Sloan 2008


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Keynote at Sloan-C conference in Orlando

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Sloan 2008

  1. 1. OER’s & A good educational system Terry Anderson, PhD Professor and Canada Research Chair in Distance Education
  2. 2.   “Canada is a great country, much too cold for common sense, inhabited by compassionate and intelligent people with bad haircuts”.   Yann Martel, Life of Pi, 2002.
  3. 3. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada Fastest growing university in Canada 34,000 students, 700 courses 100% distance education Graduate and * Athabasca University Undergraduate programs  Athabasca University Master & Doctorate – Distance Education Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada
  4. 4. Presentation Overview 1.  Traditional Opening Joke 2.  Components of a Good Educational System 3.  A way to conceptualize Net Tools – Taxonomy of the Many 4.  Interaction Theory revisited 5.  Your Comments and questions
  5. 5. Why is E-learning so Popular? Online Nation: Five Years of Growth in Online Learning Allen and Seaman 2007
  6. 6. E-Learning is Better Than Sex ! •  You can finish early without feeling guilty. •  You can get rid of any viruses you catch with a $50 program from McAfee •  If you get tired, you can stop, bookmark your place and pick up where you left off. •  With a little coffee you can do it all night. •  You don’t usually get divorced if your spouse interrupts you in the middle of it. •  And If you're not sure what you are doing, you can always ask your teacher.
  7. 7. A good educational system should have three purposes:   it should provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at anytime in their lives;   empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them;   furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known. (Illich I.,1970) Full text available:
  8. 8. 1. Access to resources at anytime Imagine a world in which every single person is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing. – Terry Foote, Wikipedia
  9. 9. Open Education Resources (OER) Vision + Affordance   “At the heart of the open educational resources movement is the simple and powerful idea that;   the world’s knowledge is a public good in general   the World Wide Web provides an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse that knowledge.” Hewlett Foundation Smith, & Casserly. The promise of open educational resources. Change 38(5): 8–17, 2006
  10. 10. OER Granularity   Diagrams, photos   Articles (Open access publications)   Games, simulations, activities   Units of learning (IMS LD)   Units and courses   Programs
  11. 11. OER’s are Open (Mostly)   Meaning they can be:   Augmented   Edited   Customized   Aggregated and Mashups   Reformatted   Returned   But they need to be licensed –   not just put online See Scott Leslie’s 10 minute video at
  12. 12. Ownership and Licensing   Familiar problems   Who owns resource - educators or the institution?   inflated expectations   New problems   OER’s are not just journal articles   Articles are not “reworked”   Is attribution critical?   What defines commercial exploitation?
  13. 13. 4 Ownership Models   Institutional ownership   Default under most ‘work for hire’ law   Shared institutional and Academic   Often unworkable   Tragedy of the anti-commons   Individual (academic ownership)   Rights of succession? Multiple authors?   Produsage   Assume that each producer does not enforce their rights, all can treat product as a private good   (copyleft, public domain, no tragedy of the anti-commons)
  14. 14. A Tale of 3 books Commercial E-Learning for Open Access publisher the 21st Century Commercial 100,000 downloads plus 934 copies sold at Pub. indiv. Chapters $52.00 1200 sold @ $135.00 500 hardcopies sold @ Buy at Amazon!! 2,000 copies in $50.00
  15. 15. A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement Achievements, Challenges, and New … DE Atkins, JS Brown, AL Hammond, William and Flora
  16. 16. Major Problems with OER   Little take up by conventional teachers   Too little reward and recognition for authors   Too few learners actually engage with the content   Undeveloped business case   Too few teachers remix and repost content   Too difficult to upload, tag and share Solution?? Vibrant communities of Produsers??
  17. 17. Challenges and Solutions   Wrong timetabling/chunking   Modularized units   Cultural constraints   Tools Distributed with content   Not invented here   Transparency and objective display   Wrong technical format   Dogged adherence to standards   Wrong Language   Produser translation   Lack of Accreditation/authority   Consumer and peer review   Challenge for credit
  18. 18. Our own Experiment: Course development based on OER’s   4 courses:   Nursing,   Communications (Theatre)   English for Business, &   Educ. Tech   Vastly different results   Critical variable was the attitude of the developer(s) Christiansen, J., & Anderson, T. (2004). Feasibility of course development based on learning objects: Research analysis of three case studies. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Education,
  19. 19. What is missing?   Culture of development, sharing and remix   ‘Community of Practice Solution   Social Software affordances   Easy to use Tools   Harnessing student energy to create OERs
  20. 20. The Political Economy of Peer Production: Michael Bauwens   “produce use-value through the free cooperation of producers who have access to distributed capital   a 'third mode of production' different from for-profit or public production by state-owned enterprises.   Its product is not exchange value for a market, but but use-value for a community of users
  21. 21. Prod-Users - From production to produsage - Axel Bruns (2008)   Users become active participants in the production of artifacts:   Examples:   Open source movement   Wikipedia   Citizen journalism (blogs)   Immersive worlds   Distributed creativity - music, video, Flickr
  22. 22. Produsage Principles   Community-Based –the community as a whole can contribute more than a closed team of producers.   Fluid Heterarcy – produsers participate as is appropriate to their personal skills, interests, and knowledge, and may form loose sub-groups to focus on specific issues, topics, or problems   Unfinished Artifacts –projects are continually under development, and therefore always unfinished;   Common Property, Individual Rewards – contributors permit (non-commercial) community use, adaptation, and further development of their intellectual property, and are rewarded by the status capital they gain through this process
  23. 23. Case study: Open University UKʼs Development of Open Learn   Rationale Opportunity:   The risk of doing nothing when technology and globalization issues need to be addressed.   A testbed for new technology and new ways of working   way to work with external funders who share similar aims and ideals   A chance to learn how to draw on the world as a resource.   Brand Promotion   A route for outreach beyond our student body   Demonstration of the quality of Open University materials in new regions. Social Learn: to devise means to put ourselves out of business - before our competitors do!!
  24. 24. Open Learn Example 490 units
  25. 25. Next evolution to Social Learn   “For 3000 years education has made the learner adapt to the system. SocialLearn [1] aims to reverse this and make the education system adapt to the learner.”   Make the formal informal, and the informal formal.   Web 2.0 tools, attitudes, learning designs Martin Weller
  26. 26. Why Don’t we Use and contribute OERs??
  27. 27. 2. A Good education system: “empowers all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn”
  28. 28. Creative Literacies: “The ability to experiment with technology in order to create and manipulate content that serves social goals rather than merely retrieving and absorbing information” p. 107 Burgess, J. (2006) Learning to Blog. Uses of Blogs Bruns &Jacobs
  29. 29.   Need to insure that our use of the Web actually results in increased access and not just more expensive access for those with existing high quality access to educational opportunity Jim

  30. 30. Two-Way Use   65,000 videos uploaded to YouTube every day   Facebook and Myspace over 100 million profiles   Facebook 24 million photos uploaded daily   50 million blogs, 50% written by under 19 year olds   Scientific America 229(3) 2008 & FaceBook Home
  31. 31. Example   My presentation at ECEL 2007 in Copenhagen - maybe 200 in attendance F2F   On Slideshare:   2322 views | 4 comments | 6 favorites | 91 downloads | 5 embeds
  32. 32. 3. A Good Education: Furnishes all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known.   “One month after a virtual protest staged in Second Life with almost 2,000 avatars demonstrating on IBM islands, a new contract with IBM Italy has been signed” Labour news from UNI global union, 2007
  33. 33. Ethan Zuckerman (Global Voices) 2008
  34. 34. From a Deschooled society to a Learning Society that includes new models of formal and informal learning
  35. 35. Steven Warburton, 2007
  36. 36. Taxonomy of the Many Groups NETWORKS Collectives Dron & Anderson, 2007
  37. 37. Social Learning 2.0 3.0 3.5   Each of us participates in Groups, Networks and Collectives.   Learning is enhanced by exploiting the affordances of all three sources of social learning.   Issues, memes, opportunities and learning activities arise at all three levels of granularity.   Tools are optimized for each level of granularity   Formalize the formal   Informalize the formal (Martin Weller)
  38. 38. Choosing the right tool? OR Your Institutions LMS 2770 logos as of Oct 31, 2008
  39. 39. Formal Education and Groups:   Classes and cohort   Increases:   completion rates,   achievement   satisfaction   Same logistic challenges as for institutional, campus -based learning   Can operate ‘behind the garden wall” to allow freedom for expression and development   refuge for scholarship
  40. 40. Formal Learning and Groups   Long history of research and study   Need to optimize:   Social presence   Cognitive presence   Teaching presence (   Established sets of tools –   Classrooms,   Learning Management Systems   Synchronous (video & net conferencing)   Email
  41. 41. Problems with Groups   Restrictions in time, space pace, & relationship   Often overly confined by teacher expectation and institutional curriculum control Relationships   Isolated from the authentic world of practice Paulsen (1993)   Poor preparation for Lifelong Law of Cooperative Freedom Learning
  42. 42. Challenges of using informal social software tools for formal tasks   Control   Support   Privacy   Assessment   Ownership and perseverance
  43. 43. Group Example: The Educational Blog   Structural characteristics:   Multimedia   Chronological order   Web based, easy to edit   Networked Characteristics   Linked to other sites   Syndicated (RSS, Atom etc)   Comments and Trackbacks– spammed   Pedagogical   Reflective, personal, archival, communicative, public
  44. 44. How are Blogs used today in Groups?   “You are required to post at least two messages to your blog and respond to the postings of at least two other enrolled students.   Please use your postings to address the issue discussed on pages 34-38 of your text.   Your post and responses will be assessed for 10% of your final grade   To protect your privacy, your blog is not accessible outside of the LMS and postings will be destroyed at the end of the course.” Paraphrased from major UK university graduate school requirements
  45. 45. 2. Formal Learning with Networks   Networks create and sustain links between individuals creating communication and information spaces   Each of us may belong to many networks   Network use creates social capital   Networks can connect self-paced and independent learners to cooperative study activities   Network leadership arises in multiple formats 46
  46. 46.   Networks combine personalization with socialization creating transparency (Dalsgaard 2008)   Focus is on the individual’s spaces and the way they share and expose their space to others   Reflections (blog)   Resources (photos, links, tasks)   Accomplishments (portfolio, artifacts)   Sharing sand growing interests and skills 47
  47. 47. 2. Networks   Provide resources from which students’ extract and contribute information   In school one should learn to build, contribute to and manage one’s networks   Transparency provides application and validation of information and skills developed in formal learning   Provides models for new students   Networks last beyond the course - basis for ongoing support and advise from alumni and professional communities 48
  48. 48. Network Tools   Most web 2.0 apps including:   Profiles: Finding significant others   Blogging - outside the garden wall   Resource recommendations finding highest quality content (Slashdot, Diig, Cite-u-like)   Scheduling meet-ups for study, debate, collaboration   WIKIs, Google docs and other open collaboration tools   Commercial Social Networking sites- Facebook etc. 49
  49. 49. Network Tool Set (example) Text Text 50 Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007
  50. 50. Network Pedagogy   Connectivism   Learning is network formation: adding new nodes, creating new neural paths   “It is not what you know, but who you know to ask.” Siemens, G. (2007)   Learning as a means to develop social capital   Social capital and social relationships “enlarge the concept of individualism to include the ability and obligation to work with others when the task demands it.” Edgar H. Schein, 1995 51
  51. 51. Groups are Managed - Networks Emerge!   Cannot be controlled like a group - requires new types of learning activities   Need to both amplify and extinguish interaction   Facilitate quality knowledge and artifact construction   Emergent behaviours, complexity, and adaption 52
  52. 52. 3. Collectives: Harvesting the Wisdom of Crowds 53
  53. 53. 3. Formal Education and Collectives   Collectives aggregate, then filter, compare, contrast and recommend.   Personal and collaborative search and filter for learning   Smart retrieval from the universal library of resources – human and learning objects   Need to develop and practice skills and interest to easily contribute to collectives (tagging, sharing whenever possible, leaving traces)   only 16% of users are taggers (Pew, 2005)   Allows discovery and validation of norms, values, opinion and “ways of understanding” 54
  54. 54. Hive mind? Borgs? Group consciousness?   Collectively managing planet Earth   What does it mean to be aware of each other? Collectives operate as mirrors to monitor and learn from our collective selves (Spivack, 2006) 55
  55. 55. Collective Tools 56
  56. 56. Example: Determining our Effect?   Analysis of blog postings using semantic and matching techniques Potential uses: uncover suicidal ideation mental health of the community understand evolving communication genres measure impact of popular memes 57
  57. 57. Collective Example: Terry’s Store at Amazon 58
  58. 58.   Explicit recommender systems: Explicit 59
  59. 59. Digg Monitoring collective recommendations in real time 60
  60. 60. Collective Examples for Educational Application   Artifact Ranking systems: Google Search; CitULike;   Tag Clouds   Recommendation Systems:   Wikis: Contributions from the crowd   Folksonomies: Bottom up classification systems   Voting and auction   Prediction Markets
  61. 61. Is DE Better than Classroom Instruction? Project 1: 2000 – 2004   Question: How does distance education compare to classroom instruction? (inclusive dates 1985-2002)   Total number of effect sizes: k = 232   Measures: Achievement, Attitudes and Retention (opposite of drop-out)   Divided into Asynchronous and Synchronous DE 62
  62. 62. Primary findings   DE and CI are essentially equal (g+ ≈ 0.0 to low average effect) on all measures   Effect size distributions are heterogeneous; some DE >> CI, some DE << CI   Generally poor methodological quality   Pedagogical study features account for more variation than media study features (Clark, 1994)   Interactive DE an important variable* *Lou, Y., Bernard, R.M., & Abrami, P.C. (2006). Media and pedagogy in undergraduate distance education: A theory-based meta-analysis of empirical literature. Educational Technology Research & Development, 54(2), 141-176. 63
  63. 63. Summary of results: Achievement Achievement Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous average effect 64
  64. 64. Summary of results: Attitudes Attitude Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous average effect 65
  65. 65. Summary of results: Retention Retention Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous effect sizes 66
  66. 66. Equivalency: Are all types of Interaction necessary? Anderson, 2003 IRRODL
  67. 67. Anderson’s Equivalency Theorem (2003) Moore (1989) distinctions are:   Three types of interaction o  student-student interaction o  student-teacher interaction o  Student-content interaction Anderson (2003) hypotheses state:   High levels of one out of 3 interactions will produce satisfying educational experience   Increasingsatisfaction through teacher and learner interaction interaction may not be as time or cost-effective as student-content interactive learning sequences 68
  68. 68. Do the three types of interaction differ? Moore’s distinctions Achievement and Attitude Outcomes Interaction Achievement Attitudes Categories k g+adj. k g+adj. Student-Student 10 0.342 6 0.358 Student-Teacher 44 0.254 30 0.052 Student-Content 20 0.339 8 0.136 Total 74 0.291 44 0.090 Between-class 2.437 6.892* Moore’s distinctions seem to apply for achievement (equal importance), but not for attitudes (however, samples are low for SS and SC) 69
  69. 69. Does strengthening interaction improve achievement and attitudes? Anderson’s hypotheses Achievement and Attitude Outcomes Interaction Achievement Attitudes Strength k g+adj. SE k g+adj. SE Low Strength 30 0.163 0.043 21 0.071 0.042 Med Strength 29 0.418 0.044 18 0.170 0.043 High Strength 15 0.305 0.062 5 -0.173 0.091 Total 74 0.291 0.027 44 0.090 0.029 (Q) Between-class 17.582* 12.060* Anderson’s first hypothesis about achievement appears to be supported Anderson’s second hypothesis about satisfaction (attitude) appears to be supported, but only to an extent (i.e., only 5 studies in High Category) 70
  70. 70.   Bernard, Abrami, Borokhovski, Wade, Tamin, & Surkes, (in press). Examining Three Forms of Interaction in Distance Education: A Meta-Analysis of Between-DE Studies. Review of Research in Education
  71. 71. Conclusions   The Net provides means to drastically improve education effectiveness, efficiency and engagement by providing access to learn, to teach and to speak one’s truth.   Equally useful (and disruptive) to distance and campus education   Our challenge, as educators, is to insure that our students and our world benefit from these Net affordances
  72. 72.   Illich tells us to search for and build “educational webs which heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing, and caring” Illich, 1970
  73. 73. quot;He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.” Chinese Proverb Terry Anderson Blog: Your comments and questions most welcomed!