Social PresenceFrom Social Presence to Transactional Presence to Net PresenceGarrison (2009) Social Pres. as “the ability of participants toidentify with the community (e.g., course of study),communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, anddevelop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting theirindividual personalities.” (p. 352).TransactionalPres. « the degree to which a distancestudentperceives the availability of, and connectednesswith,teachers, peerstudents, and institution” (Shin, 2002: 132).Allows for use in self-paced learningSocial presence confounded with multi-disciplinary perspectives
Teaching PresenceDefined as: The design, facilitation and direction ofcognitive and social processes for the purpose ofrealizing personally meaningful and educationalworthwhile learning outcomes.Built upon the familiar models of Moore, Holmberg,Paulsen, and Mason, however provide ways tomeasure the construct.
Teaching PresenceThe transcript analysis allows researcher todisaggregate the rolesInstructional designer and activity organizerDiscourse facilitatorSubject matter expertEspecially critical in computer conferencing (asynchtext) based education systemsMajor cause of course breakdown.
Instructional DesignEnhancing course with additional resourcesYouTube videosOERsMOOCs and Khan AcademyStudent submitted resourcesStudent created resources:Past assignmentsPortals and Wikipedia articlesLearn.ist
Connectivist LearningPersistenceAccessibilityNetworkEffects“Connectivying” your coursehttp://terrya.edublogs.org/2012/12/18/connectivy-your-course/
Facilitating DiscourseRight size of sub-groupRight kind of questionsRight number of questionsRight quantity of InterventionsUsing students as discussion leadersVideo and Audio enhancementsVoiceThreadUsing Synchronous sessions
Teaching Presence –Subject Matter ExpertKeeping current yourselfDeveloping your professional networksFiltering ideas and solutionsYour blogSubscribing to Journals – notably www.irrodl.orgReading Free Books from AU Press aupress.caGreat educational Twitter feeds
Teaching presencein a Life Long Learning EraLearners of today “used to work for someone else,but will increasingly work for themselves and insteadof serving as functionaries in the achievement ofpurposes set by others, they will increasingly setpurposes for themselves”Richard Sampson, 2005
COI meets Web 2.0 How much does social presence increase insynchronous activities Does adding voice (auidoconferencing) graphics(web conferencing), pictures (video), virtualenvironment (immersion) significantly increasesocial presence? Are the resulting limitations on access worth socialand pedagogical gains? When is too much social presence damaging?
Learner AssessmentAuthentic assessment “the measurement of"intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile,significant, and meaningful”Wehlage, Newmann, &Secada,1996, p. 23See http://youtu.be/c_gibuFZXZwE-Portfolioshttps://portfolio.elab.athabascau.ca/view/view.php?id=2822
Assessment Voice Marking using Adobe ConnectIce, P., Curtis, R., Phillips, P., & Wells, J. (2007). Using Asynchronous Audio Feedback toEnhance Teaching Presence and Students’ Sense of Community. Journal of AsychronousLearning Network, 11(2)
NetPresenceGoodier, S., &Czerniewicz, L. (2013). Academics’ online presence: A four-step guide to taking control of your visibility.University of Capetown. http://openuct.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/Online%20Visibility%20Guidelines.pdf.
What Type of Networked Academic PersonaHave you Created?Barbour, K., & Marshall, D. (2012). The academic online: Constructing persona throughthe World Wide Web. First Monday, 17(9).http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3969/3292.
Beyond the LMSSocial networking in a boutique networkhttps://Landing. athabascau.ca
Walled Gardens (withwindows)Connectivist learning thrives in safe learning spaceswith windows allowing randomness, externalparticipation and public presentation
What is the Landing?A private space for Athabasca University –students, staff, alumniA public place for sharing knowledgeA user controlled creative spaceBoutique social networkNetworking, blogging, photos,microblogging, polls, calendars, groupsand moreBuilt on elgg.org platform
ConclusionsCOI most widely quoted heuristic and research theory inonline learningNeed to use new tools to enhance cognitive, social andteaching presenceDoes it speak to learning in your course contexts?Is it a useful tool for education development and research?Your comments and questions, pleaseTerry Anderson firstname.lastname@example.orgBlog: terrya.edublogs.org
Why low rate of problem resolution inCognitive Presence?Instructional design- no problem to resolvePoor teacher guidance/assessmentResolution reflected in final papers/exams or case studies – notin online discussionArtificial context of formal learning- no space for realapplicationPoor instrumentation or modelOnline asynch discussion is not powerful enough to support fullcognitive presenceTakes too much time