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Icmet 21 bali 3 generations & covid

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Icmet 21 bali 3 generations & covid

  1. 1. : Matching Technology and Pedagogy to Create Effective Online Learning Terry Anderson Professor Emeritus Athabasca University
  2. 2. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. • Student empowerment and freedom is integral to life-long education and learning. • Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
  3. 3. • What has been your Covid experience with Online Learning???
  4. 4. Online learning sucks I love online learning Online learning is boring Online teaching used to be better “being online offers an escape from being bullied at school”
  5. 5. Link “the key takeaway is that the pandemic did not threaten but in fact accelerated the long-term growth, acceptance, and desirability of online learning,” US Based
  6. 6. Source Tony Bates and-blended-learning-will-increase-substantially-post-covid-19/
  7. 7. My Response Dr. Taylerson Tweet
  8. 8. What is the Pedagogy?? Does the Pedagogy Match the Technology? Image Link
  9. 9. Interaction Through Three Generations of Online Learning Pedagogy 1. Instructivist – 2. Social Constructivist – 3. Connectivist Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
  10. 10. Instructivist Pedagogy • Early Online and distance education • Modern Skill much Military training • MOOCs
  11. 11. Instructivist Pedagogy Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. Gain learners' attention 2. Inform learner of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of previous information 4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learner guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide Feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance transfer opportunities Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  12. 12. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • Chunking • Cognitive Load • Working Memory • Multiple Representations • Split-attention effect • Variability Effect • Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  13. 13. Nature of Knowledge Instructivist 1st Gen. • Knowledge is logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  14. 14. Instructivist Technologies • OERs, simulations, textbooks, Oneway Lectures - with advancements
  15. 15. Asynchronous text, video & audio Interaction Student Comments & Questions
  16. 16. Customer - AI Interaction Student
  17. 17. Moocs 2020
  18. 18. MOOCs in Credited Action
  19. 19. Open Educational Resources it also saves teacher time!!! OPEN Education Practice “Students who use OER perform significantly better on the course throughput rate than their peers who use traditional textbooks, in both face-to-face and online courses” Hilton (2016) Maintaining Momentum Toward Graduation: OER and the Course Throughput Rate. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed
  20. 20. Learning Analytics - Dashboard
  21. 21. Assessment in Instructivist Pedagogy • From a 2021 Systematic review of MOOC assessment – “consideration of the assessment of learning outcomes at the beginning of course design could support the formulation of explicit assessment goals and, in this way, instruct learners to work toward learning outcomes.” Wei, X., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2020). Assessment of cognitive, behavioral, and affective learning outcomes in massive open online courses: A systematic literature review. Computers & Education, 104097. CLARITY
  22. 22. Assessment • Time management • Student responsibility and initiative • Complexity of content - the more difficult the content, the more difficult student assessment seems to become. • Use Informal assessment when possible – peers, formative -, pre submission, online quizzes etc. • Big Challenges with Cheating Beebe, R., Vonderwell, S., & Boboc, M. (2010). Emerging patterns in transferring assessment practices from F2F to online environments. Electronic Journal of e-learning, 8(1), 1-12.
  23. 23. Maximizes Delegation • We turn over much of the learning experience, as consumers, to the responsibility of the teacher and learning institution.
  24. 24. Teaching Using Instructivist Pedgaogy? • Personalize learning interaction whenever possible • Send frequent emails (automatic and individual) - cueing to the course timing • Use OERs - especially those that support interactive student-content interactions • Frequent quizzes with feedback –right and wrong • Peer feedback prompts, leading discussion prompts, trigger questions etc. • Video guest speakers • Localized, product assessment Kasch, Van Rosmalen & Kalz. (2020). Educational scalability in MOOCs: Analysing instructional designs to find best practices,Computers & Education,
  25. 25. 1st Generation Instructivist Conclusion • Interaction is mostly one on one • Large and important role of student- content interaction • Significant assessment and privacy issues • Scalable • OERs, MOOCs and analytics promise to reduce costs and increase efficiency of interactions
  26. 26. 26 2nd Generation Social - Constructivist Pedagogy • Group Orientated, paced • Membership and exclusion, closed • Classrooms - at a distance and/or on campus • Hierarchies of control • Focus on collaboration and shared purpose group “ Community of Inquiry
  27. 27. • I kind of got better at teaching online when I started asking better questions: “what pedagogic principles drive what I normally do?” and “what online platforms and technology can help me appropriate these into an online learning space?”. • Samantha Elizabeth McMahon - Sydney
  28. 28. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Socially constructed • Arrived at through dialogic encounters (Bakhtin) • “Dialogic as an epistemological framework supports an account of education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” – Wegerif, R.
  29. 29. The Power of Synchronous Learning in Groups • Immediacy • Pacing • Social Modeling • Comfort level for student and teachers
  30. 30. Students like Real time
  31. 31. Most Cited Model – Community of Inquiry
  32. 32. OERs at work!
  33. 33. Social Constructivist Social Form • Group based • Limited in size – Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe • Mutual awareness of each other • Teacher domination and dependency? • Not scalable, maximum student/teacher ratio 50/1
  34. 34. Tools to Support Constructivist Online Teaching Online ABC LD in Excel From Laurillard, D. (2012) Teaching as a Design Science. Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology,
  35. 35. Group Management Enhancements • Tools to allow groups to work effectively and efficiently to build trust, collaboration and work effectively at a distance. Messaging, file spaces, videoconference, collaborative editing
  36. 36. 2nd Generation Social Constructivist Pedagogy Summary • Not scalable, expensive in terms of time and money • New group tools enhance efficiency • Focuses on human development – student-student and student-teacher • Easiest pedagogy for teachers and learners transitioning to online learning
  37. 37. 3rd Generation Connectivist Pedagogies • Connectivism - Siemens and Downes • Heutagogy – Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. • Chaos Theory • Rhizomatic Learning “The community is the curriculum” Dave Cormier • Communities of Practice – Etienne Wagner • Activity Theory & Actor Network Theory (ANT) – “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use in their interactions.”
  38. 38. Connectivist Knowledge • Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects • May be created and stored in non-human devices • Is as much about capacity as current competence • Assumes the ubiquitous Internet • Is emergent George Siemens
  39. 39. NOT Learning in a Bubble
  40. 40. “In connectivism, the starting point for learning occurs when knowledge is actuated through the process of a learner connecting to and feeding information into a learning network.” Kop, R., & Hill, A. (2008). Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-13.
  41. 41. Dron and Anderson, Teaching Crowds (2014) Connectivist freedoms • Location where? • Subject what? • Time when? • Approach how (pedagogy, process)? • Pace how fast? • Sociability with whom (if anyone)? • Technology using what (medium/tools)? • Delegability choosing to choose set net group
  42. 42. Disruptions of Connectivism • Demands high levels of net literacy and presence of students and teachers • Openness is scary • New roles for teachers and students • Issues of artifact ownership, persistence & privacy • Too manic for some
  43. 43. 3rd Generation Connectivist Learning Summary • Born on the Net • Locus of control shifts to students with focus on student responsibility for their own learning and building of their own learning nets and sets • Is emergent and disruptive • For advanced learners only??
  44. 44. Conclusions • Students deserve the experience and the skill development associated with all three generations: – Learning structured content by oneself (1st) – Learning in groups and developing (2nd) interpersonal skills – Developing networks and network literacies (3rd) • There is no one pedagogical model, context, depth, intensity or aggregation that supports learning, all the time, for everyone.
  45. 45. The Future of Online Learning is diverse and uses multiple pedagogies and technologies • “there is more than one way to teach – there are also multiple ways to learn” Sean Nufer, an educator at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology
  46. 46. Terry Anderson Blog: Skype: @terguy Your comments and questions most welcomed!
  47. 47. • "Schools need to stop giving students the fish and instead, teach them how to catch them for themselves. Then learning at home wouldn’t be such a problem.” Todd Stanley edCurcuit 2020