve pace of change? • Yes. • If we convince industry to re-engage • Seek the Goldilocks Effect Required Expertise: DAA • Sensors (Cooperative & Non-Cooperative) • Sensor Integration, Blending, target tracking • System Architectures • Separation & Avoidance Logic,ACAS Logic • Operations • Information Processing • Aircraft Performance & Manoevreability • ATC Required Expertise: CNPC • DigitalComms • Terrain, Urban, Obstacle Database Mgt • Comms, Nav, Surveillance (CNS) • EM Spectrum Environment & Measurement • Spectrum Management • SATCOM Infrastructure • Small UAVs • RCP, QoS, Safety & Security • GNSS • Modelling & Simulation • Advanced Control Required Expertise: ATM & Operations • ATC & ATM Specialists • Flight Planning • Knowledge of ATM SurveillanceAssets • Knowledge of ATC Procedures & Services • Knowledge of NextGen, SESAR, OneSky • Operators • RPA End Users: Pilot & Payload • Small & Large • CPA Pilots • NewTechnologies: Airware, LATAS, UTM Manpower & Skill CASA & Industry
  169. 169. Sense&Avoid
  170. 170. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid RTCA White Papers & MOPS
  171. 171. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid RTCA White Papers & MOPS Focused on UA which require approval to fly in airspace normally frequented by commercial transport aircraft Facilitates transition to/from Class A or special use airspace, traversing Class D, E, & G airspace Not applicable to sUAS: • Must be > 55lb • Capable of DAA forCooperative & Uncooperative. radar, ADSB,TCAS… Phase 1 MOPS
  172. 172. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid RTCA White Papers & MOPS Focused on UA which require approval to fly in airspace normally frequented by commercial transport aircraft Facilitates transition to/from Class A or special use airspace, traversing Class D, E, & G airspace Not applicable to sUAS: • Must be > 55lb • Capable of DAA forCooperative & Uncooperative. radar, ADSB,TCAS… Phase 1 MOPS 0 500 1000 2011 2012 2013 2014 DJI
  173. 173. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid RTCA White Papers & MOPS Focused on UA which require approval to fly in airspace normally frequented by commercial transport aircraft Facilitates transition to/from Class A or special use airspace, traversing Class D, E, & G airspace Not applicable to sUAS: • Must be > 55lb • Capable of DAA forCooperative & Uncooperative. radar, ADSB,TCAS… Phase 1 MOPS 0 500 1000 2011 2012 2013 2014 DJI Still Prudent to pay attention to Contents, • Unknown Unknowns are not good when approving BVLOS or • Accepting lower quality equipment
  174. 174. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Encounter Set: Understanding the Risk DetectEncounters Own-ship Data Tracker Alerting Guidance Display Pilot Aircraft Model
  175. 175. DAATimelineAllocation Summary DAA MOPS Appendix J,Table J-2 Step Time (sec) Detect (Sensor) 5 Track (Sensor) 5 Evaluate (DAAP) 1 TransmitTracks (CNPC) 2 Display 1 Declare (DGP) 1 Determine (Pilot) 10 ( NASA HITL) Pilot-ATC Interaction 10 ( NASA HITL) Pilot Input (Pilot) 5 (NASA HITL) RLP B (CNPC) 2 ) Maneuver (UA) 30 (Depends on speed) Well Clear Boundary 35 Total 107
  176. 176. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid SC-228 MOPS Development Radar Declaration Range
  177. 177. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid SC-228 MOPS Development Alert Pilot Detect Intruder Determine Resolution 15 s Radar Declaration Range
  178. 178. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid SC-228 MOPS Development Alert Pilot Detect Intruder Determine Resolution 15 s Negotiate ATC Clearance 10 s Radar Declaration Range
  179. 179. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid SC-228 MOPS Development Alert Pilot Detect Intruder Determine Resolution 15 s Negotiate ATC Clearance 10 s 30.0 s maneuver to remain well clear (Aircraft Performance Radar Declaration Range
  180. 180. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid SC-228 MOPS Development Alert Pilot Detect Intruder Determine Resolution 15 s Negotiate ATC Clearance 10 s 30.0 s maneuver to remain well clear (Aircraft Performance 35.0 s DAAWell Clear Radar Declaration Range
  181. 181. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid SC-228 MOPS Development Alert Pilot Detect Intruder Determine Resolution 15 s Negotiate ATC Clearance 10 s 30.0 s maneuver to remain well clear (Aircraft Performance 35.0 s DAAWell Clear Radar Declaration Range 110 seconds RDR Can vary up to 110 seconds as function of intruder speed, ownship speed and intruder bearing angle
  182. 182. Prepared by :Terrence Martin DAA Performance Assessment Key ASTM F2411 SAA Requirement for Class 3 220 Degrees 30 Degrees
  183. 183. Prepared by :Terrence Martin DAA Performance Assessment Key ASTM F2411 SAA Requirement for Class 3 220 Degrees 30 Degrees Day, Night, Bright Light, & any weather
  184. 184. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  185. 185. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  186. 186. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  187. 187. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  188. 188. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  189. 189. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  190. 190. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  191. 191. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  192. 192. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  193. 193. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  194. 194. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Angular Resolution & Stabilisation Radar shall correct for pitch up of 5 degree
  195. 195. Detection Range Populated Area A300 Passenger Aircraft Surveillance RPA: Luna Time Taken Less than 1 second Luna Imagery Before Crash Landing near Kabul NMAC
  196. 196. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Practicalities of DAA Minimum Maneuvering Time Example 60 kts
  197. 197. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Practicalities of DAA Minimum Maneuvering Time Example 60 kts A380 240 kts 24 m 12 m
  198. 198. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Practicalities of DAA Minimum Maneuvering Time Example 60 kts 300 kts closing speed A380 240 kts 24 m 12 m
  199. 199. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Practicalities of DAA Minimum Maneuvering Time Example DJI Phantom 3 Max Descent: 590.551 feet per minute Max Speed 16 m/s (no wind) = 31 kts 60 kts Scan Eagle: • Max ROC: 150m/min (491 feet per minute) • Lets assume can descend at same rate ( not a given) • Cruise Speed 300 kts closing speed A380 240 kts 24 m 12 m
  200. 200. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Practicalities of DAA Minimum Maneuvering Time Example DJI Phantom 3 Max Descent: 590.551 feet per minute Max Speed 16 m/s (no wind) = 31 kts 60 kts Scan Eagle: • Max ROC: 150m/min (491 feet per minute) • Lets assume can descend at same rate ( not a given) • Cruise Speed 300 kts closing speed A380 240 kts 24 m 12 m • Time to climb/descend 12 m is 4.8 seconds ( 12 150 ) mins • 300 kts closing speed = 5 nm per minute • Decision to MOVE must be made at ( 4.8 60 ) x 5kts : 740 m range • Assumes an instantaneous reaction..
  201. 201. A380 79.8 m 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0200040006000800010000 NoofPixelsRepresentingAircraft Range between A380 and State Aircraft 25 m For 300 kt Closing Speed 5mm focal length 3.75 um pixel width HFOV =44 degrees
  202. 202. A380 79.8 m 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0200040006000800010000 NoofPixelsRepresentingAircraft Range between A380 and State Aircraft At 3000 m : • 20 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 11 pixels • Approx 1% of HFOV (1024 pixels) At 2000 m: • 13 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 16 Pixels • Approx 1.5% of HFOV 25 m For 300 kt Closing Speed 5mm focal length 3.75 um pixel width HFOV =44 degrees
  203. 203. A380 79.8 m 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0200040006000800010000 NoofPixelsRepresentingAircraft Range between A380 and State Aircraft At 3000 m : • 20 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 11 pixels • Approx 1% of HFOV (1024 pixels) At 2000 m: • 13 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 16 Pixels • Approx 1.5% of HFOV 25 m At 1000 m • 6.5 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 33 Pixels • 3 % of HFOV (44 degrees) For 300 kt Closing Speed 5mm focal length 3.75 um pixel width HFOV =44 degrees
  204. 204. At 1000 m • 6.5 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 33 Pixels • 3 % of HFOV At 3000 m • 20 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 11 pixels • 1% of HFOV For 300 kt Closing Speed 5mm focal length 3.75 um pixel width
  205. 205. 220 Degrees
  206. 206. 220 Degrees At 1000 m • 6.5 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 33 Pixels • 3 % of 44degree HFOV 44 Degrees HFOV
  207. 207. 220 Degrees At 1000 m • 6.5 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 33 Pixels • 3 % of 44degree HFOV 44 Degrees HFOV Actually 0.6% of 220 degrees FoR required by specification
  208. 208. 220 Degrees At 1000 m • 6.5 seconds to Collision, • Intruder is 33 Pixels • 3 % of 44degree HFOV 44 Degrees HFOV Actually 0.6% of 220 degrees FoR required by specification Thankfully,A380’s don’t operate at low level without ATC separation….. but willATC know about the UAV?
  209. 209. Prepared by :Terrence Martin ATM Operations Aircraft Performance: Different climb & descent rates, turn radius, cruise speed Issues for DAA & ATM Missions: RPAS loitering & Surveillance: CPA Point A to B 100 kts 300 ft/min Radius ~ 1 NM 450 kts 1500 ft/min Radius ~ 8 NM Loiter Pattern Point to Point
  210. 210. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Encounters 80 Baseline Stressing Cases @ 6,000’ or 18,000’ Alt 24-Head-On • 250kt or 500kt • 0, 1500, 3000 fpm • 0, 2500’, 12000’ HMD • 0, 500’, 1000’ VMD 12-Overtake • 150kt vs. 100 or 140kt • 0, -1500 fpm • 0, 250’ HMD • 0, 500’ VMD 32-Converging • 250kt or 500kt • 0 or -3000 fpm • 0, 2500’, 12000’ HMD • 0, 500’, 1000’ VMD • 60 , 90 , 120 IA 12-Maneuvering Intr • 250kt or 500kt • 0 or +1500 fpm • 0, 2500’, 12000’ HMD • 0, 500’ VMD 15 Additional Cases 5-USAF • Crossing Geometry • Alt-Crossing Before CPA 5-MIT/LL • Mixed Geometry 5-NASA • Parallel Course • Vertically Converging + 1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases
  211. 211. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Encounters: Head On Encounters 24 Head On • 250kt or 500kt • 0, 1500, 3000 fpm • 0, 2500’, 12000’ HMD • 0, 500’, 1000’VMD 1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases *.KMZ Images generated using Code from Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Centre, Canadian with support from Kris Ellis
  212. 212. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Converging Encounters 32 Converging Encounters • 250kt or 500kt • 0 or -3000 fpm • 0, 2500’, 12000’ HMD • 0, 500’, 1000’VMD • 60 , 90 , 120 IA 1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases *.KMZ Images generated using Code from Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Centre, Canadian with support from Kris Ellis
  213. 213. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Manoevering Encounters 12 Maneuvering Stress Cases • 250kt or 500kt • 0 or +1500 fpm • 0, 2500’, 12000’ HMD • 0, 500’VMD 1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases *.KMZ Images generated using Code from Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Centre, Canadian with support from Kris Ellis
  214. 214. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Overtaking Encounters 12 Overtaking Encounters 1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases • 150kt vs. 100 or 140kt • 0, -1500 fpm • 0, 250’ HMD • 0, 500’VMD *.KMZ Images generated using Code from Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Centre, Canadian with support from Kris Ellis
  215. 215. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Overtaking Encounters 12 Overtaking Encounters1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases • 150kt vs. 100 or 140kt • 0, -1500 fpm • 0, 250’ HMD • 0, 500’VMD *.KMZ Images generated using Code from Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Centre, Canadian with support from Kris Ellis
  216. 216. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Detect & Avoid Overtaking Encounters 12 Overtaking Encounters1. Lincoln Labs Data • Correlated • Uncorrelated 2. Scripted Stress Cases • 150kt vs. 100 or 140kt • 0, -1500 fpm • 0, 250’ HMD • 0, 500’VMD This is for Large UAVs conducting BVLOS Which parts are not relevant for sUAS! How will these decision be made? And what about C2 LinkVulnerabilities! *.KMZ Images generated using Code from Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Centre, Canadian with support from Kris Ellis
  217. 217. Command & Non-PayloadCommunications
  218. 218. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control RTCA SC-228 White Paper C2 Data Link Source: RTCAWP-2: Command & Control Data Link ( 18 Mar 2014) UAS Data Link
  219. 219. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control RTCA SC-228 White Paper C2 Data Link Source: RTCAWP-2: Command & Control Data Link ( 18 Mar 2014) UAS Data Link UAS Payload Link Out of Scope Payload Link: carries all logical flows associated with mission payload package. No Safety of flight information, so not required to be in aviation safety protected spectrum.
  220. 220. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control RTCA SC-228 White Paper C2 Data Link Source: RTCAWP-2: Command & Control Data Link ( 18 Mar 2014) UAS Data Link UAS Control & NON Payload Comms (CNPC) Link UAS Payload Link Command & Non-Payload Comms; Carries all logical flows associated with controlling the flight of the aircraft as well as aircraft system status monitoing and link mgt. Expected to be relatively low bandwidth
  221. 221. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control RTCA SC-228 White Paper C2 Data Link Source: RTCAWP-2: Command & Control Data Link ( 18 Mar 2014) UAS Data Link UAS Control & NON Payload Comms (CNPC) Link PilotATC Link UAS Payload Link Voice Data eg CPDLC
  222. 222. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control RTCA SC-228 White Paper C2 Data Link Source: RTCAWP-2: Command & Control Data Link ( 18 Mar 2014) UAS Data Link UAS Control & NON Payload Comms (CNPC) Link UAS Control LinkPilotATC Link Telecommand Link UAS Payload Link UPLINK from pilot to AC to Aircraft • Information needed to control flight trajectory • Information needed to control all aircraft systems required for safe flight
  223. 223. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control RTCA SC-228 White Paper C2 Data Link Source: RTCAWP-2: Command & Control Data Link ( 18 Mar 2014) UAS Data Link UAS Control & NON Payload Comms (CNPC) Link UAS Control LinkPilotATC Link Telemetry Link UAS Payload Link Telemetry link DOWNLINK from AC to Pilot Aircraft location, attitude & speed System status Onboard NAVAID data Track data FPV is on board
  224. 224. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control • C2 Link provides reliable communication between PIC and RPA and ATC • May or may not occur via RPA Expectations
  225. 225. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control • C2 Link provides reliable communication between PIC and RPA and ATC • May or may not occur via RPA • Reliability of link must be appropriate for the environment • Airports and DenseTraffic • Departure & Arrival • Enroute: • Class A airspace Oceanic • What is the Quality of Service of the link • RF propagation, Signal Fading,Antenna Placement, frequency diversity • Protection from interference:Which Spectrum,CAPACITY expectations, Security Expectations
  226. 226. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Command Non Payload Control • C2 Link provides reliable communication between PIC and RPA and ATC • May or may not occur via RPA • Reliability of link must be appropriate for the environment • Airports and DenseTraffic • Departure & Arrival • Enroute: • Class A airspace Oceanic • What is the Quality of Service of the link • RF propagation, Signal Fading, Antenna Placement, frequency diversity • Protection from interference: Which Spectrum, CAPACITY expectations, Security • BVLOS vehicles must have an ability to maintain predictable flight on a planned heading & altitude if they lose CNPC. • What airspace could they enter if they lose link • Contingency Management: Software Assurance Expectations
  227. 227. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Availability and Continuity Indigenous Capacity: Knowing your limitations
  228. 228. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CNPC Critical Failure Modes Overall Availability & Continuity
  229. 229. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CNPC Critical Failure Modes Overall Availability & Continuity OR C2 Link Interruption-No Component Fail RPAS C2 Link Component Fail
  230. 230. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CNPC Critical Failure Modes Overall Availability & Continuity OR C2 Link Interruption-No Component Fail RPAS C2 Link Component Fail Propagation Event Interference Event Airframe Obstruction Capacity OR
  231. 231. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CNPC Critical Failure Modes Overall Availability & Continuity OR C2 Link Interruption-No Component Fail Propagation Event Interference Event Airframe Obstruction Capacity OR
  232. 232. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CNPC Critical Failure Modes Overall Availability & Continuity OR C2 Link Interruption-No Component Fail Propagation Event Interference Event Airframe Obstruction Capacity OR David W. Matolak , Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Air-Ground Channel Characterization Results , University of South Carolina
  233. 233. Prepared by :Terrence Martin CNPC Critical Failure Modes Overall Availability & Continuity OR C2 Link Interruption-No Component Fail Propagation Event Interference Event Airframe Obstruction Capacity OR How long is Acceptable to lose link? David W. Matolak , Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Air-Ground Channel Characterization Results , University of South Carolina
  234. 234. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Source Page 4-4 ICAO 9869 Dealing with Uncertainty Separation: RCP Transaction times Aircraft Separation is a function of many things, including timeframe required for ATC to communicate with Aircraft to effect a manouevers RPAs can have different comms pathways, thus longer comms timeframes eg satellite, HF etc How much separation is required for these instances??
  235. 235. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Source:Page 4-4 ICAO 9869 Dealing with Uncertainty C2 Link Required Communication Performance RP Send Message ATC receives Indication of Message Imbound ATC Understand Message ATC Compose Feedback ATC Sends Message RP Gets Indication of Imbound Message RP Compose Message RP Completes Action RP Transmits Completion Typical RPAS C2TransactionTime TotalTime is combination of: • Human to Machine & Machine Machine Interface • Human ReactionTimes • Tech Communication Media: Satellite, Microwave,….relayed or LOS
  236. 236. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Source:Page 4-4 ICAO 9869 Dealing with Uncertainty C2 Link Required Communication Performance RP Send Message ATC receives Indication of Message Imbound ATC Understand Message ATC Compose Feedback ATC Sends Message RP Gets Indication of Imbound Message RP Compose Message RP Completes Action RP Transmits Completion Typical RPAS C2TransactionTime TotalTime is combination of: • Human to Machine & Machine Machine Interface • Human ReactionTimes • Tech Communication Media: Satellite, Microwave,….relayed or LOS LongerTime: Greater Separation • Eg CPDLC whilst travelling internationally means much greater separation distances in Oceanic
  237. 237. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Dealing with Uncertainty CASA AC 101-1 Sect 5.10.3 states: The parameters, which determine acceptable intermittent loss of signal and total loss, will be set by the manufacturer.. Should the determination of an acceptable duration for Lost Link beforeATC is advised, at least involve the REGULATOR & ANSP Indigenous Capacity : CNPC & RCP in Oz
  238. 238. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Dealing with Uncertainty Indigenous Capacity: Lost Link Decision Times Taxi, Takeoff and Landing. Within 5nm of runway and below 10kft. • Lost C2 Link Decision time = 2 seconds. • Short time required because risk may increase rapidly and the pilot may not have time to intervene for a RPA with a low automation level. • A Lost C2 Link must be declared quickly; More automatic operation required by RPA if these times cant be achieved 2 NM 3 NM 400ft AGL 100ft AGL 0 NM 500ft 600ft AGL RPAS How Long would it take for RPAS to Communicate Lost Link to ATC???
  239. 239. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Dealing with Uncertainty Indigenous Capacity: Lost Link Decision Times Departure and Arrival. RPA within 30nm of runway and below 18kft. • RLOS at this longer range • Lost C2 Link Decision time = 10seconds. • Equivalent to the ATC RCP for terminal areas. Enroute. RPA greater than 30nm from runway and below 60kft. • Use BRLOS (terrestrial network) • 10 seconds Lost C2 Link Decision time (non-satellite) • 30 seconds when satellite C2 Link, e.g. when significantly further way than 30nm.
  240. 240. FutureDirections
  241. 241. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions 1. Goals, Milestones, National Priorities and what is Achievable • Capturing & Communicating gaps preventing achievement • Reality: National Aspirations tempered by Indigenous Capacity & Money • 80:20 Rule • Transparency: fostering industry Buy-In for solutions Creating, Communicating and Enacting a Feasible Roadmap
  242. 242. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions 1. Goals, Milestones, National Priorities and what is Achievable • Capturing & Communicating gaps preventing achievement • Reality: National Aspirations tempered by Indigenous Capacity & Money • 80:20 Rule • Transparency: fostering industry Buy-In for solutions 2. Workforce: • What is available, what is required, and how can we improve it • Fostering Industry Buy-In • Working Group Restructure: Motivation, Skills Creating, Communicating and Enacting a Feasible Roadmap
  243. 243. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions 1. Goals, Milestones, National Priorities and what is Achievable • Capturing & Communicating gaps preventing achievement • Reality: National Aspirations tempered by Indigenous Capacity & Money • 80:20 Rule • Transparency: fostering industry Buy-In for solutions 2. Workforce: • What is available, what is required, and how can we improve it • Fostering Industry Buy-In • Working Group Restructure: Motivation, Skills 3. CoordinatedTrials Creating, Communicating and Enacting a Feasible Roadmap
  244. 244. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions Australian Goals & timeliness will be a compromise: • Our Economic Priorities • Our Indigenous Capacity • CASA & Industry • Money • R&D expertise • There will be some reliance on overseas regulatory development CANWE FINESSE an OPTIMAL BALANCE? Goals, National Priorities & Achievability 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Action Items Priorities &Timelines
  245. 245. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions Goals, National Priorities & Achievability 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Action Items Priorities &Timelines Still important that we:
  246. 246. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions Goals, National Priorities & Achievability 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Action Items Priorities &Timelines Still important that we: •Identify gaps &/or available mitigations and prioritise their treatment • Relevant to Australian Priorities
  247. 247. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions Goals, National Priorities & Achievability 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Action Items Priorities &Timelines Still important that we: •Identify gaps &/or available mitigations and prioritise their treatment • Relevant to Australian Priorities •Do it quickly, without compromising safety • Take what is useful: dispense with what is not
  248. 248. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Directions Goals, National Priorities & Achievability 14 Key R&D Activities: • EVLOS/VLOS • 1.RPAS activities awareness for security • 2. Operations in Urban Areas • 3. Human Factors • IFR/VFR • 4. Visual Detectability solutions • 5. DAA • 6. Comms C2 Datalink • 7. Airspace & Airport Access • 8 Contingency • BVLOS • 9. DAA • 10. Comms C2 Datalink • 11 Airspace & Airport Access • 12. Security • 13 Human Factors: BVLOS & IFR/VFR • 14 Best Practice Demonstration Goals Milestones Gaps & Barriers Action Items Priorities &Timelines Still important that we: •Identify gaps &/or available mitigations and prioritise their treatment • Relevant to Australian Priorities •Do it quickly, without compromising safety • Take what is useful: dispense with what is not •Communicate to Industry what is needed • Allow them to help
  249. 249. Priorities & Demographics Airspace Size /Weight Population G Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? Med Large E Small Med Large D Small Med Large
  250. 250. Priorities & Demographics EVLOS BVLOS BRLOS IMC Airspace Size /Weight Population G Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? Med Large E Small Med Large D Small Med Large
  251. 251. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS BRLOS IMC Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations G Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? Med Large E Small Med Large D Small Med Large
  252. 252. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations D Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? N N Y Y Med Y Y N Y Large Y Y N Not yet Understood
  253. 253. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations D Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? N N Y Y Med Y Y N Y Large Y Y N Not yet Understood Identifies • Easy Pickings • Missing Enablers • Accountable Organisation • Uncertainties
  254. 254. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations D Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? N N Y Y Med Y Y N Y Large Y Y N Not yet Understood Uncertainty • What Equipment • What Restrictions • What Procedures • WhatTraining. Identifies • Easy Pickings • Missing Enablers • Accountable Organisation • Uncertainties
  255. 255. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations D Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? N N Y Y Med Y Y N Y Large Y Y N Not yet Understood Uncertainty • What Equipment • What Restrictions • What Procedures • WhatTraining. Identifies • Easy Pickings • Missing Enablers • Accountable Organisation • Uncertainties • Trials • Close Following
  256. 256. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations D Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? N N Y Y Med Y Y N Y Large Y Y N Not yet Understood Uncertainty • What Equipment • What Restrictions • What Procedures • WhatTraining. Identifies • Easy Pickings • Missing Enablers • Accountable Organisation • Uncertainties • Trials • Close Following Highlights • Capacity Shortfalls • Internal to CASA/ASA • Indigenous
  257. 257. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations D Small Barren, Rural, Urban, City?? N N Y Y Med Y Y N Y Large Y Y N Not yet Understood Uncertainty • What Equipment • What Restrictions • What Procedures • WhatTraining. Identifies • Easy Pickings • Missing Enablers • Accountable Organisation • Uncertainties • Trials • Close Following Highlights • Capacity Shortfalls • Internal to CASA/ASA • Indigenous • Could GetVery Busy…… • Could we reduce/bypass lower priority work
  258. 258. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations
  259. 259. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations OPERATION IDENTIFIED AS HIGH NATIONAL IMPORTANCE Y Y N ?????
  260. 260. Priorities & Demographics BVLOS Airspace Size /Weight Population TechSpec Gaps Procedural Gaps Tech Solutions Operational Mitigations OPERATION IDENTIFIED AS HIGH NATIONAL IMPORTANCE Y Y N ????? OPERATION WITH HIGH COMMUNITY DEMAND N Y Y ?????
  261. 261. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule • Training • Operations • InitialAirworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability MOPS Expectations
  262. 262. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule Treating All CONOPS Equally
  263. 263. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule Treating All CONOPS Equally • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability
  264. 264. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule Treating All CONOPS Equally • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability
  265. 265. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule Treating All CONOPS Equally • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability
  266. 266. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule Treating All CONOPS Equally • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability• Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability
  267. 267. Prepared by :Terrence Martin Future Direction 80:20 Rule Treating All CONOPS Equally • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability• Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability • Training • Ops • Initial Airworthiness • Continuing Airworthiness • ATM Interoperability Clearly insufficient workforce to enact for each CONOPS, BUT….

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