Terry Anderson,Professor,Centre for Distance EducationFeb. 2013Openness, Online Universities,Moocs and BeyondUNESCO Chair in E-LearningRound Table
Drivers for Openness• Drivers for Openness– Open Scholarship– Experimentation, extensive use of ICT for competitive and learningadvantage– Enhanced social and community service– Recession and the continuing escalation of costs of higher education• Pedagogy of MOOCs– cMOOCs and Connectivism– XMOOCs and instructivism– sMOOCs social constructivism• My MOOC recommendations– Credit for learning- anywhere/anyhow– MOOCs as movie trailer– “First One Free” Marketing
Definitions of Open on the Web(From Google)• affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut orclosed;• affording free passage or access;• open to or in view of all;• accessible to all;• assailable: not defended or capable of being defended• loose: (of textures) full of small openings or gaps;• start to operate or function• not brought to a conclusion;• not sealed or having been unsealed
Open• Ouvert – as in open door and no prerequisites• Gratis – as in no tuition fees• Libre – as in Free speech, ability to use, re-use,remixIn what sense is UOC OPEN??
Openness• A compelling sociological, psychological, legaland technological movement.
• From Open Educational Resources to a cultureof use and production of OERs• EU Project POERUP (Policies for OERUptake)policies of government and majorinstitutional initiatives on OERs• New private sector entrants – Pearson’s –resources, plus recommenders, plus datamining
Education technology• Marginalized use• Resistance by teachers, students• Frustrations with past failures, and dashedexpectations• BUT Increasing capacity, newaffordances, increased usage in all aspects ofnetworked society
Education was Based onOld Models of ScarcityP. Banbury 2009
Ed Tech Today• Mr Google in every pocket• Blended Classroom– Blending best of classroom and online• Online Courses from most universities– Access , Time and Place shifting• Flipped Classroom– Content acquisition alone, at home– Learning objects, Khan Academy, Itune University– Classroom for collaboration• Simulations, Massive Games, viral social networks
Enhanced Community ServiceExpectation• Increased expectations– Degree inflation– Lifelong learning mandate– 21st Century skills– Too high tuition fees (at least in North America)– Value for taxpayer?
MOOC Common Features• Mooc is a course• Defined Curriculum or content?• “Big Data”mining potential• Substitute student-content and perhaps student-student for student-teacher interaction• Maybe asynchronous, synchronous, mixed• Paced or self-paced• Up-sell of auxiliary products• Emerging credential options» Invigilated exams, badges, private certification
cMOOCs (Connectivism)• Content as a starting point, learners expected to expandand amplify through their own creations and connections• Chaotic and emergent – ”course with no centre”• Role of Learner: “Learners expected to create, grow, expanddomain and share personal sense making through artifactconstruction” George Siemens• Role of teacher: “Rather, what we are saying through thisstructure is that we, the course authors, will be studying thesematerials. And people are welcome to come along for theride.” Downes• “derived from a theory of learning based on engagementand interaction within a community ofpractitioners, without predetermined outcomes, andwithout a body of knowledge that we can simply ‘transfer’to the learner.” Stephen Downes
Downe’s Design for cMOOcs• Aggregation – from list of all possible andresources, participants choose their ownlearning objects• ReMix – Participants translate newinformation into relevant contexts• Repurpose the work of other participants• Feedforward, archive in digital and openformats for others to benefithttp://halfanhour.blogspot.com.es/2013/05/mooc-resurgence-of-community-in-online.html
20Connectivist freedoms• Locationwhere?• Subjectwhat?• Timewhen?• Approachhow(pedagogy, process)?• Pacehow fast?• Sociabilitywith whom (ifanyone)?• Technologyusing what(medium/tools)?• Delegabilityto authorizeresponsibility toanothersetnetgroupnotional levels of choice once a typical ‘course’ is in progress
cMOOCs conclusions• Revolutionary, not evolutionary• Redefine role of teachers, learners andeducation institutions• Too disruptive for teachers, students orgovernments??
xMOOCs• Traditional Teaching model (1st generationinstructivist pedagogy)• Canned video and computer marked quizzesand essays replacing student-teacherinteraction
MOOC Participation Rates??• Coursera Course ComputationalInvesting, January 6, 2013 by Tucker Balch ,• 53,265 enrolled• Completed the course:– 4.8% of those who enrolled– 18% of those who took a quiz.– 39% of those who submitted the first project.Duke University 33% registered students never logged on!
• “The students who drop out earlydo not add substantially to thecost of delivering the course”. Themost expensive students are theones who stick around longenough to take the final, and thoseare the ones most likely to pay fora certificate. DaphneKoller, Founder Coursera
• MOOCs substitute student-content interactionand in some cases student-student interactionfor expensive student-teacher interaction.
The Interaction Equivalency TheoremAnderson (2003)• Thesis 1. Deep and meaningful formal learning is supportedas long as one of the three forms of interaction (student–teacher; student–student; student–content) is at a highlevel. The other two may be offered at minimal levels, or eveneliminated, without degrading the educational experience.• Thesis 2. High levels of more than one of these threemodes will likely provide a more satisfying educationalexperience, although these experiences may not be ascost- or time effective as less interactive learningsequences.Seehttp://equivalencytheorem.info/ 27
28Instructivist freedoms• Locationwhere?• Subjectwhat?• Timewhen?• Approachhow(pedagogy, process)?• Pacehow fast?• Sociabilitywith whom (ifanyone)?• Technologyusing what(medium/tools)?• Delegabilitychoosing to choosesetnetgroupFrom Dron, J. &Anderson, T. (2012) Keynote Networked Learning Conference
Social MOOC (sMOOCs)• Use of social networks to:– enhance student-student interactions• MeetUps,• Google Hangouts,• SecondLife,• recommendation systems– Enhance student-teacher interactions• Recommendation systems• Asynchronus voice and video• Learning analytic feedback
30Social constructivist freedoms• Locationwhere?• Subjectwhat?• Timewhen?• Approachhow(pedagogy, process)?• Pacehow fast?• Sociabilitywith whom (ifanyone)?• Technologyusing what(medium/tools)?• Delegabilitychoosing to choosesetnetgroupnotional levels of choice once a typical course is in progress
xMOOCs cMOOCs UOC EducModelPedagogy instructivist connectivist constructivistSocialStructureindividual network groupDelegatability high low mediumLength Varies varies fixedFocus Content Process learnerAnderson, T., &Dron, J. (2011). RevistaTecnologíapara el aprendizaje a través detresgeneraciones de pedagogía a distanciamediadaportecnología. Mexicana de Bachillerato aDistancia, 6. Retrieved fromhttp://bdistancia.ecoesad.org.mx/contenido/numeros/numero6/visionInter_01.html.
xMOOCs UOCAccessibility 3 2High Quality Content 2 2Teaches Network literacy 2 3Time Management 1 3Content based on student context 1 3Cooperation, internationalization 1 2Cost to student 3 2Accreditation 1 3Rigorous, critical reflective work 2 3Teacher, Mentor interaction andAssessment1 3Student and teacher use of &control of data2 1
MOOC challenges to Online University• Undercuts student costs• New online alternatives• Super star professor• Challenges the value of student-teacher andstudent-content interaction• Reduces value of degree accreditation• Pressure to credential external learning
My Own recommendations:Enhanced assessment of open learning acquiredanytime/anywhere• University of London since 1858• Huge demand for authentication and certificationof knowledge• Meets integration and mobility goals of EU• Unique opportunity for UOC• Pioneered by WGU, North Dakota State,Athabasca and others.• Remote invigilation needed anyways• Whole new market for UOC
Recommendations (cont.)• MOOCs as social service– Targeting particular social or government needs– Demonstrating expertise and value add of modernuniversityNed Corbett – Man with the magic lantern, U of Alberta
MOOCs as Open EducationalResources (OERs)• Very useful for remedial or exploration byregistered students• Allows more student control of pacing thantraditional course• Decrease in length of CourseraMOOCs
Recommendations:MOOCs as exposure to online learning• Am I ready for University?• First unit of EVERY course as a MOOC??• How good are our courses??
• Prof. Renner: "MOOCs may well be thelast stand in defense of academic freedomif knowledge is to increasingly belong inthe public domain, and not increasinglybecome a commodity. ……We must ownand use MOOCs to elevate general publicknowledge to be an effective civicmoderator of wealth, power and belief.
• Slides on SlideShare:• https://landing.athabascau.ca• firstname.lastname@example.org• Terrya.edublogs.org