These are sldies from keynote at TCC2013, the 18th annual online conference hosted from Hawaii. These are mostly a remix of ideas from my 3 Generations of Online pedagogy and EQiv theories with examples from MOOCs
4 reasons that I am thankful for the opportunity to be here.First because this weekend is Canadian thanksgiving, and we don’t have the tradition of going home and watching football, but we do of enjoying ourselves, so a trip to historic Philadelphia for my wife Susan and I is a real treat. Thankful for the ‘royal’ presidential treament2. First tiem ‘ve addressed an audience at an American Community College. I thiunk there have only been four major innovations in post secondary higher education. The first was founding of the classical unievrsity in Bologne, paris Oxford and cambridge in the 12th century. The second was the German research Unievrsities, the Third was the comprehensive univeiotiesexplified by the Land Grant Universities and the fourth was the foundign of the Community College system in America that opened the doors of educational opportunity to all citizens. I worked the first ten years of my academic career in a community college in Nortehrnalberta and I came understand then how important it is to provide second chance opportunites for students who weren’t born with middle parents.
Transmission model, often augmented with some tutor interaction
Clow, D. (2013). MOOCs and the funnel of participation. Paper presented at the LAK '13: 3rd International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge, Leuven, Belgium. Retrieved from Retrieved from http://oro.open.ac.uk/36657/1/DougClow-LAK13-revised-submitted.pdf
Tcc keynote Hawaii april 2013
Getting the Right MixSocial and Scalable through ThreeGenerations of Online PedagogyTerry Anderson, PhD and ProfessorCentre for Distance Education
Values• We can (and must) continuously improve thequality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and timeefficiency of the learning experience.• Student control and freedom is integral to 21stcentury life-long education and learning.• Continuing education opportunity is a basichuman right.
Online Conference Pioneer!Anderson, L., & Anderson, T. (2009). Online professional development conferences: Aneffective, economical and eco-friendly option Canadian Journal of Learning Technology, 35(2).http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/521/254.Anderson, T., & Mason, R. (1993). The Bangkok Project:New tool for professional development. American Journalof Distance Education, 7(2), 5-18.
Athabasca University,Alberta, Canada* Athabasca University34,000 students, 700 courses100% distance educationGraduate andUndergraduate programsMaster & DoctorateDistance EducationOnly USA RegionallyAccredited Universityin Canada*AthabascaUniversityAll courses 3% off TODAY for Americans!
Outline• Generations of Online Education Pedagogy– Cognitive Behaviourist• xMOOCs– Social Constructivist• sMOOCs and the Online Classroom– Connectivist• cMOOCs• Interactional Equivalency and Costs• Beyond the LMS– Athabasca Landing boutique social network• Net Presence??
ThreeOnline Learning Pedagogy1. Behaviourist/Cognitive– Self Paced, Individualstudy2. Social Constructivist –Groups, LMS3. Connectivist – Networksand SetsAnderson, T., &Dron, J. (2011). Three generations ofdistance education pedagogy.IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies• “tell ‘em what you’regonna tell ‘em,• tell ‘em• then tell ‘em what youtold ‘em”Direct Instruction
Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)1. Gain learners attention2. Inform learner of objectives3. Stimulate recall of previous information4. Present stimulus material5. Provide learner guidance6. Elicit performance7. Provide Feedback8. Assess performance9. Enhance transfer opportunitiesInstructional Systems Design (ISD)
Enhanced by the “cognitiverevolution”• Chunking• Cognitive Load• Working Memory• Multiple Representations• Split-attention effect• Variability Effect• Multi-media effect– (Sorden, 2005)“learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures”Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
Technologies of Ist generation• CAI, text books, One way Lectures, Video andaudio broadcast
American xMoocs(example)• MOOC History by AlysFromhttp://prezi.com/754uv3qpe_0k/mooc-history/ a MOOC History by Alyssa Martin
xMOOCs• Disruptive• Scalable• The next newest thing.• Access• Analytics
xMOOC PedagogyGen. 1 - Cognitive Behaviourist• Medium to high quality content– Screen captures, video lectures, videos• Machine scoring of quizzes and assignments• Assessment (machine scoring and peer) andemergent accreditation– Badges, challenge exams for credit, PLAR
• Completion Rates??Duke University/ CoursEra2012Bioelectricity: A QuantitativeApproachPromoted to millions throughCoursera12,000 Registered, Paced4,000 no shows first week313 (4%) from 37 countriescompletedClow, D. (2013). MOOCs and the funnel of participation.
MOOC Patterns of EngagementClusterBreakdownHigh SchoolMOOCUnder GradMOOCGraduateMOOCCourseAuditing6% 6% 9%Completing 27% 8% 5%Disengaging 28% 12% 6%Sampling 39% 74% 80%“Learners in MOOCs who do not adhere to traditional expectations, centeredaround regular assessment and culminating in a certificate of completion, counttowards the high attrition rates that receive outsized media attention.”High Satisf.Low Satisf.Kizilcec, R. F., Piech, C., & Schneider, E. (2013). Deconstructing Disengagement: Analyzing LearnerSubpopulations in Massive Open Online Courses. Third International Conference on Learning Analytics andKnowledge (LAK ’13 Leuven, Belgium) https://landing.athabascau.ca/file/download/279413
• Addition of certificates (CourseEra signaturepath with invigilated exams, keystokerecognition etc)“the completion rate is 70-80% for users who paidfor certificates”Coursera http://en.paperblog.com/a-deep-dive-into-coursera-s-economics-493919/
xMOOC Challenges toTraditional Schools• Are our course really better or worse than thosefrom Stanford?• How interactive/supportive are our instructors?• Do we accredit seat time, courses, or learning?• Will our students choose our fees over free?• Is American learning (knowledge) the same asCanadian learning?• Can we develop a business model from freeMOOCs?• Will these put me out of a job?
Educational Challenges toInstitutions of Networks• “Large decreases intransaction costs createactivities that cant betaken on by businesses, orindeed by an institution,because no matter howcheap it becomes toperform a particularactivity, there isntenough payoff to supportthe cost incurred by beingan institution in the firstplace.” Clay Shirky, 2008
1st Gen Cognitive BehaviouralPedagogy Summary• Scalable• Few requirements or opportunities for sociallearning• Ideal for what type or level of learning?• Are we training learners who can succeed withthis type of learning?
232nd GenerationConstructivist Pedagogy• Group Orientated• Membership and exclusion, closed• Not scalable - max 50 students/course• Classrooms - at a distance• Hierarchies of control• Focus on collaboration and shared purposegroup
2nd Generation - Constructivist• Online Learning Current model – continuedstrong growth in US and globally• Major employer of adjuncts32% of higher education students now take at least one course online.
Constructivist Learning in Groups• Long history of researchand study• Established sets of tools– Classrooms– Learning ManagementSystems (LMS)– Synchronous (chat, video& net conferencing)– Email, wikis, blogs• Need to develop face toface, mediated andblended group learningskillsGarrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-basedenvironment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet andHigher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
Jon Dron& Anderson, T. (2012) Freedom and Control in Learning Spaces.Networked Learning, Maastricht
Scaling Up Constructivist MOOCAthabasca Example• Openness in Education 2012 – GeorgeSiemens and Rory McGreal – AthabascaUniversity• cMOOC format, with Moodle bolt on• Instructors focused on Moodle group (payingcustomers)• Never reached critical mass in cMOOC
Can MOOCs use Social Constructivismand still Scale up?• Meet Ups (online and Face-to-face)• Threaded discussions• Challenge to maintain instructor presenceTeacher Presence: Using Introductory Videos in Online and Hybrid Courses
2nd GenerationSummary - Constructivism• Hard to scale• Restrictions in time• Strong capacity for social learning
Connectivism• “connectivism is the thesis that knowledge isdistributed across a network of connections,and therefore that learning consists of theability to construct and traverse thosenetworks.” Stephen Downes 2007
Connectivist Knowledge• Is created by linking to appropriate people andobjects• May be created and stored in non human devices• Is as much about capacity as current competence• Assumes the ubiquitous Internet• Is emergent
Networks add diversity to learning“People who live inthe intersection ofsocial worlds are athigher risk of havinggood ideas” Burt,2005, p. 90
If you want to learn how to fix a pipe, solve apartial differential equation, write software,you are seconds away from know-how viaYouTube, Wikipedia and search engines. Accessto technology and access to knowledge,however, isn’t enough. Learning is a social,active, and ongoing process.What does a motivated group of self-learnersneed to know to agree on a subject or skill, findand qualify the best learning resources about thattopic, select and use appropriate communicationmedia to co-learn it?http://peeragogy.org/
cMOOCs different learning outcomes for different learners
3rd Generation - ConnectivismSummary• Maximizes learner control and freedoms• Demands high levels of network literacy• Ideal training for life-long learning• May be too much freedom- little capacity todelegate control
The Interaction Equivalency Theoremby Anderson (2003)• Thesis 1. Deep and meaningful formal learning is supportedas long as one of the three forms of interaction (student–teacher; student–student; student–content) is at a high level.The other two may be offered at minimal levels, or eveneliminated, without degrading the educational experience.• Thesis 2. High levels of more than one of these three modeswill likely provide a more satisfying educational experience,although these experiences may not be as cost- or timeeffective as less interactive learning sequences.Interaction Equivalency (eQuiv) Website http://equivalencytheorem.info/
Cognitive Behaviourist Pedagogy012345678Student-Student Student-Teacher Student-ContentInteractionInteractionxMOOC Model
• “Why on earth would you write anessay for an automated grader?”Debbie Morrisonhttp://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/
Social Constructivist Pedagogy0246810Student-Student Student-Teacher Student-ContentInteractionInteractionSocial Constructivist or Small MOOC Model
Connectivist Pedagogy012345678Student-Student Student-Teacher Student-ContentInteractionInteractioncMOOC Model
Summary• Three generations of pedagogy• All can work,• which works best for whom?• Mix and Match– Case Study Athabasca Landing
Beyond the LMSSocial networking in a boutique networkhttps://Landing. athabascau.ca
Walled Gardens (with windows)• Connectivist learning thrives in safe learningspaces with windows allowingrandomness, external participation and publicpresentation
What is the Landing?• A private space for AthabascaUniversity – students, staff, alumni• A public place for sharing knowledge• A user controlled creative space• Boutique social network• Networking, blogging, photos, microblogging, polls, calendars, groupsand more• Built on elgg.org platform
Landing Provides• User control• Personal Learning Environment• Persistence
Net PresenceGoodier, S., &Czerniewicz, L. (2013). Academics’ online presence: A four-step guide to taking control of your visibility.University of Capetown. http://openuct.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/Online%20Visibility%20Guidelines.pdf.
What Type of Networked Academic PersonaHave you Created?Barbour, K., & Marshall, D. (2012). The academic online: Constructing persona throughthe World Wide Web. First Monday, 17(9).http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3969/3292.
• "MOOCs may well be the last stand in defenseof academic freedom if knowledge is toincreasingly belong in the public domain, andnot increasingly become a commodity.• This is our academic challenge. We must ownand use MOOCs to elevate general publicknowledge to be an effective civic moderatorof wealth, power and belief.”• Professor Renner, University of South Florida.Renner, E. (2013, March 3). Can MOOCs save academic freedom. Edudemic. Retrieved fromhttp://edudemic.com/2013/03/moocs-academic-freedom/
Conclusion• All three generations are useful for teachingand for Learning• 1St and 3rd are likely scalable• 2nd nourishes both weak and strong ties• The networked educator uses strategiccombinations of all three pedagogies toimprove learning and make most effective useof student time.
Terry Anderson firstname.lastname@example.orgBlog: terrya.edublogs.orgYour comments and questionsmost welcomed!