TheDisconnectedWho they are. How they got there.
Who am I, and why should youlisten to me? • Currently the Director of Teen Central at Burton Barr Library - Phoenix Public Library • Worked for several years on a city- wide committee to address Disconnected Youth • 13+ years of working with Teens in low-income neighborhoods • Phoenix is the 5th worst city in the nation as far as Disconnected Youth (1 in 5) • Also, grew up in a low income neighborhood
CHARACTERISTICS Disconnected Youth Low NoAges Not in Not Familial Degree16-24 School Working Support
Other Factors of DYDisconnected Youth Foster Poverty Care Kids Having Kids Causes Gay/ Gender Issues Juvenile Justice Abusive System Parents
Factors Leading to Vulnerability • Institutional Challenges – Unsafe schools or with few resources, unsafe or deprived neighborhoods, services in silo • Educational Challenges – ELL, special ed needs, older for grade, low literacy skills • Social Challenges – Poverty, racism, abuse, juvenile justice • Personal Challenges – Lack of self-efficacy, mental/physical health problems
What do youth need to becomehealthy, functioning adults?
Youth Transitions FundersGroup: Connected by 25• A young person who is Connected by 25 has attained 4 critical outcomes – Educational achievement in preparation for career and civic participation – Gainful employment and/or access to career training – Ability to be a responsible and nurturing parent – Capacity to participate in the civic life of one’s community
Developmentally SupportivePlaces • Features*: – Physical and psychological safety – Appropriate structure – Supportive adult relationships – Feelings of belonging and being valued – Opportunities to develop positive social values and norms – Support for efficacy and mattering – Opportunities for skill building and mastery – *National Academies of Sciences/National Research Council’s Panel on Community Youth Development Programs
The bad news • In America, an estimated 2.3 million to 5.2 million young people between the ages of 14 and 24 are not enrolled in school, not working, and lack family or other support networks. That’s 1 in 7 • In 2011, 14% of young people in America ages 16-19 are not in school or the workforce. • And last year alone, youth disconnection cost taxpayers $93.7 billion in government support and lost tax revenue.
Foster care = higher risk • Only 3% of foster children nationwide have a degree beyond high +school. • Nearly 20,000 foster care teens "age- out" of the foster care system each year. • 25 percent of "aged-out" youth have been homeless • 42 percent have become parents themselves • fewer than 20 percent are able to support themselves, • only 46 percent have graduated from high school
Race and sex matter • African American young people have the highest rate of youth disconnection, 22.5 percent nationally. In Pittsburgh, Seattle, Detroit, and Phoenix, more than one in four African American young people are disconnected. • Boys are slightly more likely to be disconnected than girls. The gender gap is largest among African Americans; nationally, 26 percent of African American male youth are disconnected, compared to 19 percent of their female counterparts.
Family matters • Youth disconnection mirrors adult disconnection: household poverty rates and the employment and educational status of adults in a community are strongly associated with youth disconnection. • The disparities between wealthy and poor communities are striking. For example, in New York, disconnection rates range from 3.7 percent in parts of Long Island to 35.6 percent in parts of the South Bronx.
Some bad news • Lowest indicators – Equal Wage Gap - 48th – % of Unemployed Receiving UI Benefits - 32nd – Food Insecurity Rate - 26th • Poverty Rate: Percentage of people in the state who fell below the official poverty line – 13.1% or 15th
• Unemployment Rate: Percentage of unemployed workers in the state during an average month – 7.5% or 20th• Equal Wage Gap: Amount a woman earns for every dollar a man would earn in the same job – 70.0¢ or 48th• % of Unemployed Receiving UI Benefits: Percentage of unemployed workers in the state receiving unemployment insurance benefits – 49% or 32nd• Food Insecurity Rate: Percentage of households unable to acquire enough food to meet the needs of all their members at some point during the year – 14.1% or 26th
But, some really good stuff isgoing on too • High School Graduation High school graduation rate – 90.7% or 1st • Percentage of young people ages 25-34 in the state with an associate’s degree or higher – 40.8% or 22nd • Disconnected youth: Percentage of young people aged 16-19 who are neither in school nor the workforce – 7% or 11th
• Teen Birth Rate per 1000 Number of births to teenagers (15-19 year olds) per 1,000 births in the state – 26.2 or 10th• Foster Care Population per 100,000 children Number of children in foster care per 1,000 children under age 18 in the state – 51 or 6th• Affordable Housing Gap: Number of affordable and available units per 100 tenants at or below 0-50 percent of state median family income. – 73 or 15th
Back to the bad news7% DY is up from 6% in 2010.
Graduation rates • Wisconsin’s black-white graduation gap is third highest in the country behind Nevada and Minnesota. – 64% black student graduation rate is 15th from the bottom. • Wisconsin’s graduation gap between Hispanic and white students is ninth highest. – 72% Hispanic graduation rate. • 74% low-income graduation rate tied for 12th highest. South Dakota had the highest rate at 86 percent and Nevada had the lowest at 53 percent. • 67% graduation rate among students with disabilities.
Percent of DisconnectedTeens by County Type, 2006- 2010
Graduation Rates • About 44 percent of Wisconsin’s public school students attend school in a rural school district. • Wisconsin’s rural schools can boast better graduation rates than their urban neighbors. In 2009, rural high schools had a 93 percent graduation rate. The rate for the state as a whole was 89 percent, and 87 percent for metropolitan schools.
Diversity • as rural areas become more diverse culturally, an increased number of students who are English Language Learners (ELL) are attending school in rural districts. Unlike larger districts that receive funding to serve ELL students appropriately, many smaller districts are unprepared for these new students. In the 2008-2009 school year, 47 percent of ELL students (almost 28,000) went to school in districts that did not receive state support for bilingual/bicultural programs.
Rural Support Networks • Workers in rural northern parts of Wisconsin were disproportionately affected by the recession. The unemployment rate for rural Wisconsin was 9 percent, compared to 8.3% for the urban counties over the last few years. • This has gotten better in metropolitan areas, but hasn’t gotten much better in rural areas. Current numbers are 8.1 and 7.3 respectively.
Rural Support Networks • The state as a whole is below the national average in terms of adults with a post-secondary education. Of adults in rural areas, only 1 in 5 (20 percent) hold a bachelor’s degree or higher, whereas in urban areas of the state, 28 percent of adults hold a bachelor’s degree or higher. • In 2009, 48,415 (16 percent) of children in rural Wisconsin lived in poverty (below $22,050 for a family of four). In particular, many of the northern counties have some of the state’s worst rates of poverty.
Some other things to considerabout rural areas
That food insecurity thing? It is areally big deal. • According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in 2009 11.4% of households in rural Wisconsin were food insecure – an increase of 21% since 2005.
Homelessness • Temperatures drop well below zero in winter • Homelessness is a rising issue among rural counties in WI • For example, by October 2011 in Green County, the number of homeless or near-homeless families that contacted county agencies for help had surpassed 2010s figures.
Rural Schools Struggle • Of Wisconsins 220 rural districts, 182 (82.7%) had enrollment declines in 2000- 10. Over half had declines of at least 10%, and nearly one-quarter saw enrollment fall more than 20%. • Seven rural districts had smaller revenue limits in 2010 than in 2001. Another 20 had their limits rise less than 1% per year during this period. • The average rural district offered three Advanced Placement classes, compared to nine elsewhere in the state. • In rural districts, nearly 40% of students were eligible for free or reduced lunch, compared to 31% elsewhere.
Health and healthcare is an issue • Only about ten percent of physicians practice in rural America despite the fact that nearly one-fourth of the population lives in these areas • Rural residents are less likely to have employer-provided health care coverage or prescription drug coverage, and the rural poor are less likely to be covered by Medicaid benefits than their urban counterparts.
Dental Care – a really bad issue • The most common reason for kids to call off of school is a toothache • Nine of 10 dentists in the state accept few or no Medicaid patients, mostly because they say the state pays too little for the care.
Child Care struggles • Because families in rural areas lack resources and have lower incomes, parents are not able to afford child care fees. • The corporate model today is based on a capacity of 75-85 children. In a rural community, this number of children does not usually exist in one location. Rural programs often serve only 40-45 children. Generally programs are operated by not-for-profit agencies, Head Start, or public schools.
Child Abuse/Neglect • In WI, during calendar year 2011, CPS agencies received a total of 64,132 referrals; 38,623 of these were screened-out and 25,509 were screened-in • Out of a population of 1,000 Wisconsin children, about 29 children were involved in a report of alleged maltreatment in 2011.
Costs of Juvenile Justice • Juvenile arrests were relatively stable in the mid-1980s, but increased each year from 1989 to 1997. Over the 10- year period from 1999 to 2008, however, total juvenile arrests declined by 26.9%, from 137,872 in 1999 to 100,744 in 2008. In comparison, over the same period, total adult arrests decreased 2.2%, from 321,610 arrests in 1999 to 314,271 arrests in 2008.
GLBT • That’s Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered • Strengths and Silences reveals heightened incidents of student victimization based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression in rural schools compared to suburban or urban schools.
And some other, other issues • About 80% of Wisconsin residents have access to some type of broadband through cable television providers or telephone companies, according to industry figures. But coverage gaps in rural areas are a problem as businesses and individuals increasingly turn to the Internet for everything from online sales to entertainment. • The lack of broadband access has put children in rural schools at a competitive disadvantage. Unable to quickly access podcasts, videos and Webinars, these children are a step behind in a technological society.
• Lack of federal and commercial funding in rural communities can mean less access to programs like GED help, Leadership programs, job skills programs, and more.• In addition, children have fewer avenues for creative outlets and experimentation with creative and artistic skills.• People who must rely solely on over- strapped charities and churches have far fewer opportunities for robust, diverse programs allowing for a ‘leg up’.
Rural and Small Libraries:Providers for Lifelong Learning • library financing; • traditionally conservative nature of rural and small towns; • lack of academically trained staff; • need for skill development of library trustees; • limited, if any, analysis of community needs; • perception that rural library typically is a place of books; • technology is huge challenge; and • provision of targeted services to Native Americans and tribal libraries
being a disconnected youth • Age 18 • Live in rural area • Dropped out of HS due to pregnancy • Seasonally employed • No access to childcare • Limited access to healthcare • No access to dental care • No plans for college • No permanent residence
And, on that depressing note… • Libraries can help. • Librarians are a GREAT resource for these young people. • We are a source of inspiration. • We are good role models. • Libraries are a safe place to be. • You CAN make an impact. • Every life you touch matters.
Stay tuned for part II next weekwhere we’ll talk about specificservices you can offer yourDisconnected community.Questions? Comments?Hit me up!Terry Ann Lawler602-534-5014Terry.firstname.lastname@example.orgLook me up on Google+ or checkout my online profile @https://sites.google.com/site/terryannlawler/