CNIE Kamloops 2014 Media is the Pedagogy


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Slides from Jon Dron and myself presented at CNIE in Kamloops. Nets , sets, groups and Athabasca Landing

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  • why does this matter? MOOCs? Self-directed learning. Non-formal learning. Blended
    Sets education. The difference between education and training .
  • Audrey Watters keynote
  • Photo from
  • A learning technology, by definition, is an orchestration of technologies, necessarily including pedagogies, whether implicit or explicit.
  • brief activity - show of hands on whether members of sets (gender, country, occupation, etc) whether in a network. Explain that we are in a nascent group but it is currently mostly a set + some rules.
    what do you do when you want to learn something new?
    (most common answers in next slide)
  • and maybe Twitter, Facebook, Google+ etc
    Most significantly - this is about learning with the assistance of strangers.
  • and maybe Twitter, Facebook, Google+ etc
    Most significantly - this is about learning with the assistance of strangers.
  • why useful? Because we know a lot about groups. We know much less about learning in other forms that are amplified by the internet
  • groups, classes, teams, cohorts, schools, faculties, universities, colleges, etc:
    hierarchical organization
    norms and rules
    rites of joining and leaving
    methods and structure
    social bonding
    fundamental human form of social engagement
    Social constructivism, Vygotsky, Dewey, etc.
    Erik de Graaf says people are not born to work in a team - he is wrong. We totally are. But we have to learn to work in any particular team because all teams (groups) have different rules, norms and purposes.
  • Notably touted by Barry Wellman and followers. Networked individualism. Individual focus. Not top down. Emergent structures visible. Every person’s network different. People who help you to learn - not a designed process. Siemens Connectivism, Downes.
  • Sylvia Cury Nancy White
  • Most notably shared subject interest but may also be things like culture, geography, gender, physical characteristics, etc
  • Set modes of engagement
  • yes - there are many other definitions! But that’s how I’m using it.
  • These are some predominant set-based tools (or that have a significant set-orientation)
  • about 15 slides to go
  • set + network + rules/norms/etc = group?
  • about 10 slides to go
  • altruism
    social capital?
    forming networks and groups
    selfishness - reflection and social meaning = motivation
  • you must know what you want to discover- assumes at least a topic, area or location of interest. Sometimes hard to know where to start
  • sporadic and fleeting interactions. Little continued dialogue over time. No depth of social connection, limited meaning
  • flame wars, trolling, deliberate misinformation, unintentional misinformation, making sense of what is true, useful
  • important to note that openness is not always good, especially in a learning context. the fact that groups exclude and protect can be a very positive thing. also issues of isolation as a driver of change - think Galapagos Islands, where evolution in a protected space leads to greater overall diversity
  • about 5 slides left
  • I and others have researched ways to make collectives work for a couple of decades - but we have a long way to go. A major need for research.
  • Theoretical
    Social Presence
    Cooperative work in self-paced programming
    Interaction results in increased social, institutional and academic integration, leading to increased completion rates (Tinto, 1987)
    Need to develop a virtual campus supporting community beyond course interactions
    Social Capital Building
    Potential for community and alumni contribution
    Communications is a continuing challenge in our workplaces.
    Too many of our faculty and staff are disengaged from our community
    We lack any sort of knowledge management system- all knowledge explicit, little connected
    It’s hard to get to know people at Athabasca.
  • U of A experience
  • CNIE Kamloops 2014 Media is the Pedagogy

    1. 1. The Media is the Pedagogy Jon Dron & Terry Anderson Athabasca University
    2. 2. Learning & Networks Trump Teaching, Innovation and Pedagogy
    3. 3. Values We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.
    4. 4. E-Learning is not the same
    5. 5. Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) Technology sets the beat and the timing. Pedagogy defines the moves.
    6. 6. learning together
    7. 7. The two biggest e-learning success stories so far?
    8. 8. The two biggest e-learning success stories so far?
    9. 9. A typology of social forms• Learning Alone • The group Hierarchies, membership, intentionality, collaboration, boundaries • The net Personal connections, fuzzy boundaries, emergence • The set Publication, aggregation, anonymity, cooperation • The collective Computational agents, algorithms, analytics, visualization, crowd wisdom/mob stupidity
    10. 10. Learning AloneMaximizes Freedom: Space, time, pace, Allows and promotes individualization Freedom from “group think” Power of auto-didacticism Lifelong learning Freedom from groups
    11. 11. Self Directed or Self Paced learning Learner sets start date and the time to completion Continuous assessment Maximizes learner control Higher drop out Ted Talks, Khan Academy, OERU Only one of the Major MOOCs (Udacity) providers offers this option
    12. 12. Everyone can own a MOOC
    13. 13. Then there was groups…
    14. 14. Constructivist Learning in Groups • Long history of research and study • Established sets of tools – Classrooms – Learning Management Systems (LMS) – Synchronous (chat, video & net conferencing) – Email, wikis, blogs • Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
    15. 15. • Increase in learning outcomes, social skills, positive attitudes to learning BUT • “the need for cooperative teams to mature implies that cooperative learning does not yield an immediate improvement …need for patience and persistence… students experienced in cooperative learning” Hsiung, C.-m. (2012). The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning. Journal of Engineering Education, 101(1), 119-137.
    16. 16. Flipped Classroom
    17. 17. Formal Education offers only these two models
    18. 18. …then networks
    19. 19. Networks • Emergent • Persistent • Bursty • Span boundaries • Easy entry & exit • Often informal • Communities of practice
    20. 20. Networks add diversity to learning “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90 Edge effects, estuary learning
    21. 21. Estuary Learning
    22. 22. Social Network Tools • Tools for Building Personal Networks of people and Resources • Means to reify and share knowledge • Ownership and identity • Supports long term networking partnerships, relationships, alumni • Weak and strong ties • Boundary crossing and serendipity • Place for coalescence of sets into networks and groups, nets into groups. • Discovery, external validation and cross network enrichment
    23. 23. Privacy Concern by AgePrivacy Concern by Age 26 Anderson, T., Poelhuber, B., & McKerlich, R. (2010). Self Paced Learners Meet Social Software: An exploration of Learners’ attitudes, expectations and experience. . Online Journal of Distance Education Administration, 13(3).
    24. 24. There were always sets… …but we didn’t pay much attention to them
    25. 25. Sets: People with shared attributes and a common virtual or physical space
    26. 26. Cooperation Sharing Curation Tagging Co-editing Co- creating
    27. 27. • Co-operation: working independently for the greater good • Collaboration: working together for the greater good
    28. 28. Why sets?
    29. 29. Eric Whitacer’s Virtual Choir (4)
    30. 30. Sets are good for… finding answers finding people starting groups and networks diverse perspectives serendipit y learner choice freedo m reducing loneliness
    31. 31. Set of all people suffering from anxiety in online classes Please take my survey on anxiety in online classes:   This is a rather short survey (22 questions). It is for an in-class assignment,  is a pilot for future study, and the results will not be published. More details  are on the survey’s informed consent form.    Thank you!   --Alana S. Phillips   doctoral student University of North Texas Sets for Research as well as Learning
    32. 32. but…
    33. 33. Why contribute to a set?
    34. 34. Focus
    35. 35. Depth and engagement
    36. 36. Trust The problem of evil The problem of stupidity The problem (?) of diversity
    37. 37. open unprotected disclosed exposed insecure closed protected private hidden safe Dron, J., & Anderson, T. (2014) Agoraphobia and the modern learner. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 3.
    38. 38. Collectives
    39. 39. Capture information and actions of the crowd Proces s Feedback processed information to the crowd captur e proces s feedbac k
    40. 40. Collective concerns filter bubbles path dependencies intentional abuse selection bias Matthew Effect missing pedagogical models
    41. 41. setnet group Universities departments companies nations Tribes Social networks - friends, work, community Subject areas Geographically collocated people Classes Tutorial groups Seminars Project teams ad-hoc learning networks clubs & societies Communities of practice Wikipedia editors Subject area mailing lists alumni networks Blends and combinations
    42. 42. Generations of distance learning pedagogies 1.Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study, 2.Social constructivist – Groups, classes 3.Connectivist – Networks 4.Holist - Sets and Collectives Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. PrivatePublic net group set individual
    43. 43. Is the LMS BAD? • Bricolage – the LMS as Enterprise Systems doesn’t allow or cater for bricolage. • Affordances – resulting in an inability to leverage the affordances of technology to improve learning and teaching. • Distribution – the idea that knowledge about how to improve L&T is distributed and the implications that has for the institutional practice of e-learning." Jones
    44. 44. Walled Gardens (with windows) • Connectivist learning thrives in safe learning spaces with windows allowing randomness, external participation and public presentation
    45. 45. Athabasca Landing • User owned and generated tool kit
    46. 46. Enactment At Athabasca Landing
    47. 47. • Elgg based, open source • Walled garden WITH windows – very fine permissions controls • Beyond the LMS • Adoption issues
    48. 48. The Social Aggregations and Tech of 3 Generations of Connective Pedagogies • Individuals • Groups • Networks • Sets 3rd Gen. Connectivist3rd Gen. Connectivist 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 1st Gen Cognitive/Behavio ural 1st Gen Cognitive/Behavio ural Self Paced Learning Tech LMS Network Tools
    49. 49. Open Scholars Write and Read Open Access Books Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison
    50. 50. Jon Dron - @jondron on almost everything Terry Anderson- Coming soon (July 2014)…. Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media 0235
    51. 51. Slides at Terry Anderson Blog: Your comments and questions most welcomed!
    52. 52. Student - Teacher/Content Interaction • “MOOC video producers currently base their production decisions on anecdotes, folk wisdom, and best practices distilled from studies with at most dozens of subjects and hundreds of video watching sessions.” Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference. Retrieved from
    53. 53. Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference.
    54. 54. Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference.