Spelling is almost identical to other dialects of British
English. Minor differences occur with words descended
from Welsh, which aren't anglicised as in many other
dialects of English, for example, in Wales the valley is
always "cwm", not the anglicised version "coombe". As
with other dialects of British English, -ise endings are
preferred,"realise" instead of "realize". However, both
forms are acceptable. For words ending in 'yse' or 'yze',
the 'yse' endings are compulsory, as with other dialects
of British English,"analyse", not "analyze".
VOCABULARY & GRAMMAR
Aside from lexical borrowings from Welsh like “bach” (little,
wee), “nain” and “taid” (grandmother and grandfather
respectively), there exist distinctive grammatical conventions in
vernacular Welsh English. Examples of this include the use by
some speakers of the tag question “isn't it?” regardless of the
form of the preceding statement and the placement of the
subject and the verb after the predicate for emphasis.
In South Wales the word "where" may often be expanded to
"where to", as in the question, "Where to is your Mam?". The
word "butty" is used to mean "friend" or "mate" yet in the north
is more commonly understood to mean a sandwich.
The vowel of cat /æ/ is pronounced as a more central near-open front unrounded vowel[æ̈].In Cardiff
bag is pronounced with a long vowel [aː].In Powis. a pronunciation resembling its New Zealand and South
African analogue is sometimes heard, i.e. trap is pronounced /trɛp/
The vowel of end /ɛ/ is a more open vowel and thus closer to cardinal vowel [ɛ] than RP.
The vowel of "kit" /ɪ/ often sounds closer to the schwa sound of above, an advanced close-mid central
unrounded vowel [ɘ̟ ]
The vowel of hot /ɒ/ is raised towards /ɔ/ and can thus be transcribed as [ɒ̝ ] or [ɔ̞ ]
The vowel of "bus" /ʌ/ is pronounced [ɜ] and is encountered as a hypercorrection in northern areas for
foot.It is sometimes manifested in border areas of north and mid Wales as an open front unrounded
vowel /a/ or as a near-close near-back vowel /ʊ/ in northeast Wales, under influence of Chesire and
In accents that distinguish between foot and strut the vowel of foot is a more lowered vowel [ɤ]̈ ,
particularly in the north.
The schwa of better may be different from that of above in some accents; the former may be
pronounced as [ɜ], the same vowel as that of bus.
The schwi tends to be supplanted by an /ɛ/ in final closed syllables, e.g. brightest /ˈbɾəi.tɛst/. The
uncertainty over which vowel to use often leads to 'hypercorrections' involving the schwa, e.g.
programme is often pronounced /ˈproː.ɡrəm/
The vowel of car is often pronounced as a more central open back unrounded
vowel [ɑ̈ ] and more often as a long open front unrounded vowel /aː/
In broader varieties, particularly in Cardiff, the vowel of bird is similar to
South African and New Zealand, a lowered close-mid front rounded vowel [ø̞]
Most other long monophthongs are similar to that of Received Pronunciation,
but words with the RP /əʊ/ are sometimes pronounced as [oː] and the RP /eɪ/ as
[eː]. An example that illustrates this tendency is the Abercrave pronunciation
of play-place [ˈpleɪˌpleːs]
In northern varieties, coat and caught/court are often merged into /kɔːt/
In Rhymney the diphthong of there is monophthongised [ɛː]
Fronting diphthongs tend to resemble Received Pronunciation, apart
from the vowel of bite that has a more centralised onset [æ̈ɪ]
Backing diphthongs are more varied:
The vowel of low in RP, other than being rendered as a monophthong, like
described above, is often pronounced as [oʊ̝ ]
The word town is pronounced similarly to the New Zealand pronunciation
of tone, i.e. with a near-open central onset [ɐʊ̝ ]
The /juː/ of RP in the word due is usually pronounced as a true
diphthong [ëʊ̝ ]
A strong tendency (shared with Scottish English and some South African accents) towards using
an alveolar tap [ɾ] (a 'tapped r') in place of an
approximant [ɹ] (the r used in most accents in England).
Rhoticity is largely uncommon, apart from some speakers in Port Talbot who supplant the front
vowel of bird with /ɚ/, like in many varieties of North American English and accents influenced
Some gemination between vowels is often encountered, e.g. money is pronounced [ˈmɜ.nːiː]
In northern varieties influenced by Welsh, pens and pence merge into /pɛns/ and chin and gin
Also in northern accents, /l/ is frequently strongly velarised [ɫː]. In much
of the south-east, clear and dark L alternate much like they do in RP. The consonants are
generally the same as RP but Welsh consonants like [ɬ] and [x] are encountered in loan words
such as Llangefni and Harlech.
How to speak with a Welsh accent -
British English is more difficult than
American English in speaking.
In this video you can see the accent in
There are many
different words in British
English and American
English. And also there
are the same words but
with another meaning.
Chips French Fries
AMERICAN VS BRITISH/
AND SCOTTISH ACCENT
SPELLING ; American vs British
*In these two countries the spelling is different in some
words, for example:
British - our/ American -or: colour/color
British - re /American -er: centre/center
If you need more information, you can see this webpage:
•Some Words in these two countries do not
have the same pronunciation, for example:
And…. MORE INFORMATION
•Accent in Scotland
•In the next video you can see and understand
the accent and pronunciation
In Australia, as in other anglophone countries, people speak English in
a different way that we tend to listen.
Australian spelling is closer to
British and Canadian than
American spelling, but it also has
some influence of the last one.
In Australia “The Macquarie
Dictionary” is used by universities
and other organisations as a
standard for Australian English
spelling. This dictionary is a
dictionary only of Australian English.
On it, both –ise or –ize terminations
are accepted, but –ise is the most
common form. For example, people
can write “realise” or “realize”. Some
people use the –or instead –our, as
Australian accent is similar to New
Zealand and the South East of Great
In Australian English /t/
and /d/ phonemes are
pronounced as /r/ in
some cases, as in
American English, in
which some words are
also pronounced like
this. Lots of Australian
people replace some
sounds for others.
Australian English has
a lot of slang.
They also have some
words that in other
English dialects have
such as “paddock”,
“countryside” while in
England it is a little
In Australian English,
as in other English
dialects, people use
“mate” to refer to
someone close to
“G’day” is a greeting
in both Australia and
vocabulary and it
Here are some videos in which you can see the different and strange words
that they have:
Julia Fernández Pérez
In South Africa the English is the same as in the United
kingdom, with the only difference that this accent is
different, but all the words are the same
South African Spelling
Southafrican United States
➢ Travelling Traveling
➢ Vice Vise
➢ Aeroplane Airplane
➢ Aluminium Aluminum
➢ Artefact Artifact
➢ Colour Color
➢ Defence Defense
➢ Encyclopaedia Encyclopedia
➢ Grey Gray
➢ Tyre Tire
South African Accent
In this video the protagonist who represents Nelson
Mandela speaks with South African accent http://www.
➢ in the video you can notice the difference between
American English and South African English
Ireland is a country close to the United
kingdom and its capital is Dublin. In Ireland
nearly five million people live
“Amn’t” used as a contraction of ``am not´´
can be used in questions tags; they also use
double negative (``I'm not late, I amn't not?
(No llego tarde,¿A que no?)
“Arra” is used as an interjection when
something bad happened. ``Arra, tis not the
end of the world´´(Well! ´s not the end of the
Irish people say:
- Hiya (hello)
- Fiddle (violin)
- “tis” instead of “it´s”.
•The "u" may appear pronounced as / ʊ /.
• They speak softer than the English .
• They don’t pronounce the diphthongs, as in boat /boːt/.
• They pronounce [r] between vowels, consonant and
before the end of the word.
• When they say the `` t ´´ they pronounce `` s ´´ or `` sh ´´,
for example “it isn´t” they say /its/ /ˈɪznts/
•In this video there is an Irish man, his name is
Jason. He speaks in English but he pronounces
many words in Irish.
``YOU MUST SEE IT´´
❏ This project is about the Texan American English,
and its vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, and other
things: videos, images …
❏ It is a state placed in the South region of the United States.
The most widely spoken language in Texas is English.
Although in Texas, they also speak Spanish. The most
famous cities are; Dallas, San Antonio, Houston and Austin (
¢In the United States, depending on the area, there are different
accents, but in Texas it is probably where there are more different
accents and they speak faster, and there are many differences in
vocabulary. For example:
¢Y`ALL : YOU ALL
¢FIXIN TO: ABOUT TO
¢HOWDY:”HOW DO YOU DO”
¢These are some spelling rules:
¢1.THE “I” BEFORE “E” RULE: Usually spell “I” before “E”
(believe) but spell “E” before “I” (receive) and when the
letters are pronounced as a long /a/ sound (neighbor).
¢2. THE SILENT “E” RULE: Drop the “E” (having-have) at
the end of a syllable if the ending begins with a vowel.
¢These are many examples:
¢1. The merger of (e) and (i) before nasal consonants, so
that pen and pin are pronounced the same.
¢2. The diphthong (ai) disappears (a:)
¢3.In the words “pat” “pet” “pit” the southern accent drawls
the short front vowels.
ACCENT TEXAN PEOPLE
¢These are some videos about the Texan accent: