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Extreme atmospheric-conditions


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Extreme atmospheric-conditions

  1. 1. Extreme Atmospheric Conditions
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Soaring above the ground is a cumulonimbus cloud about to erupt on Oklahoma city on May 9,1999. This cumulonimbus will eventually turn into a dangerous tornado that will sadly destroy several towns in Oklahoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather has been a mystery for thousands of years and still is now. The first to study weather and these dangerous storms were the Greeks. The Greeks actually made the word disasters after their language. Disasters stands for stars in Greek and Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>These dangerous storms may be interesting to learn about but some of these are very dangerous. Keep going through my slides to learn and explore all the different kinds of weather and famous scientists . </li></ul>Charles Richter Dangerous Tornado
  3. 3. Hurricanes (Tropical Cyclones) <ul><li>Hurricanes is a type of tropical cyclone or dangerous winds at sea. The word Hurricane comes from a Native Caribbean god that people once worried about. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes have different names depending on where they form. If they form around the Indian ocean or Australia the hurricane is called a cyclone. If Pacific then it is referred to as a typhoons and if it is in the Atlantic ocean, Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbean it is a hurricane. </li></ul><ul><li> A hurricane develop in warm moist sea water. For a hurricane to form the water that it is under must be between 79 0 F-80 0 F and the air above the water must be filled with moisture. If the winds coming from the north pole and south pole meet the warm moist air will slowly rise from the ground and will go to the sky. After that the warm air and cool air will mix and start turning counter-clockwise where the hurricane is born. </li></ul><ul><li>A hurricane is also given a different name depending on the speed of the winds. If the hurricane winds are 38 mph or less it is considered as a tropical depression. If it is 40 mph-74 mph it is a tropical storm. Any storm with winds 75 mph or higher are hurricanes. </li></ul><ul><li>The size of a hurricane can be anywhere from 200-600 miles. The average is around 300 miles. In the center of the hurricane, the eye of weather is calm and pleasant. The eye of a hurricane is about 20 miles across. The eye tricks people thinking that the storm is over and they start to go outside. But after the eye passes the place where the person lives the storm will start all over again. People going outside when they are in the eye part has caused many deaths around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes are named in alphabetical order and it depends on which hurricane comes first in the year. The most destructive hurricane ever recorded on the U.S.A. was Hurricane Andrew. Hurricane Andrew caused $20-$25 billion dollars of destruction in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes are sorted out into 5 categories. Category 1 is minor and the winds are up to 95mph. Category 2 causes slight damage and the winds are from 96-110 mph. Category 3 causes medium damage and flooding and winds are from 111-130 mph. Category 4 causes strong damage and major flooding and winds are from 131-155mph. Category 5 is most extreme and dangerous and the winds can be anywhere 155mph or higher and will cause major destruction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Tornadoes <ul><li>Tornadoes are the most destructive storms in the world. It has winds up to 300 mph while a hurricane has winds only up to 155mph. Even though a tornado has higher winds than a hurricane it is a lot smaller than a hurricane. A tornado can be anywhere from a few meters to about 1 mile. Think of it like this, if a tornado was one small cookie a hurricane would be about the size of a football field. </li></ul><ul><li> Tornadoes are large whirling columns of air with winds up to 300 mph. Tornadoes are formed by a dangerous thunderstorm called a supercell. In the supercell an updraft of warm air is going inside the thunderstorm and at the same time cool air leaves the thunderstorm causing a downdraft. The downdraft pulls some of the rotating air inside of the cloud bringing it down to the ground with a funnel. As warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico meets with the cool dry air from canada rises to the sky than a tornado can form in minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>A tornado is organized by a scale that is named by its creator. The scale is called the Fujita scale and it is named after Theodore Fujita a Japanese-American meteorologist. The scale is organized into sections from F0-F5. The F stands for Theodore Fujita’s last name. F0 is a very minor tornado and it does not cause too much damage to a place. The wind range for a F0 tornado is 40-72 mph. A F1 tornado does moderate damage and has winds anywhere from 73-112mph. A F2 tornado does significant damage to a place and has winds anywhere from 113-157 mph. A F3 tornado can do severe damage to one place or cite and has a wind range from 158-206 mph. A F4 tornado can be devastating and the winds are strong enough to knock skyscrapers and well constructed buildings. The winds for F4 tornado is from 207-260 mph. A F5 tornadoes are the most destructive and can destroy anything in its path. F5 tornadoes have winds from 261-318 mph or higher. But don’t worry about F5 tornadoes, only about 5 F5 tornadoes hit the US each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Tornado Alley is in mid-western US. Tornado Alley is where the air from Gulf of Mexico and Canada mostly meet so tornado alley has had held the record for most tornadoes. Tornado Alley runs through Northern Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, Eastern Colorado and Iowa. Texas has held the US record for having the most tornadoes since 1953. By now Texas has had about 5,730 tornadoes. Tornadoes can form anytime and almost anywhere but the most common time for a tornado to form is during May through June. So if you ever see a dangerous thunderstorm outside that will turn into a tornado head inside fast! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Did you know that a tornado could form on Mars and make a dust devil! Did you know?
  5. 5. Earthquakes <ul><li>If you were ever in an earthquake you would not forget it. An earthquake is any movement in the tectonic plates of the earth. These tectonic plates are always on the move. When the plates meet they can move apart, slide together or can come in horizontally. Where two tectonic plates meet is called a fault. When two plates shift the earth shifts. The place where the shaking is the most strong is called an epicenter (eh-puh-center). </li></ul><ul><li>An earthquake is any various movement in the earth’s tectonic plates. An earthquake can be so minor that you don’t feel anything or an earthquake can be so strong to knock whole buildings down. The earthquake that hit San Francisco in 1906 was a magnitude of 7.8 which is a very large. That earthquake practically wiped out San Francisco and killed over 3,000 people. The most devastating earthquake that ever happened on earth was on May 22, 1960 in Chile. It was a magnitude 9.5 and killed about 6,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>A seismologist is a person who studies earthquakes and learns about them. Seismologist use a seismograph to record what they have learned. A seismogram is what they use to learn about an earthquake. The seismogram makes waves that show how strong an earthquake was and how long it lasted. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Richter was an American seismologist who studied seismographs and earthquakes in the 1930’s. He made a discovery that is now known as the Richter Scale. The Richter Scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake. The scale is based on numbers 1-10. Earthquakes less than 2.0 is referred to as a micro earthquake and is not felt. There are about 8,000 2.0 earthquakes around the world. An earthquake that is from 2.0-3.9 is referred to as minor earthquake and there are about 1,000 per day. An earthquake that takes place anywhere from 4.0-4.9 is considered as a light earthquake and there is about 6,200 per year. An earthquake that is between 5.0-5.9 is referred to as a moderate earthquake and there are about 800 per year. An earthquake that is between 6.0-6.9 is a strong earthquake and they can be destructive and there are about 120 per year. An earthquake that has a place between 7.0-7.9 is considered as a massive earthquake. There are about 18 earthquakes per year that has a place between 7.0-7.9. An earthquake that is anywhere from 8.0-9.9 is referred to as a “Great Earthquakes”. Earthquakes that are from 8.0-8.9 happen only once a year but when it does it can wipe out whole cities. Earthquakes that are from 9.0-9.9 happen about once every twenty years but they are super devastating and can wipe out the population of one town or maybe even a city. The largest of all earthquake is a earthquake that has a magnitude of 10.0 or higher. This kind of earthquake is unknown and has never happened on earth and is referred to as a massive earthquake. These kind of earthquakes are very rare but even if they happen on earth they wont be recorded by seismologists. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three kind of waves that cause earthquakes. Primary waves or P waves are waves that create sound and these waves can go through and crack rock. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Earthquakes Cont. <ul><li>Secondary waves or S waves are motion waves. Unlike primary waves that go through rock, secondary waves travel underground. Surface waves are the slowest waves in the three. These waves may be the slowest but they are the most dangerous of the three. Surface waves move along the surface on its journey through destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>A recent earthquake that happened was the one in Japan. It was very destructive and even started a tsunami (su-na-mi). The earthquake was around 9.0 and killed over 10,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are in a earthquake take cover under a table and stay away from things that might topple over such as lamp or a bookcase. Listen to the radio until it says “all clear” and then you can head outside and explore around and play! </li></ul>Did you know? That a earthquake could form on the moon too!
  7. 7. Thunderstorms <ul><li>A Thunderstorm is the most common storm in the United States. A storm cloud forms when warm humid air rises and cools. The storm cloud sometimes gets so heavy with moisture that some comes down as precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li> Thunderstorms are always accompanied by lightning and thunder. A thunderstorm mostly forms when clouds that are nine miles high in the sky start to cool so rain and ice crystals forms. When this happens lightning starts to form by static electricity inside the cloud. When that happens the ground sometimes attracts lightning strikes because it has a positive charge. When the lightning from the cloud comes down it is called the leader stroke. The ground responds by a return stroke and you got a lightning bolt. </li></ul><ul><li>The air around the lightning bolt is mostly 55,000 0 F. That’s about five times hotter the sun’s surface. Also the air around the lightning bolt expands and makes a shockwave that makes thunder. Most of the time you might see the lightning before you see the thunder because light travels 670,600,600 mph while sound only travels around 700 mph (miles per hour). This is a good way to find out how far the lightning was from you. After you see the lightning bolt count how many seconds the thunder comes after it. Then after that divide the number of seconds by five then you will get your answer. For example say that I hear thunder ten seconds after the lightning that means the lightning is two miles away. </li></ul><ul><li>A bolt of lightning is deadly and is why most fires start. The lightning rod is a rod that prevents buildings from getting burnt down. It was invented by Benjamin Franklin. When a lightning bolt hits a building the lightning rod takes the electricity and makes a path through cables. The cables lead to the ground and the building is not burnt thanks to scientist Benjamin Franklin. </li></ul><ul><li>Now remember a lightning bolt is deadly so you should not go out when there is a thunderstorm. But you don’t have to be scared of lightning if you are in your house or car. After the thunderstorm is over remember to not touch any electric poles. These poles may still contain electricity. </li></ul>I am Scientist Benjamin Frankin
  8. 8. Bibliography <ul><li>Abell, Benjamin F. “Tornadoes.” The New Book of Popular Science. Grolier Online, 2011. Web. 21 May, </li></ul><ul><li>2011. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Author not given). 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Wikipedia, 5/18/2011. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes, D.M Souza. 1996 Copyright, Carolrhoda Books Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes , Seymour Simon. 2003 Copyright, Harpers Collins Publishers </li></ul><ul><li> Marshall, Timothy P. (2001) “Birth of a Fujita Scale.” Storm track. 5/21/2011. (Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Pope Osborne, Tsunamis and other natural disasters. Copyright 2007, Random House Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Richards, Paul G., and Won-Young Kim. “Earthquakes.” The New book of knowledge. Grolier Online, 2011. Web. 15 2011 May. </li></ul><ul><li>Storms, Seymour Simon. Copyright 1989, William Morrow Company, Inc. 5/13/2011. </li></ul><ul><li> Tornado!, Cynthia Pratt Nicolson. 2003 Copyright, 5/16/2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Storm Causes and Effects, Philip Steele. Weather Watch Inc. 5/17/2011. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Bibliography