Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Three generations of Distance Education Pedagogy: Challenges and Opportunities


Published on

Keynote slides from Dist. Educ. Assoc. of New Zealand. Wellington, NZ 2010

Published in: Education

Three generations of Distance Education Pedagogy: Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. Three generations of <br />Distance Education Pedagogy: Challenges and Opportunities<br />Wellington, NZ April 27, 2010<br />Terry Anderson, PhD and Professor<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Technological Determinism in Distance Education<br />Generations of Flexible Learning Pedagogy<br />A Network and Connective future for Flexible Learning<br />
  3. 3. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada<br />Fastest growing university in Canada<br />34,000 students, 700 courses<br />100% distance education<br />Graduate and Undergraduate programs<br />Master & Doctorate – Distance Education I have brochures!<br />Only USA Accredited University in Canada<br />* Athabasca University<br />*Athabasca <br /> University<br />
  4. 4. New Zealand andAlberta, Canada<br />* Athabasca University<br />*Athabasca <br /> University<br />
  5. 5. “Canada is a great country, much too cold for common sense, inhabited by compassionate and intelligent people with bad haircuts”.<br />Yann Martel, Life of Pi, 2002.<br />
  6. 6. Values<br />We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.<br />Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education and learning.<br />Current educational models do not scale for lifelong learning for all residents of our planet.<br />
  7. 7. Technology affords the interactions and the resources that create learning opportunities<br />Pedagogies define the way that technologies are best used<br />Technology<br />Pedagogy<br />
  8. 8. Dance Metaphors<br />the technology sets the beat and the timing.<br />The pedagogy defines the moves. <br />
  9. 9. Social Construction of Technology<br />Distance Education is, by definition, technologically mediated and thus is influenced by technological determinism.<br />BUT….<br /><ul><li>Interpretative Flexibility
  10. 10. each technological artifact has different meanings and interpretations
  11. 11. Relevant Social Groups
  12. 12. many subgroups of users with different applications
  13. 13. Design Flexibility
  14. 14. A design is only a single point in the large field of technical possibilities
  15. 15. Problems and Conflicts
  16. 16. Different interpretations often give rise to conflicts between criteria that are hard to resolve technologically
  17. 17. (Wikipedia, Sept, 2009)</li></ul>Bijker, W. (1999). Of Bicycles, Bakelites and Bulbs: Towards a Theory of Sociotechnical Change.<br />
  18. 18. Three Generations of Flexible Learning Pedagogies<br />Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study <br />Constructivist – Groups<br />Connectivist – Networks and Collectives<br />
  19. 19. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies<br />“tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em,<br />tell ‘em <br />then tell ‘em what you told ‘em”<br />Direct Instruction<br />
  20. 20. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)<br />Gain learners' attention<br />Inform learner of objectives<br />Stimulate recall of previous information<br />Present stimulus material<br />Provide learner guidance<br />Elicit performance<br />Provide Feedback <br />Assess performance<br />Enhance transfer opportunities <br />
  21. 21. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution”<br /><ul><li>Chunking
  22. 22. Cognitive Load
  23. 23. Working Memory
  24. 24. Multiple Representations
  25. 25. Split-attention effect
  26. 26. Variability Effect
  27. 27. Multi-media effect
  28. 28. (Sorden, 2005)</li></ul>“learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996<br />
  29. 29. Focus on the Content and the Individual Learner<br />
  30. 30. Behaviourist/Cognitive Knowledge Is<br />Logically coherent, existing independent of perspective<br />Context free<br />Capable of being transmitted<br />Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs<br />
  31. 31. Behaviourist/Cognitive Technologies<br />Content is king<br />
  32. 32. The End of Content Scarcity<br />Massive Global decrease in costs, complexity and collaboration,<br />Massive Increase in convenience and access<br />
  33. 33. A Tale of 3 books<br />Open Access - First Year<br />26,000 + downloads & <br />Individual chapters<br />404 hardcopies sold @ $40<br />Free<br />E-Learning for the 21st Century<br />Commercial Pub.<br />1200 sold @ $135.00<br />2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.<br />Commercial publisher<br />934 copies sold at $52.00<br />Buy at Amazon!!<br />
  34. 34. Citations/per article over time<br />Zawacki-Richter, O., Anderson, T., & Tuncay, N. (2010). The growing impact of open access distance education journals - a bibliometric analysis. Journal of Distance Education, 24(1). <br />
  35. 35. New Content Providers - ITune U<br />“iTunes is not simply a repository of more than 8 million songs, audio books, videos and 70,000 or so iPhone applications. <br />It also has the world's largest, constantly available, free educational resource” — iTunesU.<br />
  36. 36. New Developments in First Generation Pedagogies<br />Reflection Amplifiers<br />Social Indicators <br />Digital footprints<br />Archives<br />Competition and games<br />Multiple Representations<br />Student modeling and adaptation<br />
  37. 37. Behavioural/cognitive learning is necessary but not sufficient for quality education.<br />
  38. 38. 2. Constructivist Pedagogy of Flexible Learning<br /><ul><li>New knowledge built upon the foundation of previous learning,
  39. 39. The importance of context
  40. 40. Errors and contradictions are useful
  41. 41. Learning as an active rather than passive process,
  42. 42. The importance of language and other social tools in constructing knowledge
  43. 43. Focus on meta-cognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners capacity to assess their own learning
  44. 44. The importance of multiple perspectives - groups
  45. 45. Need for knowledge to be subject to social discussion, validation and application in real world contexts
  46. 46. (from Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka & Anderson, 1999)</li></li></ul><li>Constructivist Knowledge is:<br />Socially constructed.<br />Arrived at through dialogic encounter<br />(Bakhtin, 1975)<br />“Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge”<br />(Wegerif, R., 2009)<br />
  47. 47. “learning as located in the contexts and relationships, rather than merely in the minds of individuals” <br />Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, (2009)<br />
  48. 48. Assessing students using Constructivist Learning<br />“What is important is the process of knowledge acquisition, not any product or observable behavior.”<br />Jonassen, 1991 <br />
  49. 49. Constructivist Evaluation<br /><ul><li>the frequency with which students participate in activities that represent effective educational practice, is a meaningful proxy for collegiate quality and, therefore, by extension, quality of education.
  50. 50. What are effective practices?
  51. 51. Level of academic challenge
  52. 52. Active and collaborative learning
  53. 53. Student-faculty interaction
  54. 54. Enriching educational experiences
  55. 55. Supportive social interaction. (National Survey of Student Engagement, 2003)</li></li></ul><li>Constructivist learning isGroup Learning<br />Motivation<br />Feedback<br />Alternate viewpoints<br />
  56. 56. Taxonomy of the ‘Many’ – A Conceptual ModelDron and Anderson, 2007<br />Group<br />Conscious membership<br />Leadership and organization<br />Cohorts and paced<br />Rules and guidelines<br />Access and privacy controls<br />Focused and often time limited<br />May be blended F2F<br />Metaphor : <br />Virtual classroom<br />29<br />
  57. 57. Why Groups?<br /><ul><li>“Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist …
  58. 58. small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women…”
  59. 59. Springer; Stanne, & Donovan, (1999) P.42 </li></li></ul><li>Why Groups?<br /><ul><li>Athabasca University’s learner-paced undergraduate courses averaged 63.6% completion rates for the 2002-2003 academic year.
  60. 60. Completion rates for the same courses offered in seminar format (either through synchronous technologies or face-to-face) averaged 86.9% over the same period (Athabasca University, 2003, p.12)</li></li></ul><li>Constructivist Learning in Groups<br />Long history of research and study<br />Established sets of tools <br />Classrooms<br />Learning Management Systems <br />Synchronous (video & net conferencing)<br />Email<br />Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills<br />Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105. <br />
  61. 61. Cohort Communities of Practice<br />Wenger’s ideas of Community of Practice<br />mutual engagement – synchronous and notification tools <br />joint enterprise – collaborative projects<br />a shared repertoire – common tools, LMS, resource and doc sharing<br />
  62. 62. Problems with Groups<br />Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN<br />Often overly confined by leader expectation and institutional curriculum control<br />Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice<br />“low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005<br />“Pathological politeness” and fear of debate<br />Group think (Baron, 2005)<br />Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course<br />Relationships<br />Paulsen (1993)<br />Law of Cooperative Freedom<br />
  63. 63. Advances in Constructivist Learning Tools<br />Easier tools for group formation and artifact construction<br />LMS advances, <br />Group editing – wiki, Google docs<br />Free synchronous and asynchronous tools- Skype, Wiggio<br />
  64. 64. Constructivist Models Generally Don’t Scale<br />
  65. 65. Groups are necessary, but not sufficient for advanced forms of learning.<br />
  66. 66. 3. Networked Learning usingConnectivist Pedagogy<br />Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.<br />
  67. 67. Connectivist Learning PrinciplesGeorge Siemens, 2004<br />Learning is a process of creating connections among specialized nodes or information sources and humans.<br />Learning may reside in non-human appliances.<br />Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.<br />Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.<br />Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.<br />Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.<br />
  68. 68. Connectivist Knowledge is<br />Emergent<br />Distributed<br />Chaotic<br />Fragmented<br />Non sequential<br />Contextualized<br />
  69. 69. Connectivist focuses on Networks - - not Groups<br />Group<br />Network<br />Shared interest/practice<br />Fluid membership<br />Friends of friends<br />Reputation and altruism driven<br />Emergent norms, structures<br />Activity ebbs and flows<br />Rarely F2F<br />Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice<br />41<br />Dron and Anderson, 2007<br />
  70. 70. Networks Add diversity to learning<br />“People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90<br />
  71. 71. Communities of Practice <br />Networks<br />Distributed<br />Share common interest<br />Mostly self organizing<br />Open – Learning beyond the course<br />No expectation of meeting or even knowing all members of the Network<br />Little expectation of direct reciprocity<br />Contribute for social capital building, altruism and a sense of improving the world/practice through contribution.<br />(Brown and Duguid, 2001)<br />
  72. 72. Related Pedagogies<br />44<br />Participatory Pedagogy (Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. )<br />Students as content co-creators<br />ComplexityDavis, B., & Sumara, D. (2006). Complexity and Education<br /><ul><li>the unfinished course
  73. 73. Learning in environments in which activities and outcomes emerge in response to authentic needs creates powerful learning opportunities
  74. 74. Learning at the “edge of chaos”
  75. 75. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education </li></ul>Transparency Dalsgaard, C., & Paulsen, M. (2009). Transparency in Cooperative Online Education. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3)<br />See the Networked Student by Wendy Drexler<br />
  76. 76. How do we Build Networks of Practice ?<br />Motivation – marks, rewards, self and net efficacy, net-presence<br />Structural support <br />Exposure and training<br />Transparent systems<br />Wireless access, mobile computing<br />Cognitive skills – content + procedural, disclosure control<br />Social connections, reciprocity<br />Creating and sustaining a spiral of social capital building<br />Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998)<br />
  77. 77. Group<br /> Network<br />Collective<br />‘Aggregated other’<br />Unconscious ‘wisdom of crowds’<br />Stigmergic aggregation<br />Algorithmic rules<br />Augmentation and annotation<br />More used, more useful<br />Data Mining<br />Never F2F<br />Metaphor: <br />Wisdom of Crowds<br />46<br />
  78. 78. “a kind of cyber-organism, formed from people linked algorithmically…it grows through the aggregation of Individual, Group and Networked activities” Dron & Anderson, 2007<br />We leave traces as we learn and use the Net<br />How can we use these traces to improve learning?<br />Can the crowd learn to teach? (Dron & Anderson, 2009)<br />
  79. 79. Connectivist Tools<br /><br />
  80. 80. Connectivist Technologies<br />From Siemens and Tittenberger, 2009<br />
  81. 81. Connectivist Technology Examples from Athabasca<br /><ul><li>Elgg – – Social networking
  82. 82. Easy M-Cast (Podcast, videocasts, screen casts)
  83. 83. Tutor “office hours” & recorded via Elluminate
  84. 84. Athabasca presence in immersive worlds ie Second Life
  85. 85. AU on FaceBook & RateMyProfessor
  86. 86. Media Lab at AU – Communication tool chests
  87. 87. New Pedagogical Model for AU self-paced courses
  88. 88. Research on student use of course archives
  89. 89. Mining of LMS activities</li></li></ul><li>Challenges to ConnectivistLearning Models<br />Privacy <br />Control <br />Dealing with disruptive change<br />Institutional Support<br />Sustaining motivation and <br />commitment<br />
  90. 90. Network Tool Set (example)<br />Text<br />Text<br />52<br />Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007<br />
  91. 91. Access Controls in Elgg<br />
  92. 92. Open Net<br />Research/Community Networks<br />OERs, YouTUBE<br />MY AU<br />Login<br />Discovery<br />Read & Comment <br />Passwords<br />Passwords<br />AlFresco<br />CMS<br />Athabasca Landing<br /> E-Portfolios<br /> Profiles<br /> Networks<br /> Bookmarks<br /> Blogs<br />Course Development<br />Sample CC <br />Course units and <br />Branded OERs<br />Athabasca University<br />Moodle<br />AUspace<br />ELGG<br />Media lab<br />Single Sign on<br />Registry<br />Library<br />CIDER<br />Secondlife campus<br />
  93. 93. “correspondence principle”<br />Social organizations and institutions (like education) arise to match characteristics and needs of the society from which they emerge.<br />Behaviourist/cognitive – industrial era, mechanism and automation<br />Constructivist – post modern, multiple understandings<br />Connectivist – Networked era, distributed knowledge and production<br />
  94. 94. Conclusion<br />Behavioural/Cognitive models are useful for memory and conceptual knowledge<br />Constructivist models develop group skills and trust<br />Connectivist models and tools introduce networked learning and are foundational for lifelong learning in complex contexts<br />21 Century Literacies and skills demand effective use of all three<br />
  95. 95. "He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.”Chinese Proverb<br />Your comments and questions most welcomed!<br />Terry Anderson<br />Blog:<br />