Brazil Keynote 2008

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This keynote presentation- Distance Education: Past, Present and Future was delievred at the Canada/Brazil Symposium on Distance Education Nov 2008 in Goianias Brazil.

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Brazil Keynote 2008

  1. 1. Brazil/Canada
Symposium
 Distance
Educa8on:

 Yesterday,
Today
and
Tomorrow
 Terry
Anderson,
Ph.D
 Professor
and
Canada
Research
 Chair
in
Distance
Educa8on
 .

  2. 2. •  “Canada
is
a
great
 country,
much
too
 cold
for
common
 sense,
inhabited
by
 compassionate
and
 intelligent
people
 with
bad
haircuts”.

 –  Yann
Martel,
Life
of
Pi,
2002.


  3. 3. Athabasca
University,

 Alberta,
Canada
 Fastest growing university in Canada 34,000 students, 700 courses 100% distance education Graduate and * Athabasca University Undergraduate programs  Athabasca University Master & Doctorate – Distance Education Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada
  4. 4. Jim
Farmer,
2006

  5. 5. Distance
Educa8on
is
about
 •  Access:
8me,
distance,
cost,
scalability,
access
 for
handicapped,
equity,
‘right
to
educa8on’
 •  Quality:
visible,
comparable,
accountable
 •  Innova2on:
disrup8ve,
challenging,
from
craR
 produc8on
to
industrial
produc8on
to
post
 industrial
customiza8on

  6. 6. What’s
in
a
Name?
 May
Use
 May
Be
 
May
lead
to


  7. 7. Distance
Educa8on:
 Defini8on
 1  Separa8on
between
teacher
and
learners
 2  Influence
of
an
educa8onal
ins8tu8on
 3  Some
sort
of
technology
to
mediate
 interac8on

  8. 8. 1st
Genera8on
of
DE
 •  From
mid
1850’s
 •  Lowest
cost/student
 •  No
peer
interac8on

  9. 9. 2nd
Genera8on
of
DE
‐
Broadcast
 •  From
mid
1930’s
 •  High
fixed
cost
 •  Low
variable
costs
 •  No
peer
interac8on

  10. 10. 3rd
Genera8on
of
DE
‐
Conferencing
 •  From
1970s

 •  Low
development
costs
 •  Real
8me
or
asynchronous
student‐teacher
 and
student‐student
interac8on
 •  Distance
Classroom

  11. 11. 4
th
Genera8on
of
DE
–
Personal
 Compu8ng
 •  Asynchronous
conferencing,
intelligent
data
 bases,
social
soRware
 •  Desktop
conferencing
 •  Immersive
worlds

  12. 12. No
Genera8on
has
completely
supplanted
 other
Genera8ons
 •  Tremendous
choice
 •  Compe8ng
visions
of
quality
 •  Some
technologies
limit
access
 •  Role
of
instructor/creator
challenged
 •  Too
lihle
considera8on
of
cost
effec8veness
 •  Various
genera8ons
do
not
always
share
same
 epistemological,
cultural,
discipline,
economic
 values
and
prac8ces

  13. 13. Educa2onal
Media
 Face‐to‐face
 Computer
conferencing
 Immersive
Worlds
 Video
conferencing
 Interac2on
 Audio
conferencing
 Radio
 Television
 Correspondence/CAL
 Independence
of
Time
and
Distance

  14. 14. Educa2onal
Media
 Face‐to‐face
 Computer
conferencing
 Immersive
Worlds
 Net
Based
 Learning
 Video
conferencing
 Interac2on
 Audio
conferencing
 Radio
 Television
 Correspondence
 Independence
of
Time
and
Distance

  15. 15. Industrial
Model
of
Distance
Educ.
 •  Developed
by
Bri8sh
Open
University
in
1970
 •  High
quality
course
packages
produced
by
course
 teams:
 –  Subject
maher
experts
 –  Designers
 –  Media
experts
 •  Delivered
by
part
8me
tutors
 •  Occasional
face‐to‐face
 •  Very
cost
effec8ve
 •  Model
adopted
by
the
Mega
university
of
the
world
 (more
than
100,000
students)

  16. 16. A
ques8on
of
Equity
 •  Costs
of
educa8on
are
a
shared
responsibility
 between
individuals
and
state
 •  “This
indicates
the
scale
of
effort
that
is
 needed
for
educa8on
to
re‐invent
itself
in
 ways
that
other
professions
have
already
done
 and
to
provide
beher
value
for
money.”
OECD
 2008
 •  True
cost
of
educa8on
includes
costs
to
 students

  17. 17. Campus
Teaching
 Mul8media
plus
Tutor
support
 Costs
 $$$
 Mul8media
Materials
 Number
of
students

  18. 18. Cos8ng
is
a
Complex!

  19. 19. Canadian
Ins8tu8onal
Models
 •  Single
Mode
Distance
–
Athabasca,
Open
 University
 •  Dual
Mode:
Almost
every
Canadian
University
 offers
one
or
more
degrees
completely
at
a
 distance
 •  Blended
Learning:
Replacing
lecture
8me
with
 online
ac8vi8es

  20. 20. Independent
Study
 Cohort
or
Group
Study

  21. 21. Cohort
(Group)
Based
 •  Familiar
model
to
both
students
and
faculty
 •  Fits
with
exis8ng
campus
administra8ve
systems
 •  Can
support
coopera8ve
and
collabora8ve
 learning
 •  Associated
with
higher
comple8on
rates
 •  Supports
teacher
created,
low
produc8on
cost
 models
 •  
Builds
teacher
dependency


  22. 22. Self
Paced,
Independent
Models
 •  Maximizes
learner
freedom
and
flexibility
 •  Allows
more
accessible
op8ons
within
exis8ng
 campus
and
cohort
based
study
 •  Trains
learners
for
lifelong
learning
 •  Newest
fron8er
of
research
–
self
paced
 resources
PLUS
social
soRware

  23. 23. DE
and
Corporate
Training
 •  Move
to
“blended
training
models”
 •  Buying
realms
of
online
training
modules
 doesn’t
work
 •  Need
to
8e
DE
with:
 –  Strategic
business
goals
 –  Individual
learning
and
professional
goals
 •  Value
in
developing
individual
learning
 accomplishments
as
a
component
of
 employee
performance

  24. 24. Different
Theories
of
Media

 Enhanced
Learning
 •  the
presenta8onal
view
 –  Show
me
be.er
 •  the
performance‐tutoring
view
 –  Guide
me
and
show
me
where
I
am
going
wrong
 •  the
epistemic‐engagement
view.
 –  Let’s
talk
and
nego<ate
what
this
really
means
 Larreamendy‐Joerns,
J.,
&
Leinhardt,
G.
(2006).
Going
the
Distance
With
 Online
Educa8on.
Review
of
Educa<onal
Research,
76(4),
567‐605

  25. 25. DE
Issues
 •  Interac8on
and
Independence
 •  Self
Paced
versus
cohorts
 •  Blended
versus
Distance
Educa8on
 •  Scale
and
efficiency
 •  Dropout
and
reten8on
strategies
 •  Theories
of
Learning

  26. 26. Distance
Educa8on
Research
 •  Tremendous
student

need
and
opportunity
 •  See
lis8ng
of
journals
at
 –  
hhp://www.irrodl.org/miscfiles/journalpg.html
 •  Common
ques8ons:
 –  Comparing
distance
educa8on
to
campus
based
 –  Policy
and
funding
 –  Effect
of
support
services
 –  Drop
out
and
persistence
 –  Effect
of
technologies
 •  Free
Subscrip8on
to
www.irrodl.org

  27. 27. Current
Research
Fron8ers
 Crea8ng
effec8ve
and
efficient
blends
of
campus
 and
distance
formats
 Con8nuous
enrollment
supported
by
emergent,
 learner
created
communi8es
 •  Using
new
social
soRware
and
network
 affordances
of
Web
2.0
 •  Crea8on
of
short
term
coopera8ve
learning
 opportuni8es
 •  Cost
efficiencies

  28. 28. The
Promise
of

 Open
Educa8onal
Resources
(OERs)
 •  “In
order
to
scale
excellence,
network‐enabled
 open
educa8on
has
to
be
the
central
modality
 for
delivering
quality
educa8on,
and
this
is
 how
we
have
to
recast
distance
educa8on.”
VJ
 Kumar,
2008

  29. 29. Open
Educa8on
Resources
(OER)
 Vision
+
Affordance
 •  “At
the
heart
of
the
open
educa8onal
 resources
movement
is
the
simple
and
 powerful
idea
that;
 –  
the
world’s
knowledge
is
a
public
good
in
 general
 –  
the
World
Wide
Web
provides
an
 extraordinary
opportunity
for
everyone
to
 share,
use,
and
reuse
that
knowledge.”












 Hewleh
Founda8on
Smith,
&
Casserly.
The
promise
of
open
educa8onal
 resources.
Change
38(5):
8–17,
2006

  30. 30. Hundreds
of
thousands
of
OER
 available
today

  31. 31. OER
Granularity
 –  Diagrams,
photos
 –  Ar8cles
(Open
access
publica8ons)
 –  Games,
simula8ons,
ac8vi8es
 –  Units
of
learning
(IMS
LD)
 –  Units
and
courses
 –  Programs

  32. 32. A
Tale
of
3
books
 E‐Learning
for
the
21st
 Open
Access
 Commercial
publisher
 Century
 100,000
downloads
&

 934
copies
sold
at
$52.00
 Commercial
Pub.
 1200
sold
@
$135.00
 Individual
chapters
 Buy
at
Amazon!!
 2,000
copies
in
Arabic
 500
hardcopies
sold
@

$50.00
 Transla8on
@
$8.
 Free
at
aupress.org

  33. 33. Our
own
Experiment:

 Course
development
based
on
OER’s
 •  4
Athabasca
University
courses:
 –  Nursing,

 –  Communica8ons
(Theatre)
 –  English
for
Business,

&


 –  Educ.
Tech
 •  Vastly
different
results
 Cri8cal
variable
was
the
awtude
of
the
 •  Chris8ansen,
J.,
&
Anderson,
T.
(2004)

 
Feasibility
of
course
development
based
on
learning
objects:
Research
analysis
of
three
case
 developer(s)
 studies.

Interna<onal
Journal
of
Instruc<onal
Technology
and
Distance
Educa<on,


  34. 34. Portugese
OERs
??
 •  Este
site
e
dedicado
ao
trabalho
colabora8vo
para
traduzir
o
documento
 Open
Educa8onal
Resources:
the
Way
Forward,
para
o
Português.
 •  O
documento
quot;Recursos
Educacionais
Abertos:
O
caminho
adiantequot;
é
fruto
 do
reflexo
colabora8vo
desta
comunidade
rela8vo
à
como
ampliar
o
movi
 mento
dos
OER.
O
PDF
em
ingles
deste
ar8go
pode
ser
baixado
aqui:
 •  



*
Open
Educa8onal
Resources:
the
Way
Forward
(PDF)
 hhp://oerwiki.iiep‐unesco.org/index.php?8tle=OER:_the_Way_Forward/ Collabora8ve_work_on_transla8ons/Portuguese_Version
 •  hhp://www.qedoc.org/en/index.php?8tle=Category:E‐ learning_resources_in_portuguese

  35. 35. Is
DE
Beher
than
Classroom
Instruc8on?
 Project
1:
2000
–
2004
 •  Ques8on:
How
does
distance
educa8on
compare
 to
classroom
instruc8on?
(inclusive
dates
 1985‐2002)
 •  
Total
number
of
effect
sizes:
k
=
232
 •  Measures:
Achievement,
Awtudes
and
Reten8on
 (opposite
of
drop‐out)
 •  Divided
into
Asynchronous
and
Synchronous
DE 40
  36. 36. Summary
of
results:
Achievement
 Achievement Outcomes
 *Significantly heterogeneous average effect
 41
  37. 37. Summary
of
results:
Awtudes
 Attitude Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous average effect
 42
  38. 38. Summary
of
results:
Reten8on
 Retention Outcomes *Significantly heterogeneous effect sizes
 43
  39. 39. Primary
findings
 •  DE
and
CI
are
essen8ally
equal
(g+
≈
0.0
to
low
 average
effect)
on
all
measures
 •  Effect
size
distribu8ons
are
heterogeneous;
some
 DE
>>
CI,
some
DE
<<
CI
 •  Generally
poor
methodological
quality
 •  Pedagogical
study
features
account
for
more
 varia8on
than
media
study
features
(Clark,
1994)
 •  Interac8ve
DE
an
important
variable*
 *Lou, Y., Bernard, R.M., & Abrami, P.C. (2006). Media and pedagogy in undergraduate distance education: A theory-based meta-analysis of empirical literature. Educational Technology Research & Development, 54(2), 141-176. 44
  40. 40. Distance
Educa8on
on
the
Long
Tail
 Chris
Anderson
(2004)

  41. 41. •  
 •  Open
Access
e‐book
 •  53
stories
of
how
university
 faculty
crea8ng
blended
 learning
in
their
courses
 •  Blended
–
reduces
 classroom
8me
by
at
least
 25%
 •  Michael
Starenko,
2008

  42. 42. Interac8on
in
DE
 Anderson,

 2003
 IRRODL

  43. 43. Anderson’s
Equivalency
Theorem
 (2003)
 Moore
(1989)
dis8nc8ons
are:

   Three
types
of
interac8on
 o  student‐student
interac8on
 o  student‐teacher
interac8on

 o  Student‐content
interac8on
 Anderson
(2003)
hypotheses
state:
   High
levels
of
one
out
of
3
interac8ons
will
produce
 sa8sfying
educa8onal
experience
   Increasing
sa8sfac8on
through
teacher
and
learner
 interac8on
interac8on
may
not
be
as
8me
or
cost‐effec8ve
 as
student‐content
interac8ve
learning
sequences
 48
  44. 44. Do
the
three
types
of
interac8on
 differ?
Moore’s
dis8nc8ons
 Achievement and Attitude Outcomes Interaction Achievement Attitudes Categories k g+adj. k g+adj. Student-Student 10 0.342 6 0.358 Student-Teacher 44 0.254 30 0.052 Student-Content 20 0.339 8 0.136 Total 74 0.291 44 0.090 Between-class 2.437 6.892* Moore’s distinctions seem to apply for achievement (equal importance), but not for attitudes (however, samples are low for SS and SC)
 49
  45. 45. Does
strengthening
interac8on
improve
achievement
 and
awtudes?
Anderson’s
hypotheses
 Achievement and Attitude Outcomes Interaction Achievement Attitudes Strength k g+adj. SE k g+adj. SE Low Strength 30 0.163 0.043 21 0.071 0.042 Med Strength 29 0.418 0.044 18 0.170 0.043 High Strength 15 0.305 0.062 5 -0.173 0.091 Total 74 0.291 0.027 44 0.090 0.029 (Q) Between-class 17.582* 12.060* Anderson’s first hypothesis about achievement appears to be supported Anderson’s second hypothesis about satisfaction (attitude) appears to be supported, but only to an extent (i.e., only 5 studies in High Category) 50
  46. 46.  Bernard,
Abrami,
Borokhovski,
Wade,
Tamin,
 &
Surkes,
(in
press).
Examining
Three
Forms
of
 Interac8on
in
Distance
Educa8on:
A
Meta‐ Analysis
of
Between‐DE
Studies.
Review
of
 Research
in
Educa<on

  47. 47. The
Community
of
Inquiry
Model
 Garrison,
Anderson,
 Archer,
2004

  48. 48. COI
Valida8on
 •  Originally
validated
through
transcript
analysis
 •  Now
standardized
survey
instruments
 •  Used
to
inves8gate
F2F,
immersive
and
 synchronous
models
of
distance
educa8on
 •  Correlated
with
student
sa8sfac8on
and
 achievement

  49. 49. •  Theore8cal
Models
like
COI
can
be
useful:
 –  Descrip2ve
power:
–
making
sense,
accurately
 depic8ng
 –  Rhetorical
power:
help
us
reflect
and
talk
about
 our
experience
 –  Inferen2al
power:
help
us
to
evolve
and
test
 educa8onal
innova8ons

and
interven8ons
 –  Applicatory
power:
Helps
us
design
interven8ons
 C with
greatest
likelihood
of
working
in
real
contexts
 •  Halverson,
C.A.
(2002).
Ac8vity
theory
and
distributed
cogni8on:
 Or
what
does
CSCW
need
to
DO
with
theories?
Computer
 Supported
Coopera<ve
Work
11:
243–267.

  50. 50. Future
of
Distance
Educa8on
 •  A
component
of
all
modes
of
formal
educa8on
 •  Moving
from
formal
educa8on
to
informal,
 lifelong
learning
 •  Moving
from
informal
learning
to
informal
 accredita8on

  51. 51. Conclusions
 •  There
are
many
models
and
types
of
distance
 educa8on
 •  DE
has
poten8al
to
increase
access
and
 decrease
costs
of
formal
educa8on
 •  DE
will
help
develop
a
culture
of
lifelong
 learning
 •  DE
is
challenging,
disrup8ve
and
fun!

  52. 52. Conclusion
 •  Illich
inspires

us
to
search
for
 and
build

“educa<onal
webs
 which
heighten
the
 opportunity
for
each
one
to
 transform
each
moment
of
 his
living
into
one
of
learning,
 sharing,
and
caring”
 •  
Illich,
1970


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