Inpact 2012 presentation

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  • Thisworkispartof a doctoralresearchabout online violenceinvolvingchildren.According to theclassificationoftherisksassociatedwith internet usageestablishedbythe EU Kids Online project, considersdifferentpositionsofthechildrenonthe Internet: childas recepientofmassdistributedcontent; participantsincontactsinitiatedbyothers, thesame age orolder, andagentsofconduct (Bridge, Jorge Simões, & Cardoso, 2012, p. 13). Sincereceivingunwantedcontentis a major concern for parentsandgiventhat "children can takeanactive role inthesearch, productionanddisseminationofharmfulcontent" (Bridge etal., 2012, p. 14).
  • Considering i) the public availability of weblogs which promote pro-anorexia as a style of life and/or self-inflicted aggression; ii) that, according to findings from EU KIDS ONLINE project, children can take an active role in demand, production and dissemination of harmful content;iii) that the reception of undesirable content is a major concern for parents (Ponte, Jorge, Simões, & Cardoso, 2012); in the course of a doctoral research about suffered or self-inflicted online violence involving children, the need arises for an in depth study of these websites, once they appeal to a deadly beauty and provide easy access to potentially harmful and risky content.
  • In general, anorexia and bulimia manifest themselves as an obsessive concern by weight and the image, which results in a loss of weight by deliberate withdrawal of the food. These eating disorders are dangerous behaviours that can lead to serious psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and practice of mutilation, suicidal behaviour and drug use.Giles (2006) distinguishes between 'Ana' (short for anorexia) and 'anorexia'. The 'Ana' is a lifestyle choice (Giles, 2006), grounded on anorexic behaviours (Williams, 2009) that result in an effective way to lose weight (Mulveen & Hepworth, 2006; cited by Overbeke, 2008), while 'anorexia' refers to a medical condition (Giles, 2006) as a mental illness (Mulveen & Hepworth, 2006; cited by Overbeke, 2008). Thus, according to Fox, Ward & O'Rourke (2005) the movement 'pro-ana' or 'pro-anorexia' is a social movement materialized through online Web sites that make an explicit appeal to the extreme thinness and advocate anorexia as a lifestyle (Bardone-Cone & Cass, 2007) not as a disease (Bardone-Cone & Cass, 2007; Whitehead, 2010). According to the authors, being pro-ana is a choice that people control and not a disease that controls them. Therefore, there are individuals who use the pro-anorexia websites as a way to prevent recovery or as extreme dieting, and not because of any eating disorder (Mulveen & Hepworth, 2006; Uca, 2004, cited by Williams, 2009), and those who use these sites as a way of dealing with problems that are difficult to face (Fox et al., 2005).
  • Of the two thirds of adolescent girls searching online for how lose weight and eating disorders information, 13% engage in binge eating and purging behaviours (Wilson, Peebles, Hardy, & Litt, 2006). The pro-anorexia is a harmful movement (Overbeke, 2008) that promotes anti-recovery and anorexia as a lifestyle (Brotsky & Giles, 2007), and a growing example of a social phenomenon unique of the Internet age (Giles, 2006) unlikely to disappear (Bardone-Cone & Cass, 2007).
  • thepro-anacommunityis a goodexampleof a social phenomenonthatisunique to the Internet age, whichwouldandcouldnotexistwithouttheWorldWide Web, having no offline equivalent (Giles, 2006)According to Brotsky & Giles (2007), currentlythe Internet offersmanyspaceswhereusers can anonymously (Williams, 2009) share theirexperienceswiththeirpeers, creating a senseofcommunity.Neutral space (Brotsky & Giles, 2007);Freeofjudgement (Dias, 2003; Brotsky & Giles, 2007; Williams, 2009);Expresstheir feelings (Woldetal., 2009);Onesuchopportunityhasbeenthedevelopmentof on-line communitiesthatallowsociallyisolatedorstigmatizedindividuals to share experiencesinrelativeanonymity, inanapparent safe haven(Giles, 2006). Connectingwithothers online alleviatesthelonelinessofexperiencinganeatingdisorderandthusthe use of pro-anorexia sites couldbesaid to have a positive outcomeonthepsychologicalwellbeingof site users (Csipke & Horne, 2007). Oneofthemainreasons for using pro-anorexic websites is for thesupportandunderstandinguserswillgetfromconnectingwithotherswhohave similar beliefsin a safe and non-judgementalspace (Gavinetal., 2008; Williams & Reid, 2007) or, as Dias (2003) conceptualises, in a “sanctuary”. Indeed, lackofunderstanding (fromfamily, friendsandhealthcareprofessionals) andsubsequentpast negative experiences are consideredfactors for causingpeople to look online inthefirstinstance (Brotsky & Giles, 2007; Dias, 2003; Rich, 2006; Tierney, 2006).
  • > reinforcestheperson’sidentityofbeingeatingdisordered (Gavinetal., 2008; Rich, 2006; Tierney, 2006makeitdifficult to leavethecommunitybehindandrecover (Csipke & Horne, 2007)As Tierney (2006, p183) describes, “visitingsuchresourcescouldcementthe positive associationindividuals derive fromthelabel “anorexic””. Aninterpretativephenomenologicalanalysisofpostings to a pro-anorexic website (Gavinetal., 2008) indicatedthe role ofparticipatingin pro-anorexic sites inbothreinforcingandnormalisingthe pro-anorexicidentity. Participantswantedreassurancethattheirexperiencesand feelings were normal to other pro-anorexicsbutlikedhavingan ‘abnormal’ identitythatmadethemdifferentfromothers (Gavinetal., 2008).Peoplewho use pro-anorexic websites maykeeptheirbehaviours a secretfrom ‘others’ inthe offline environment for fearthattheywouldinterveneandattempt to ‘fix’ theirdisorder (Gavinetal., 2008; Williams & Reid, 2007). However, bynormalisingandsupportingtheiranorexicidentityanylikelihoodofeverseekingsupport offline isreduced. Thus, as Gavinetal. (2008, p331) state, “Thepro-anaforumthereforeprovidesan ideal space for maintainingandvalidating a pro- anorexicidentity.”These pro– eatingdis- order (pro-ED) sites are communitiesofindividualswhoengageindisorderedeatingand use the Internet to discussandreinforcetheiractivities.Pro-anorexia isan online movementof websites designedwiththepurposeofcontinuinganorexicbehaviours. Visitors to the sites can offerandreceivesupport, tipsandinformationonmanydifferentaspectsofanorexicbehaviours, butthemainprincipleof pro-anorexia sites istheability to talkabouttheperceived positive aspectsof anorexia withoutthefearofbeingjudgedorstigmatised. ‘Pro sites’ alsoexist for the use ofdrugssuch as heroinand cannabis, andthosethatfocuson pro-self-harm, for thoseseekingsupportabouttheir use ofself-harm.Estes Websites representam uma potencial ameaça em particular para os mais jovens (Wold el al., 2009) No que toca aos mais jovens, Wilson etal. (2006) constata que a Internet é uma ferramenta de comunicação e autoexpressão muito popular entre adolescentes dos 13 aos 19 anos, dos quais dois terços utilizam-na para realizar pesquisas sobre saúde que, no seguimento da informação que encontram, resultam numa mudança de comportamento. Deste modo, quase metade dessas pesquisas são acerca de como perder peso e quase um quarto dos adolescentes procuram informações sobre distúrbios alimentares, o que para o autor é de especial preocupação considerando que cerca de 13% das adolescentes se dedicam à compulsão alimentar e posterior eliminação expulsão forçada da comida. É, também, dentro desta faixa etária que ganha expressão o número de sítios Pró-ana e Pró-mia criados por adolescentes que, motivados pelos distúrbios alimentares, seja num contexto de estilo de vida ou doença, usam a Internet para discutir e consolidar as suas atividades (Wilson et al., 2006). Acresce a esse fato que, de acordo com Woldetal. (2009), a possibilidade de uma criança encontrar conteúdos impróprios e inquietantes na Internet é vasta e variada, como é o caso dos Websites que divulgam comportamentos de risco como a anorexia e/ou a bulimia. Segundo os mesmos autores, estes sítios, embora não tenham recebido grande atenção por parte dos académicos, representam uma potencial ameaça em particular para os mais jovens. Os sítios “pró-ana” e “pró-mia”, como são prosaicamente conhecidos, são espaços que promovem e encorajam a anorexia como estilo de vida por meio de práticas agressivas autoinfligidas e são um dos exemplos de conteúdos impróprios mais disseminados na internet (Davies & Lipsey, 2003, citados por Bell, 2007). Deste modo, verificando-se a existência de blogues públicos, criados e procurados por adolescentes, que apelam a um ideal de beleza cadavérica, surge a necessidade de compreender mais intimamente estes espaços, de acesso fácil a conteúdos potencialmente perigosos e arriscados, nos quais jovens partilham entre si o sonho de emagrecer e as lutas diárias que travam em busca desta ambicionada perfeição deste ambicionado corpo perfeito. É na adolescência que ganha expressão o número de sítios Pró-ana e Pró-mia criados por adolescentes que, motivados pelos distúrbios alimentares, seja num contexto de estilo de vida ou doença, usam a Internet para discutir e consolidar as suas atividades (Wilson et al., 2006). Acresce a esse fato que, de acordo com Woldetal. (2009), a possibilidade de uma criança encontrar conteúdos impróprios e inquietantes na Internet é vasta e variada, como é o caso dos Websites que divulgam comportamentos de risco como a anorexia e/ou a bulimia. Segundo os mesmos autores, estes sítios, embora não tenham recebido grande atenção por parte dos académicos, representam uma potencial ameaça em particular para os mais jovens. Os sítios “pró-ana” e “pró-mia”, como são prosaicamente conhecidos, são espaços que promovem e encorajam a anorexia como estilo de vida por meio de práticas agressivas autoinfligidas e são um dos exemplos de conteúdos impróprios mais disseminados na internet (Davies & Lipsey, 2003, citados por Bell, 2007). O fato de estes espaço encorajarem os indivíduos a i) fazer abstinência de comida; ii) não procurarem restabelecer-se; iii) manterem altos níveis de insatisfação com o corpo; iv persistirem nos distúrbios alimentares (Csipke & Horne, 2007; Harperetal., 2008; Harshbargeretal., 2009, citados por Juarascio, 2010); e a restringirem a ingestão de calorias ao suficiente para sobreviver (Ward, 2007) demonstram os aspetos negativos apontados por diversos investigadores. Quem procura estes Websites busca obter solidariedade dos pares para alcançar os seus objetivos; conseguir a aprovação dos pares quando conseguem abster-se de comer; e receber incentivos para não desistir após as compulsões (Juarascio, 2010).
  • This qualitative content analysis examined Portuguese speaking blogs written by teenagers (boys and girls) between 13 and 19 years old, who use these sites in order to meet their peers, with whom they share the desire of losing weight and the daily struggle in search of a dangerous perfection.The first blog that aroused our interest was a blog written by an adolescent boy. We read the posts and its comments. Then, we seeked the track of his followers, and selected those who fit in the targeted age group and that had significant content to study.
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  • Inpact 2012 presentation

    1. 1. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends 2012 Lisbon, Portugal | 24-26 May Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Teresa Castro, António Osório Institute of Education, University of Minho This work is funded by POPH – QREN – Type 4.1 – Advanced Training, by European Social Fund and national funds of MCTES through FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, under Research Grant with ReferenceSFRH/BD/68288/2010.Fonte:http://www.slowtrav.com/blog/deborah/2007/06/lisboa_dreami
    2. 2. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web 1 Framework of the exploratory study 2 Methodology 3 Results and initial conclusions
    3. 3. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web PhD research online violence involving children the use of digital devices and/or Internet to actively engage in physical, verbal, psychological or emotional aggression, that being repeated can lead to serious physical or psychological self-harm or deliberately and intentionally cause harm to another human being Receptient [content] Participant [contact] Actor [conduct] http://www.agenciars.com.br/blog/criancas-brasileiras-sao-as-que-entram-mais-cedo-nas- redes-sociais/
    4. 4. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web i) Public availabilty ii) Production and dissemination iii) Corncern for parents Aim: pro-anorexia portuguese written blogs Potentially harmful and risky content http://www.agenciars.com.br/blog/criancas-brasileiras-sao-as-que-entram-mais-cedo-nas- redes-sociais/
    5. 5. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Anorexia and Bulimia- Disease- Obsessive concern with weight and image- Loss of weigh by withdrawal of food- Psychiatric problems (depression, anxiety, mutilation, suicidal behaviour, drug use) ‘Ana’ and ‘Mia’ - Social movement - Lifestyle grounded on anorexic behaviours - Extreme diets - Psychiatric problems (depression, anxiety, mutilation, suicidal behaviour, Fonte: http://www.1000wordsinside.com drug use)
    6. 6. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Numbers… two thirds of adolescent girls search online for health information Nearly half are about losing weight 13% engage in binge eating and purging behaviours (Wilson, Peebles, Hardy, & Litt, 2006)
    7. 7. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web>From solitary to solidary movement  social phenomenon that is unique to the Internet age (...) having no offline equivalent (Giles, 2006) that allows socially isolated or stigmatized individuals to share experiences in relative anonymity, in an apparent safe haven (Giles, 2006), creating a sense of community - Neutral space (Brotsky & Giles, 2007); - Non-judgemental space (Dias, 2003; Brotsky & Giles, 2007; Williams, 2009; Gavin et al., 2008; Williams & Reid, 2007)); - Express their feelings (Wold et al., 2009); - Alleviates the loneliness (Csipke & Horne, 2007) - A “sanctuary” (Dias, 2003) - support and understanding (Gavin et al., 2008; Williams & Reid, 2007)
    8. 8. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web • Reinforces the person’s identity of being eating disordered (Gavin et al., 2008; Rich, 2006; Tierney, 2006) • Makes it difficult to leave the community behind and recover (Csipke & Horne, 2007) • Reinforces and normalises the pro-anorexic identity (Gavin et al., 2008) • Helps keeping their behaviours a secret from ‘others’ in the offline environment for fear that they would intervene and attempt to ‘fix’ their disorder (Gavin et al., 2008; Williams & Reid, 2007) • Promotes anorexia as a lifestyle and encourage aggressive self-inflicted practices and are an example of inappropriate content disseminated over the Internet (Bell, 2007)
    9. 9. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Methodology…
    10. 10. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Methodology… 1st stage Exploratory Sample Public data Passive observation 11 Weblogs (B1 to B11) ♀9 /♂2 Portugal 6 / Brazil 7 2st stage y 13...19 In depth Blogs authors Interview
    11. 11. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Content… Content B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 Thinspiration (sentences) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Thinspiration (video/audio) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Thinspiration (Tv shows) ● ● ● Thinspiration (Photos) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Ana/Mia bracelet ● ● ● ● ● ● Ana/Mia letter ● ● ● Ana Commandments ● ● ● Tips and tricks ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Participation in “desafios” ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Diets sharing ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● NFC *No food colective ● ● ● ● ● Change URL blog ● ● ● Reference to Internet parental control ● ● ● ●
    12. 12. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Content…  Highly shocking, intimate and emotional “I’m a loser. Can’t stand this... I want to disappear... Nobody understands my pain... ” (B9) “I know I’m killing myself, but being fat is far worse than being dead” (B3) “I look at my body and I only see fat... And more fat... I feel disgusted with myself.” (B9)
    13. 13. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Content…  self-mutilation, punishment or suicide attempt “I want to cut myself (...) it provides me a sense of relief...” (B9) “I hurt myself when I’m depressed” (B8) “(...) cutting brings me peace” (B5)
    14. 14. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Content…  Peter Pan syndrome
    15. 15. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web Messages…  Support from followers “Passed by to leave you my support” “I’m following you” “Reading your post made me sad...” “Please, don’t cut yourself...”
    16. 16. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends Lisbon | 26 May 2012Online violence: not beautiful enough… not thin enough; anorectic testimonials in the web 1st conclusions…  This public available blogs may represent a real dangerous for children because  easily provide potentially harmful content (such as tips and tricks to deceive family and friends  incite the use of dangerous diets and drugs  promote anorexia as a normal behaviour, a sense in life wich is worth dying for;  promote thin as a guarantee to be happy and loved Fonte: http://fashioningcircuits.com/?p=226
    17. 17. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends 2012 Lisbon, Portugal | 24-26 May THANK YOU! Teresa Castro, António Osório Institute of Education, University of Minho This work is funded by POPH – QREN – Type 4.1 – Advanced Training, by European Social Fund and national funds of MCTES through FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, under Research Grant with ReferenceSFRH/BD/68288/2010.Fonte:http://www.slowtrav.com/blog/deborah/2007/06/lisboa_dreami

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